Method of producing bores in composite material with ceramic substrate by laser beam

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal machining by laser beam. Proposed method comprises stages described below First step comprises making first bore with initial diameter and bore axis. Second step comprises displacing laser beam and rotating it about bore axis to produce intermediate bore aligned with initial bore but with larger diameter. Third step comprises displacing laser beam focus along bore axis and finishing said bore by pulsed laser beam.

EFFECT: boring in composite material with ceramic substrate, for example in gas turbine engine combustion chamber or vane.

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The present invention relates to the field of performing the method using a laser beam, holes in the part made of composite material with a ceramic base, the holes produced using the above method, the details (for example, the turbine blade or the wall of the combustion chamber)made of composite material with ceramic base, containing made above by way of the hole, and the turbojet engine, containing the above item.

In practice, the known technology laser applications to make holes in detail, namely holes to cool the components that are installed in high-temperature compartments of the turbojet engine, in particular turbine blades, wall or base of the casing of the combustion chamber.

It is known that when cutting with a laser holes are two types of technological processes and, in particular percussion drilling and ring drilling.

The essence of the process of impact drilling is the use of directional pulse laser beam to penetrate deep into the material. The result is a hole, the diameter of which is determined by the diameter of the laser beam and the power of the laser generator.

The process of core drilling consists in cutting the shape of the hole by PE is Emesene laser beam on a circular path. The result is a hole, the diameter of which is larger than the diameter of the laser beam.

It is also known that it is possible to combine two types of technological processes: first, during percussion drilling is the original hole with a diameter almost equal to the diameter of the laser beam, and then the annular drilling around this original holes, increases the cross section cut in the material of the hole in order to perform the second hole, the diameter of which is larger than the diameter of the laser beam.

Specialists when drilling holes at the stage of the annular drilling face the problem of a technical order, because the walls of the hole and (or) at the output of receive apertures, as a rule, contains scale. Negative moment of formation of such scale is the inability to guarantee the geometry of the holes. In other words, there is no possibility to reliably ensure the identity of the diameter of the holes produced in the production process core drilling. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a passage through the designed holes of the guaranteed amount of air that can lead to negative consequences when using these holes for refrigerated who I details.

In the patent US 5837964 describes the execution method using laser holes in the parts made of supersplash which makes use of technological processes percussion drilling and core drilling. If upon completion of the process of core drilling in the holes present scale, it is proposed to repeat the operation percussion drilling, and then the annular drilling; however, these processes should be repeated until then, until you will be provided with the specified diameter holes and evenly distributed over the entire depth made from supersplash material in which they are executed.

Recently in the production of parts preference was given to the parts from composite materials with ceramic base (IAMC) before the details of heat-resistant metal alloys. The advantage of the IAMC is that they are lighter than metal. Composite materials with ceramic base are materials containing thermal structure, i.e. they possess good mechanical properties and save at higher temperatures. These materials contain fibrous elements strengthen formed of heat-resistant fibers (usually carbon or ceramic) and cold pressed method with ceramic base or see what shanna carbon-ceramic base.

In the case of composite materials with ceramic base for production of parts intended for installation in high-temperature compartments turbojet engines, it is necessary to provide openings for the passage of cooling air, similar to the holes drilled in the parts, which are manufactured from heat-resistant metal alloy.

The disadvantage of cutting with a laser hole in a composite material with ceramic base is the opening of the inner structural component of these materials. There is also a danger that the contact of atmospheric oxygen with this internal structure can lead to oxidation of the surface of a ceramic base. This drawback is resolved by applying the so-called "self-healing" IAMC, i.e. materials, the material temperature during operation to move in a viscous state with a sufficient degree of fluidity and allows you to block the admission of atmospheric oxygen. Thus, there is formed a protective layer, for example consisting of SiC/Si-B-C.

Execution method using laser holes in patent US 5837964 could be used in the drilling of parts made of IAMC, even if we are talking about "samovosstanavlivaemy" composite the second material with a ceramic base. Indeed, the repeated performance of technological processes percussion and core drilling could lead to significant heating of the composite material with ceramic base and its destruction in the bundle.

