Method of metro station ventilation
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises air flows displacement by moving electric train and feed fresh air to passenger platform by varying air density on said platform. Note here that train is provided with fluid air to be released in air space of metro station equipped with vent shaft. Air with higher density displaces warm dirt air into station vent shaft to replace it by fresh cold air.
EFFECT: fresh air feed in whatever season.
The invention relates to the ventilation of underground stations and can be used in the operation of the latter.
The known method of tunnel ventilation, as described in the USSR №1588874 on CL E21F 1/00, 3.30.08.1990,
The known method includes fresh air and exhaust air, which due to the piston effect from a moving train, atmospheric air is sucked into the tunnel through the ventilation shaft, and when the train's departure, the air is pushed out of the tunnel due to the overlapping of the bore of the tunnel.
There is a method allows control of air flow occurring at the station from the reciprocating action of trains and natural draught.
The disadvantages of this method are as follows.
To implement the method requires special expensive device - shutter, which should not create an obstacle to the movement of trains. The shutter must ensure the opening of the bore of the tunnel with high probability, close to 100%. Furthermore, the method does not allow you to change the ratio between the number of warm and cold air it is on a dead-end stations in the cold season, when heat saving mine fans off, and distillation of the ventilation shaft in shallow subways are closed. This op is Adelaide fact, what streams of warm and cold air when using this method, you are moving on the same ventilation system that does not allow for adjustable redistribution of these threads to maintain a comfortable temperature in the lobby and on the passenger platform stations.
The known method of tunnel ventilation, described in the same patent RF №2312222 on CL E21F 1/00, E24F 7/00, Z. 29.06.06, op. 10.12.07.
The known method of tunnel ventilation includes fresh air and exhaust air through the ventilation paths connecting the tunnel with the atmosphere. To create and control the required flow rate change aerodynamic drag in the tunnel by overlapping sections between the train and the wall of the tunnel controllable dampers that are installed on the train.
The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the design due to the need to install dampers on the train.
There is a method of ventilating a deadlock stations, described in the same patent RF №2278268 on CL E21F 1/00, Z. 23.06.04, 10.01.06. and selected as a prototype.
The known method consists in the following.
The method of ventilation stub subway station includes moving air flows under the influence of a moving train and supply light is its air passenger station platform through the ventilation shaft, when the approach of the train to the station vent valve mines closed and all the warm exhaust air away into the atmosphere through the lobby, creating a negative pressure on the platform due to the "piston effect" when the movement of the departing train that provides suction to the station through the pavilion and lobby fresh cold air, part of which is fed to the platform through the ventilation shaft by opening the vent valve, and the other part through the lobby.
The disadvantage of this method is that its performance capabilities are limited because it is used mainly for ventilation stub subway stations in winter due to the temperature control by opening the vent valve at the approach of a train and closing it when the train's departure.
The goal is to expand the operational capabilities of the method.
The problem is solved in that in the method of ventilation of the underground station, equipped with a ventilation shaft, comprising moving air flows under the influence of moving trains and fresh air to the passenger station platform by changing the density of the air on the platform, ACCORDING to the INVENTION the train supply of liquid air, releasing that at the entrance to the station is the air space of the platform, create a stream of cold compacted fresh air, displacing the contaminated air in the ventilation shaft.
Ensuring trains liquid air in conjunction with the subsequent release of its air space at the station allows the more dense liquid air to displace warm polluted air in the ventilation shaft and to provide the station with fresh cold air.
The technical result - providing station fresh cool air at any time of the year.
The inventive method has the novelty in comparison with the prototype, differing from it in such essential characteristics as the supply trains of liquid air, release it on the platform, creating a compressed air stream, displacing warm polluted air, ensuring collectively achieve the specified result.
The applicant did not know the technical solutions with these distinctive features, which collectively achieve the specified result, he felt, therefore, that the proposed solution meets the criterion of "inventive step".
The inventive method can be widely used in operation metro, and therefore meets the criterion of "industrial applicability".
The inventive method consists in the following.
Train sabaudiae air, which are released into the air space at the stations, equipped with a ventilation shaft. The more dense liquid air displaces warm air pollution station in the ventilation shaft and replaces it with fresh cold air.
The inventive method is carried out, in particular, as follows.
The subway train tack wagon cart with tank in which is liquid air. At the entrance to the station liquid air is sprayed from nozzles behind the train and then the resulting compacted fresh cold air displaces warm air pollution station in the ventilation shaft.
In comparison with the prototype of the proposed method of ventilation metro has a broader operational capabilities.
The method of ventilation of the underground station, equipped with a ventilation shaft, comprising moving air flows under the influence of moving trains and fresh air to the passenger station platform by changing the density of the air on the platform, characterized in that the train supply of liquid air, releasing that at the entrance to the station in the airspace of the platform, create a stream of cold compacted fresh air, displacing the contaminated air in the ventilation shaft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gate conveyor comprises transport flute made up of several interconnected sections with its both ends equipped with drive stations and/or scraper chain tensioning heads 4. Flute every section 19 has scrapper chain upper and lower runs confined by lateral sections and conveyor bottom as well as receiving appliances 18 arranged outside lateral sections for flute section connectors. Conveyor incorporates rotary support 11 for hinged joint with adjacent sections arranged between said connectors and between lateral sections at central lengthwise axis of flute section.
