Method of quarries reclamation (versions)

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: flattening of quarry sides is done bottom-up by means of their filling by application of stronger rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry. Filling may be carried out up to various vertical elevations at the board of the quarry depending on mine technical conditions of deposit bedding.

EFFECT: accelerated process of damaged lands recovery by increasing stability of flattened boards of the quarry to erosion processes, by arrangement of water reservoirs in the mined area with parameters favourable for recovery of their biological productivity.

4 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to mining works and can be used for reclamation and conservation shallow quarries located in alluvial deposits, including the production of building materials and alluvial mining.

Due to deteriorating mining conditions development of mineral deposits is growing annually specific land capacity (m2/t) mining operations, resulting in the present, the total area of disturbed open mining lands in Russia exceeds three million hectares. The restoration of disturbed lands in this period is very relevant and included in the priority direction of development of science and technology "Technology is environmentally safe mining and extraction of minerals".

A known method of reclamation of shallow pits (depth of 2-8 m) overburden dumps, placed on one or two sides [Zubchenko, GV, Sulin GA Rational use of water and land resources in the development of the placers. - M.: Nedra, 1980, p.189-190, s-199.]. Reclamation is preexcavation all or part of the spoil dumps in the goaf and the subsequent alignment surface (edge bands career with an angle of 3-6°.

A common feature of the analogue of the claimed subject matter is gaining Bortoli filling the bottom of the quarry.

The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of rapid restoration of disturbed land with the use of this technical solution with a small capacity of overburden, which does not allow to fully form a vegetative layer on the broken surface, and also in connection with the erosion of the flattened sides of the quarry due to the formation of their unconsolidated sediments overlying the reservoir.

In the development of many mineral deposits power waste rock overlying the layer mineral, small, therefore, the overburden is not enough for gaining the sides and filling out space (including deposits of sand and gravel, sand, clay, deposits). This method is unacceptable for quarries with little overburden.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of reclamation in open field development (A.S. No. 1062392, CL IS 41/00 / Vigorous, Ussaully, Cthulian published 23.12.83, bull. No. 47).

Common features of the prototype with the claimed method are the moving and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape storage (dump) on the bottom in the center of the exhaust career on the I, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil layer of overburden.

Comparative analysis of the proposed technical solution with the prototype shows that the main disadvantage of the latter is low resistance is formed of loose sediment flattened pit slope to water erosion. When developing deposits of sand, clay, and sand and gravel of the newly formed Board rekultivirovanie produce washed away by rain and melted snow, and therefore delayed their natural growth. In addition, this method is associated with increased risk of mining equipment in the pit because of the possibility of their collapse or opolzaniya, as well as additional disturbance of land outside of the pit. In case of creation in the developed space of the reservoir depth at many quarries may be insufficient for the preservation of fish in the winter.

The group of inventions aimed at creating technologies revegetation, provide faster recovery under various mining and technical parameters of the mining and natural-climatic conditions.

The technical result consists in ensuring rapid restoration of ecosystems bre is the R mining lands by increasing the stability of flattened pit to erosion processes and sliding by forming them from a more hard rock, taken from the bottom of the pit, and by creating in the developed space reservoirs favorable for recovery of their biological productivity parameters. Deepening career eliminates the complete freezing of the generated water in the winter, leading to death of fish.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of reclamation of quarries, characterized in claim 1 claims, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape storage room at the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil layer of overburden, according to the invention the storm boards carry out bottom-up through the bedding using rocks taken from the bottom of the pit.

Padding the sides are more hard rock, taken from the bottom of the quarry (Sandstone, claystone, shale, siltstone, and so on), allows to increase the stability of the boards to erosion processes and to provide the necessary drainage of excess water during rainfall and snow melt from the surface layers (a layer of overburden rocks and soil), acting as the drainage device and preventing landslides. When razrabotannosti clay and sand after reclaiming the quarry without strengthening flanges erosion continues last a long time. At low power, overlying the reservoir rock (overburden ratio less than 0.3 to 0.5) volume dumps is not enough for gaining the sides by known methods or require an additional violation of the surface outside of career paths. Padding the sides of the rocks from the bottom of the pit, you can ensure storm without increasing zemleemki mining operations.

At a sufficiently great depth career with the aim of reducing the complexity of reclamation works carried out partial filling of the pit.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of reclamation of quarries, characterized in claim 2, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape blade to the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil layer of overburden, according to the invention the storm boards provide by filling from the bottom up to the roof of the productive formation using rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry, after which the storm produced from top to bottom using overburden.