In the patent US 6441341 describes the method for performing the hole intended for installation in high-temperature compartments of the turbojet engine parts, which are made of composite materials with ceramic base; IAMC contains at least one oxidizable component. This method consists in the implementation of the holes using a laser to heat the material of the basic structural component for oxidation and formation of silicon dioxide. This silicon dioxide is processed at appropriate temperatures, causing it heats up and melts. After that, it quickly hardens until that moment, until he got inside the holes. This rapid and controlled solidification of silicon dioxide can make holes with smooth walls and without slag, and also create a barrier to oxidation, limiting the possibility of oxidation in any form during subsequent operation of the turbojet engine. The advantage of this method of cutting out the holes using a laser is that the e are formed scale. However, it has the disadvantage, which is that its application is limited to composite material with a ceramic base containing at least one oxidizable component.

In the patent EP 0826457 describes the execution method using a laser hole in the blade of the turbine, which contains superslab as a base, binder, and a thermal barrier ceramic coating. The first hole is performed by percussion drilling by focusing the laser beam on the workpiece surface. Then the laser beam changes the focus away from the workpiece in order to drill the second hole by the method of pulse percussion drilling of the second hole is aligned with the first hole, but has a larger diameter and a smaller depth. The first hole of smaller diameter allows you to remove molten cutting the second hole materials. The method described in this patent does not allow holes in parts, completely made of composite material with a ceramic base. The present invention is to eliminate the above mentioned disadvantages. It offers a way to perform with laser holes in the parts made of the IAMC (composite material is in the ceramic base), designed in particular for installation in high-temperature compartments turbojet engines, which includes processes percussion drilling and core drilling, and operations, allowing you to remove the scale formed during core drilling.

The first object of the present invention relates to a method for performing hole using a laser beam in a part made of composite material with a ceramic base, which includes:

the first phase of a percussion drilling, which by focusing the laser beam deep into the details, which will be cut hole, are the original hole having a first diameter and the hole axis;

- the second phase of core drilling, which by displacement of the laser beam and rotating it around the axis of the hole midway hole coaxially to the original hole, but larger than the original hole diameter;

- the third phase in which the focus of the laser beam is shifted along the axis of the hole, after performing the final hole using a pulsed laser beam.

Preferably, moving the focus of the laser beam was carried out by his removal from the position, which he held on the first and second stages. Preferably also, to move Fok the sa of the laser beam was carried out by his approach to the situation he took on the first and second stages.

Under the concept of "defocusing" refers to the action for moving the focal point of the laser beam along the axis of the hole.

From a technical point of view, the pulsed laser beam, rasfokusirovka along the axis of the hole during the third stage provides for the removal of slag, which could be formed during core drilling.

The second object of the present invention relates to hole performed by the method according to the first object in the part made of composite material with a ceramic base. In accordance with one embodiment a hole oriented along an axis perpendicular to the surface of the part. According to another implementation variant hole oriented along an axis angled relative to the surface of the part.

A third object of the present invention relates to parts made of composite material with ceramic base, characterized in that it contains at least one hole made by the method according to the first object. In accordance with one embodiment of this item is the wall of the combustion chamber. According to another variant embodiment of the invention, this part is a turbine blade.

The fourth object of predlagaetvashemu relates to a turbojet engine, containing at least one item according to a third object.

The advantage of this method according to the present invention is that it can be used in composite materials with ceramic base, not containing oxidizable components.

Another advantage of the method according to the present invention is that several refocusing pulses can hardly lead to the destruction of the composite material with ceramic base after splitting, or other causes heat.

The invention will become more clear after studying the accompanying detailed description of the variants of its implementation, which is presented as an example and is not restrictive, with reference to the attached drawings figures, in which:

Figure 1 depicts in schematic form the first process of the method and the resulting source aperture;

Figure 2 - schematic view of the second stage of the technological process of implementation of the method and the first intermediate hole;

Figure 3 - schematic view of another step of the second process of the method and the second intermediate hole;

Figure 4 - schematic view of the third intermediate hole, obtained upon completion of the second process design implement the method;

Figure 5 - schematic view of the final hole, obtained by completion of the third process of the method;

6 is a schematic view in isometric possible directions of arrangement of the holes obtained in this way.