EFFECT: reduced wear and required drive power.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: cement - 4.85, ground byproduct of vanadium production - 14.5, washery refuse of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites - 60.2, superplastising agent SP-1 - 1 of cement, and water is the rest.
EFFECT: reducing the consumption of cement at maintaining the accuracy of massif, utilisation of wastes.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound includes ground granulated acid blast-furnace slag containing particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 4.3; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm - 17.2; as inert filler are processing wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, which contain particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 3.4; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm -17.2, water and in addition - composition of lime-gypsum byproduct of vanadium production and SP-1 superplasticising agent at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 16.1, the above composition 4.8, the above wastes 57.7, SP-1 superplasticising agent 0.0805 and water is the rest.
EFFECT: avoiding expensive cement, use of slag of lower grade, increasing the strength, enlarging and increasing volumes of utilised technogenic wastes for sufficient improvement of ecological environment of the region.
SUBSTANCE: installation includes fan, delivery line, inducing and water-spraying device installed on its end. Inducing and water-spraying device includes outlet head with annular outlet slot, receiver and compressed air supply nozzle. In order to increase energy use efficiency of compressed air owing to active mixing of inducing and induced jets, separation effect of inducing jet from convex surface is used in inducing and water-spraying device. Common air jet is passed through two-layer fine-meshed screen before it is emitted to atmosphere of mine working. In order to protect outlet slot against deformations, at HWL (high-water level) impact, inducing and water-spraying device is equipped with deformation-proof flange. Water supply nozzles to inner cavity of the main diffuser are installed on convex surface of the main diffuser at angles of 120 degrees to each other.
EFFECT: higher use efficiency of compressed air energy.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to the procedure mine working is filled with backfilling mixture layer by layer. Upon laying each layer of backfilling mixture is subjected to autoclave treatment; for this purpose an autoclave chamber is constructed in the vertical mine working by arranging an isolating bridge in it at distance for backfilled part of borehole equal to thickness of a backfilling layer. Thickness is multiple to a step of shaft furniture. The bridge is positioned under the tier of a divider. Upon autoclave treatment of the laid layer all furniture above it is dismantled by height of the backfilling layer.
EFFECT: reduced expenditures, facilitation of favourable ecology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement in worked out area of backfill material speed converter, supply to the well adjacent to the worked out area of subsequently loose and hardening backfill materials. Elastic closed cover with weight in its lower part and which is fixed on rope with hose is used as speed converter. The above cover is laid on dry backfill material layer; then, it is filled with compressed air till working pressure. Loose backfill material is supplied till the layer is filled with height not exceeding D diameter of cover. Then, hardening backfill material is supplied. Cover is lifted vertically through the height of new layer. Then, cycles for supplying of backfill materials and movement of cover are repeated till complete filling of the worked out area. Diameter D of cover in filled state is accepted equal to 0.2 B, where B is maximum linear size of the worked out area, m.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing distribution efficiency of fineness of backfill material and reducing the wear of speed converter.
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound including ground granulated blast-furnace slag, binding agent, inert filler and water contains the specified acid slag as binding agent with the following particle size distribution: less than 1 mcm - 4.3%, less than 3 mcm - 12.6%, less than 5 mcm - 17.2% and dolomite powder containing not less than 10% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm; wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites as inert filler containing not less than 3.4% of particles with size of less than 1 mcm. In addition, composition includes surface active additive - superplasticising agent SP-1 at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 12, the above dolomite 10, the above wastes 60, water is the rest, and superplasticising agent SP-1 0.5% of slag.
EFFECT: larger volumes of utilised industrial wastes for sufficient improvement of environmental safety at maintaining the strength during 28 days.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: protective lock comprises a box with hinges, a rigid web mounted in box hinges with the possibility of rotation in the horizontal plane, a seal of elastic material arranged between the web and the face surface of the box, a mechanism of web rotation and a locking mechanism. The lock is also equipped with an additional seal made as a hollow ring with a source of compressed air. On an inner surface of the box there is a support platform. The additional seal is installed between the box and the web.
EFFECT: increased reliability of underground facility protection with simplification of lock design, provision of economic efficiency in process of manufacturing and operation of the lock.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling of wells to the depth of 3-5 km; some of them shall be inclined and shall converge at the depth of 3-5 km approximately to one point and shall be used as inlet ones. At that, inclination angle of those wells is chosen so that possibility of spontaneous explosion can be eliminated. Casing of sections of shafts of those wells is performed with casing pipes; squibs and main charges are supplied to them. At that, round charges from explosive in covers are used as squibs and main charges and alternate with explosion initiators, as well as radio electronic devices for receiving destroy signal. Liquid explosives are supplied to wells simultaneously with charges. Destroy signal is supplied by means of radio electronic device. Boundaries of the formed underground cavity is determined after explosion by means of seismic pickups and two inclined diverging wells are drilled approximately from one point towards its edges for its further purposeful use.