Adding boards to roof productive the reservoir allows you to protect against erosion of weak rocks, representing minerals (sand, clay), as well as to ensure the conservation of the coal seam and prevent its oxidation or fire.

In the case of a conservation career covering the sides of half-rock rocks to reduce the amount of work on the overlap of minerals by increasing the angle of repose of the soil, and reduces the dilution of mineral raw materials by preventing natural plateau as a result of erosion processes.

In the case of reclamation of the quarry with the creation of the mined-out space of the reservoir filling sides prevents erosion or wave erosion flattened sides.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of reclamation of quarries, characterized in claim 3 claims, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape blade to the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil layer of overburden, according to the invention the storm boards provide by filling from the bottom up using rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry, to the maximum level predicted water level in Sataplia the om after remediation career after that, the storm produced from top to bottom using overburden.

Due to significant water level fluctuations in created by reclamation water and wave impact on the coastal zone of the pit, composed of loose sediments are exposed to exogenous processes and intensive erosion with sediment bottom. Strengthening their half-rocks the rocks will improve erosion resistance.

In the development of many fields of building materials in floodplains and placers along small rivers and streams the depth of pits is limited to a few meters. After mining is completed to provide for gravity removal of water from the goaf is quite difficult and is often associated with additional disturbance of land when creating a drainage trench. However, the creation of a mined-out space of the reservoir prevents minor depth of the pit in which water can freeze solid to the bottom. The latter fact is dramatically complicates the process of restoring the fish and ihtiloflar in these waters due to their death in the winter. In some cases, are swamping out space. Under these conditions, the deepening of production prevents the freezing of the reservoir to the bottom and thus provides a more intensive development of it is biological productivity.

In such circumstances, the technical result is achieved in that in the method of reclamation of quarries, characterized in claim 4 claims, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape blade to the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil layer of overburden, according to the invention, the plateau of flanges carried out by filling from the bottom up using rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry due to its uglubki, to the level corresponding to the depth created in rekultivirovana career reservoir 0.5-1.0 m greater than the thickness of the ice.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 presents the scheme of operations for remediation of pits according to the variant described in claim 1 of the claims, where

1 - layer soil;

2 - layer overburden;

3 - layer mineral;

4 - spreading (half-rock) rock (raft);

5 - Board of career;

6 - filling Board rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry;

7 - layer sadiki the raft of semi-bedrocks (dashed);

8 - layer overburden on the flattened side and the bottom of the quarry;

9 - the layer of soil on the imp is its surface overburden;

10 - temporary stockpile overburden (dashed);

11 is a temporary warehouse soil (dashed).

Figure 2 presents the scheme of work on the restoration of quarries according to the variant described in claim 2, where

position 1-11 are the same as in figure 1,

12 prism of overburden moved in the storm.

Figure 3 shows a scheme for the reclamation of quarries according to the variant described in claim 3 of the formula of the invention, where the position 1-12 are the same as figures 1 and 2.

Figure 4 shows a scheme for the reclamation of quarries according to the variant described in claim 4 of the formula of the invention, where the position 1-12 are the same as in figure 1-3.

The method according to the variant described in claim 1 of the claims, as follows. After cleaning career fields from vegetation remove a layer of soil 1 and transported her to the warehouse 11, located at the bottom or planned earlier layer of overburden 8. The recess soil layer 1 can be made by the bulldozer with the laying of her temporary piles, of which the soil excavator overload in trucks and transported to the dumping in the center of career fields. After that make Stripping with the placement of waste rock 2 temporary tape dumps 10 per loop Kari the RA on the outside of the flanges 5. These works can be performed by bulldozers or scrapers. Upon completion of the Stripping operations produce the notch mineral 3 in the planned paths. After the litter's registration exhaust areas produce storm boards using semi-bedrocks 7, taken from the bottom of the pit.

The notch (sadiku) of the underlying layer mineral layer 3 semi-bedrocks 7 produce bulldozers, optionally equipped with rippers. The filling of the pit 5 is carried out in layers with the angle of the slope flattened side 7-23° depending on the direction of recultivation of disturbed lands.

The filling of the cushions can be made to the upper edge, and a little below it. The height of the bed is determined by considering the total layer thickness of overburden 8 applied from above, and the thickness of soil layer 9, and also taking into account the magnitude of precipitation and the degree of filling of the pores of the semi-bedrocks, taken from the bottom of the pit 7, loose sediment overburden 2.