In all figures of the drawing shows a plot 10 of the surface of parts made of composite material with a ceramic base, and the two axes 12, 14 that is positioned perpendicular to the plane of this section 10. The method according to the present invention is directed to execute the final hole, centered on the axis 16 which is perpendicular to the two axes 12 and 14. The elements 10, 12, 14, 16 are the same for figure 1-5.

When implementing the method according to the invention uses a conventional laser system, equipped with a laser generator that generates a laser beam.

Figure 1 shows the original hole 20, obtained upon completion of the technological process, percussion drilling, carried out using a laser beam. The laser beam is focused into the details of running the hole so that the diameter of the original hole 20 was actually equal to the diameter of the laser beam. The original hole 20 centered on the axis 16.

Figure 2 shows the first intermediate hole 22 that is received at the end of the paragraph the pout stage process core drilling, carried out by a laser beam. The laser beam was moved in a plane virtually perpendicular to the plane of the holes, in a straight line, indicated in figure 2 by the arrow 80. After the laser beam was in the position indicated by the numeral 50. The first intermediate hole has an elongated shape, with its length essentially equal to the distance of movement of the laser beam, and the width is the diameter of the laser beam.

Figure 3 shows the second intermediate hole 24 that is received upon completion of the second stage of the technological process of core drilling using a laser beam. The laser beam is moved in the same as in the previous case, the plane on a circular path indicated in figure 3 by the arrow 82. At this stage, the distance corresponds to the segment of a circle.

Figure 4 shows the third intermediate ring 26 received upon completion of the technological process core drilling performed using a laser beam. The laser beam is moved on a circular path, which is designated in figure 3 by the arrow 82 until the closure of the entire circle. When this laser beam is at the position indicated by the numeral 50. The diameter of the third intermediate holes 26 in fact equal to the diameter of the circle, which was described by a laser beam. In practice, to obtain C the given diameter of the third intermediate orifice 26 is carried out to adjust the length of the extended trajectory 80, presented in figure 2.

However, it is noted the presence of slag 28, which linger on the walls and (or) at the output of the thus obtained apertures 26 in the technological process core drilling. Scale disturb the accuracy of the diameter of the hole 26, with the result that not possible to accurately determine the amount of air passing through the hole. In some cases it is desirable to know the quantity passing through the hole of the air, which would be the same for all holes. This raises the need for descaling order to obtain the final hole, the diameter of which you can control. This will allow you to achieve the same effective cross-section for all available next to each other holes and the same bandwidth all together made holes.

In the process of the third process of the method according to the invention is the removal of the slag 28 (figure 5).

The first step in this third process, the laser beam returns to its original position (figure 1 indicated by numeral 50). This position centered on the axis 16.

In the second step of the third process, the focus of the laser beam per meshaut along the axis of the hole, i.e. along the axis 16. According to a preferred variant of the invention, the focal point is removed from the surface 10. According to another variant of the invention, the focal point approaches the surface 10. The consequence of this displacement of the focal point is a minor change, or rather, a certain increase in the diameter of the laser beam at the level of the surface 10. After moving the focal point along the axis of the laser beam 16 occupies the position indicated in figure 5 by the numeral 50. In the third step of the third process generated several (preferably 1-5) pulse laser. The result of this third stage is the breakdown of existing inside the third intermediate holes 26 of the slag 28 by focusing the laser beam deep into the details of running the hole, and obtaining the final hole 30 with peeled walls. As shown in figure 5, the final diameter of the hole 30 has appropriate and manageable size. It has a constant size on the depth drilled parts.

For the implementation of the third process of the method it is not necessary that the energy of the laser beam was greater than the energy of the laser beam used in the previous is, I can pay tithing and second manufacturing processes, since the actual hole already cut, and energy should be sufficient only to remove the slag 28 from the third intermediate orifice 26.