EFFECT: lower labour intensity of cavity formation.
SUBSTANCE: stowing connection strap includes pit and anchor props and filtering diaphragm. Pit props consist at least of two parts made from polymer materials and attached to each other. Anchor prop has the height which is less than the height of pit prop and is equipped with spacing screw and devices for attaching of pit prop to it in upper and lower parts, for example by means of articulated shoes. Connection strap is easily mounted, transportation of its modules is simplified; it is possible to use it for many times, and also in openings of various geometrical dimensions.
EFFECT: reducing costs for stowing operations and increasing their efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline has sections made in form of hermetically interconnected outer and inner covers, mounted with space relatively to each other, and main ventilator. On different ends of pipeline flow meter and additional ventilator are mounted, the latter having adjustable characteristics and being connected to inter-pipe space by branch pipe. In inner cover apertures are made placed along radius and along length of cover. Air comes from apertures to air channel and forms additional air flow near walls of inner cover, which lowers or heightens aerodynamic resistance of ventilation pipeline.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher safety, lesser costs.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of device providing for manufacturability of assemblage of casing and drilling columns and concurrent drilling by two columns, provided with independent drives, and drilling, by casing column, of non-stable rock solids performed with frequency no greater than one calculated from formula
where Vmec - mechanical drilling speed, m/min, Fr - friction forces against rotation, Ften - friction forces against linear displacement, R - casing column radius, m, α - angle between vectors of directions of linear and rotating movements.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness, higher productiveness, higher reliability.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for extraction and underground use of coal includes cleaning extraction and dumping of coal, fixing and controlling ceiling and transporting coal along face to drift. On the drift, in moveable generator, coal is pulverized for intensive burning with use of jets in water boiler firebox, where high temperature of steam is achieved (about 1400 C°), enough for decomposition of water on oxygen and hydrogen. These are separated, then oxygen is fed back to jets, and hydrogen is outputted along pipes and hoses in drifts and shaft. Variants of underground generator for realization of this method are provided. Also provided is method for extraction of disturbed coal beds by short faces. It includes extraction and dumping of coal on face conveyor, fixing of ceiling behind combine, moving conveyor line and support sections in direction of cleaning face displacement, control of ceiling with destruction and partial filling. Extraction of coal is performed in short curvilinear faces by long stripes along bed, in straight drive without forwarding drifts, with preservation and reuse of ventilation and conveyor drifts, equipped with mounting manipulator robots, with fixing behind combine by automatically operating support deflectors without unloading and displacing sections in area of coal extraction. Extraction and transporting of coal is performed by fast one-drum combine and curvilinear reloading conveyor, supplying coal to drift conveyor or immediately to underground gas or energy generator placed immediately on drift. Also proposed is face scraper conveyor for realization of said method, wherein pans are made with step along front face profile, greater, than along back one, while forming common line curved towards face with constant curvature. Also proposed is a method for controlling complex for unmanned coal extraction.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, effectiveness, broader functional capabilities.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: gas, oil, oil refining and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building and operation of underground reservoir in stable rocks, for instance, soluble salt deposits. Method includes delivery of water and putting out brine along water feed and brine lifting pipes placed one inside the other, charging and storing of gas in underground reservoir. After brine lifting, reservoir is dried and then is filled up with alternating layers of absorbent and inert porous material, volume ratio 2:1, delivered along clearance between water feed and brine lifting pipes. Brine lifting pipe is perforated in lower part in height of reservoir and it is installed in lower part of reservoir. Difference between angles of repose of absorbent and inert material does not exceed 10 degrees. This done, reservoir is filled with gas delivered along perforated brine lifting pipe.
EFFECT: increased productive volume of reservoir owing to sorption of gas on surface of absorbent, reduced cost of gas storing.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for transportation of rock in underground mines for reloading of rock from one conveyor to the other installed at one level. For this purpose device is used containing pair of flight conveyors, forced-draught and suction fans, air chamber with air inlet hole provided with cyclone installed over flight conveyor to be loaded. Air chamber is arranged between conveyors and is furnished with air collector made in form of screen with cells, housing and brushes from side of conveyors. Additional hole is made in bottom of air chamber to deliver air jet at angle to direction of material movement.
EFFECT: device of simple design providing effective and safe reloading of rock from one conveyor to the other installed at one level.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vibrating facilities and it can be used for letting out ore or other materials and their separation. Proposed vibrating feeder has resilient supports, working member consisting of charging and discharge parts and vibrating drive consisting of two shafts with unbalance weight and motors, one per each unbalance weight. Place of arrangement of vibrating drive is determined basing on the fact that line of connection of axles of unbalance weights is located in area limited by two straight lines square to direction of vibration, one of which passed through center of mass, and the other is located at a distance from center of mass of 1/10L to side of charging part of working member. Axle of unbalance weights are located at different sides from line of direction of vibration passing through center of mass at distance equal to not less than 1/8 where L is distance between resilient supports in horizontal direction.
EFFECT: improved stability of operation of vibrating feeder at unstable supply and impact loads on working member at discharging.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.