In order to accelerate the broadening rekultivirovanie surface half-rock rock 7 constituting the filling 6, covered by a layer of overburden 2 with a capacity of at least 0.2-0.4 m, taken from the temporary dumps 10, located at the edge of the boards. Overburden 2 partially fill the pores of the semi-bedrocks bedding 6 and thereby create erosion-resistant and sweat is sciolino fertile layer of rocks.

After applying a layer of overburden 8 on the flattened sides and the bottom of the quarry on top of it is placed a layer of soil 9, taken from the temporary warehouse soil 11. The soil layer is applied with a bulldozer.

The method according to the variant described in claim 2, as follows. After cleaning career fields from vegetation remove a layer of soil 1 and transported her to the warehouse 11, located at the bottom or planned earlier layer of overburden 8. The recess soil layer 1 can be made by the bulldozer with the laying of her temporary piles, of which the soil excavator overload in trucks and transported to the dumping in the center of career fields. After that make Stripping with the placement of waste rock 2 temporary tape dumps 10 for a career path on the outside of the flanges 5. These works can be performed by bulldozers or scrapers. Upon completion of the Stripping operations produce the notch mineral 3 in the planned paths. After the litter's registration exhaust areas produce storm boards using semi-bedrocks 7, taken from the bottom of the pit.

The notch (sadiku) of the underlying layer mineral layer 3 semi-bedrocks 7 produce bulldozers, optionally equipped with rippers. The filling of the pit 5 carried the t layers with the angle of the slope flattened side 7-23° depending on the direction of recultivation of disturbed lands.

This variant of the method of reclamation is useful for a sufficiently large capacity of overburden, therefore, to reduce the labor intensity filling the boards perform up to the roof of the reservoir. After this rock overburden of the tips 10 and the prism 12 at the upper edge of the sides above the roof of the productive layer 3 stack bulldozer flattened on the side and the bottom of the quarry.

After applying a layer of overburden 8 on the flattened sides and the bottom of the quarry on top of it put a layer of soil 9, taken from the temporary warehouse soil 11. The soil layer is applied with a bulldozer.

The method according to the variant described in section 3 of the claims, as follows. After cleaning career fields from vegetation remove a layer of soil 1 and transported her to the warehouse 11, located at the bottom or planned earlier layer of overburden 8. The recess soil layer 1 can be made by the bulldozer with the laying of her temporary piles, of which the soil excavator overload in trucks and transported to the dumping in the center of career fields. After that make Stripping with the placement of waste rock 2 temporary tape dumps 10 for a career path on the outside of the flanges 5. These works can be performed by bulldozers or scrapers. Upon completion of the Stripping carried the Yat excavation of minerals 3 in the planned paths. After the litter's registration exhaust areas produce storm boards using semi-bedrocks 7, taken from the bottom of the pit.

The notch (sadiku) of the underlying layer mineral layer 3 semi-bedrocks 7 produce bulldozers, optionally equipped with rippers. The filling of the pit 5 is carried out in layers with the angle of the slope flattened side 7-23° depending on the direction of recultivation of disturbed lands.

In order to reduce the amount of work to fill the sides in case of water bodies in the developed space filling is carried out until the marks corresponding to the maximum water level after flooding generation (typically, the maximum natural ground water level).

After this rock overburden of temporary piles 10 and the prism 12 at the upper edge of the sides above the roof of the productive layer 3 stack bulldozer flattened on the side and the bottom of the quarry.

After applying a layer of overburden 8 on the flattened sides and the bottom of the quarry on top of it put a layer of soil 9, taken from the temporary warehouse soil 11. The soil layer is applied with a bulldozer.

The method according to the variant described in claim 4 of the formula of the invention, as follows. After cleaning career fields from vegetation remove a layer of soil 1 and transported her to the warehouse 11, loc is defined at the bottom or planned earlier layer of overburden 8. The recess soil layer 1 can be made by the bulldozer with the laying of her temporary piles, of which the soil excavator overload in trucks and transported to the dumping in the center of career fields. After that make Stripping with the placement of waste rock 2 temporary tape dumps 10 for a career path on the outside of the flanges 5. These works can be performed by bulldozers or scrapers. Upon completion of the Stripping operations produce the notch mineral 3 in the planned paths. After the litter's registration exhaust areas produce storm boards using semi-bedrocks 7, taken from the bottom of the pit.

The notch (sadiku) of the underlying layer mineral layer 3 semi-bedrocks 7 produce bulldozers, optionally equipped with rippers. The filling of the pit 5 is carried out in layers with the angle of the slope flattened side 7-23° depending on the direction of recultivation of disturbed lands.