With reference to figures 1 to 4 has been described a method that allows you to perform the final hole 30, the axis 16 which is perpendicular to the surface 10 of the workpiece, in which the hole 30. The method is also applied in the manufacture of holes 30, the axis 18 which, as shown in Fig.6, is not perpendicular but at an angleαthis portion of the surface 10. To implement the method according to the invention of the laser system is installed so that the laser beam was directed not towards 16 and in the direction 18, in this case, the direction 18 has a specified angle relative to the surface 10. According to preferred variants of the implementation of the angleαequal to 20-40, in particular 30.

The way the description with reference to figure 1-6 above, is most effective when it is desirable to make the holes, whose diameter is larger than the diameter of the laser beam. For example, using this method, using a laser beam with an initial diameter of 0.7 mm, can be cut out of the final hole diameter of 0.8 mm or 0.9 mm, or 1.0 mm

Listed below are the technical specifications laser type LASER SLAB YAG 1064 nm MLS brand P1000, prod is aemula company Munich Laser System:

the diameter of the laser beam - 0,5 mm

First process: percussion drilling

- duration pulses of 2 msec

the pulse frequency is 12 Hz

- power pulses - 17 J.

- number of pulses - 5

Second process:

- rectilinear movement - 0.8 mm

- pulse duration is 1.5 MS

the pulse frequency is 14.8 Hz

- power pulse - 14 J.

- cleaning velocity of 15 mm/min

Third process:

- distance focal point - 3 mm

- pulse duration of 2 msec

the pulse frequency is 12 Hz

- power pulses - 17 J.

- number of pulses - 5.

1. Way to make the holes (30) by means of a laser beam in a part made of composite material with ceramic base, characterized in that it includes: the first stage percussion drilling, which by focusing the laser beam into the workpiece that will be cut hole, are the original hole (20)having a first diameter and the axis of the hole (16, 18); the second phase of core drilling, which by displacement of the laser beam and rotating it around an axis (16, 18) holes midway opening (26), an on-axis source the hole (20), and having more than the original hole (20) diameter;
the third stage, the cat the rum focus of the laser beam is shifted along the axis (16, 18) holes, and then perform the final hole (30) using a pulsed laser beam.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the number of pulses ranges from 1 to 5.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the displacement of the focus of the laser beam is carried out by removing it from the position it occupied during the first and second stages of the holes.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the displacement of the focus of the laser beam is carried out by removing it from the position it occupied during the first and second stages of the holes.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the displacement of the focus of the laser beam is carried out by its proximity to the position he occupied on the first and second stages of holes.

6. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the displacement of the focus of the laser beam is carried out by its proximity to the position he occupied on the first and second stages of holes.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a hole oriented along an axis (16)perpendicular to the surface (10) of this part.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a hole oriented along an axis (18), located at an angle to the surface (10) of this part.

9. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the hole is placed at an angle (α) equal to 20-40°, to the surface (10) of this part.

10. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the hole is placed at an angle (α)is actually equal to 30°, to the surface (10) of this part.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the holes do in parts made of composite material with ceramic base, turbojet engine, for example in the wall of the combustion chamber or turbine blade.



 

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Gas-laser cutter // 2368479

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises focusing lens (1), casing (2), branch pipe (3) for laser beam to pass there through at preset aperture angle and nozzle (5) arranged around aforesaid branch pipe and inclined to the lens optical axis to form gas supersonic jets. Branch pipe (3) has annular grooves (4) to make chamber for gas to be distributed between the nozzles. Axes of nozzles (5) intersect the lens axis at the point which makes that of intersection between processed surface and focusing lens axis to exploit entire kinetic power of supersonic jets onto processed surface.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing due to increased efficiency of gas mix effects.

1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method and device for automatic control of laser cutting or hole drilling process. Method includes measurement of radiation reflected from zone of processing. Minimum value of reflected radiation amplitude is defined, compared to specified amplitude, and control of laser radiation capacity and/or cutting speed are controlled. Device comprises laser with power supply unit, rotary mirror, focusing lens, 2-coordinate table for fixation of processed part, unit of 2-coordinate table control, photodetector of secondary radiation and transformer of secondary radiation signal from photodetector, connected to unit of laser power supply and unit of 2-coordinate table control.

EFFECT: improved quality and capacity of through laser processing of materials.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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