This variant of the method of reclamation should be applied to a large area goaf and a slight excess of the natural groundwater level is above the bottom of the pit (less than 1.5m). In this case it is necessary to deepen the quarry when reclamation is not less than 0.5 m and the parameters of the sub-boards are determined by the volume of the rocks, the scientists at conduct. The cross-section of the sub-6 will have a trapezoidal shape. After this rock overburden of temporary piles 10 and the prism 12 at the upper edge of the sides above the roof of the productive layer 3 stack bulldozer flattened on the side and the bottom of the quarry.

After applying a layer of overburden 8 on the flattened sides and the bottom of the quarry on top of it is placed a layer of soil 9, taken from the temporary warehouse soil 11. The soil layer is applied with a bulldozer.

1. Method of reclamation of open pits, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape storage room at the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil layer of overburden, characterized in that the storm boards carry out bottom-up through the bedding using rocks taken from the bottom of the pit.

2. Method of reclamation of open pits, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape storage room at the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil the Loya on overburden, characterized in that the storm boards provide by filling from the bottom up to the roof of the productive formation using rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry, after which a plateau is produced from the top down using overburden.

3. Method of reclamation of open pits, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape storage room at the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and laying soil layer of overburden, characterized in that the storm boards provide by filling from the bottom up using rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry, to the maximum level predicted water level in flooded after reclaiming the quarry, after which a plateau is produced from the top down using overburden.

4. Method of reclamation of open pits, including separate excavation, movement and storage of overburden at the border of the career fields on the outside of the sides in the tape dumps, and the soil layer in the tape storage room at the bottom in the center of the exhaust career fields, moving overburden on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry and stacking pochmann the layer on overburden, characterized in that the storm boards provide by filling from the bottom up using rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry due to its uglubki to the level corresponding to the depth created in rekultivirovana career reservoir, 0.5-1.0 m greater than the thickness of the ice.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves formation above the filled compartment of recultivation body from wastes with external surface of the specified convex shape and necessary for water flow and increase of the compartment capacity, and coating of external surface of recultivation body with layer of earth. At least lower part of recultivation body is formed in tiers, each of which is inwashed under protection of enclosing element installed along the tier perimetre by means of distributed outlet of pulp from pulp line so that sediment pond is formed in central part of tier and beach, which is specified on the basis of safety condition of width near the enclosing element providing the specified shape of external surface of recultivation body within the limits of the tier height. On wastes of beach zone of the compartment or tier of recultivation body there made is at least one water intake chamber in the form of the channel formed with dams and connecting the water intake facility to sediment pond. During tier-by-tier formation of recultivation body the dam crests of channels are maintained above water level in sediment pond, and water is supplied from channel by means of water intake facility to the water conduit of the water supply system of waste hydraulic transport. Length of channel section, which changes at inwash of wastes, from inlet threshold formed with wastes to water receiver of water intake facility 1k is brought into line with the following condition: Lchannel≥(hs-ht)/iunderwater, where hs - the specified water depth before water receiver of water intake facility; ht - water depth at inlet threshold of the channel; iunderwater - average slope of the projection of underwater inwash of wastes.

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and processing industries and may be used to recover disturbed lands in agriculture, construction and power engineering industry. Method consists in the fact that after open pit has been exhausted, its space is filled in layers first with construction waste, and then filled with overburden to the elevation of pit bottom for foundation of future structure, at the same time layer of overburden is leveled with a layer of sand having medium size with further compaction. Then future structure foundation axes are laid, as well as future solid reinforced concrete elements according to accepted design structural scheme relative to axes of foundations. Along each of laid longitudinal axes of future solid reinforced concrete elements, at the pit bottom panel forms are erected, evenly filled with concrete mix of grade not less than B 15 by quarter of panel form height, laid concrete mix is compacted by rodding, then reinforced frames are installed onto freshly laid concrete mix, and panel forms are fully filled with concrete mix. After concrete mix poured into panel forms gains strength, panel forms are removed, and space between produced longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements is filled with crushed slag. Afterwards soil foundation is filled, which includes two layers: intermediate layer of dry mix of soil and crushed slag, and above a layer of crushed stone from solid rocks of medium size to the elevation of foundation level of constructed structure, besides soil foundation thickness equals height of cross section of longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements, and thickness of intermediate later from mix of soil and slag stone makes one third of foundation level thickness, besides, the last level is flattened and compacted, and then foundation is erected.

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.

SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.

EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.

SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.

EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.

EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.

SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.

EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.

EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.

SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.

EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.

SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

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