Turbines with exit channel for removal of foreign objects

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices wherein flow of liquid rotates big rotor of screw type or rotor wheel having external circular rim positioned inside big circular case. A hydro-electric turbine consists of rotor 20 positioned inside case 30 with external circular rim 22 located in channel 32 made in case 30. The turbine is improved due to making at least one exit channel 50 for removal of foreign particles. Foreign objects caught between rotor 20 and case 30 are removed through exit channel 50.

EFFECT: avoiding or minimisation of foreign objects accumulation in channel of case.

6 cl, 4 dwg

 

The level of technology

The present invention in General relates to turbines or power plants that produce electricity using a flow of liquid, in particular water, and more specifically to such devices in which the fluid flow rotates the large rotor type propeller or impeller having an external annular rim located inside a large circular enclosure.

Electricity production using large turbines is well known. Usually hydraulic turbines are installed in the dam so that a controlled flow of fluid rotate the rotor with screw-type or blade. Such conditions with a relatively rapid flow of water are referred to as high-pressure. Also known turbine used in low-pressure conditions created, for example, tidal otlivnyy over in the Gulf, at the mouth of the river or in the open sea. Such turbines are usually installed on large supporting shafts.

Although most of the turbines has a Central rotating shaft on which are mounted blades or impellers of the turbine, also known turbine with a hollow center, also known as turbine blades mounted on the rims. Such turbine in which the blades are mounted between the inner and outer rings or rims, and the energy is transferred through the outer rim of the annular body, in which is secured the rotor, can be particularly effective in low-pressure conditions, i.e. at a slower currents.

Examples turbines with a hollow center and installing blades on the rims can be found in U.S. patent No. 5,592,816 issued 14.01.1997 and reissued under number RE38,336 2.12.2003, in U.S. patent No. 6,648,589 issued 18.11.2003, in U.S. patent No. 6,729,840 issued 4.05.2004, and in the application for U.S. patent US 2005/0031442 published 10.02.2005 (serial number 10/633,865). Examples of hydroelectric turbines used in low-pressure conditions (tidal currents) are U.S. patent No. 4, 421, 990, issued Houssou and others (Heuss et al.), in U.S. patent No. 6, 168, 373 and 6, 406, 251, issued Vautier (Vauthier), the patent of great Britain No. 2 GB, 408, 294, registered Sasenum and others (Susman et al.), and in the International WIPO publications WO 03/025385 registered by Davis and others (Davis et al.).

Hydraulic turbines are considered as safe for the environment to replace power plants that use fossil fuels or nuclear energy. When using water power to produce electricity on a large scale, sufficient to supply industrial complexes, small and big cities and so on, you need a large number of turbines, and as large as possible to maximize the amount of electricity produced by each turbine. The length of the blades Roto is offering these turbines is calculated by ft, some experimental designs have blades longer than 50 meters.

Increasing the length of the blades having problems in design and manufacturing that were not typical of the turbines and generators of the smaller sizes. If installed on the shaft of the turbine difficult to get long blades were strong and at the same time light. In one of the technical solutions of blades mounted on the turbine shaft, also have external annular rim, which is located inside the annular housing, the blades thus rely on the shaft, and on the rim. Alternatively, this problem is solved through turbines that do not have a shaft and mounted on the rims, that is, the ring supports are fixed to the inner and outer ends of the blades, and the outer rim fixed in the housing, having an annular groove or channel. In conventional power generation devices along the perimeter of the annular rim is a large number of magnets, and on the surface of the channel in the stator housing is a large number of coils. The magnetic field created by the field system of the rotor, passes through the gap separating the rotor and stator. The rotation of the rotor causes a change in flux of the magnetic induction in the coil that creates the coil an electromotive force.

Because the outer annular rim of the rotor is located inside the channel in the stator housing, bring liquid foreign objects can stay in this channel. A significant accumulation of foreign objects will interfere with the rotation of the rotor and can cause damage. The accumulation of foreign objects can cause the greatest difficulty in low-pressure conditions, such as generators operating on tidal currents, since the settling of foreign objects in the channel is more likely with relatively slow flow of water.

The purpose of the present invention is to provide an improved design of the turbine, located on the blades of the impeller outer circular rim, which is attached inside the existing building of the canal, and the accumulation of foreign objects in the channel is minimized or eliminated. An additional objective is to provide such a turbine, the channel housing which contains one or more outlet passages for removal of foreign objects, while foreign objects caught in the channel between the outer rim of the rotor and the housing, will fall or be washed away from the turbine.

The invention

The invention is an improved turbine driven by a fluid, preferably water, in which the rotor blades rely on external annular rim, and the rim is fixed or razmeshennoi housing, contains the channel that holds the outer rim. In a typical design, the turbine is a generator, in which the magnets are located on the outer rim of the rotor, and coils located in the channel of the housing or stator, so that the rotation of the rotor inside the stator generates electricity. The greatest benefits from the improvements achieved in these turbines, which are immersed in water, providing a low-pressure conditions, i.e. when the rate of water flow through the turbine is relatively small.

The improvement involves the presence in the channel housing one or more outlet passageways, channels or holes to remove foreign objects, if any foreign objects caught between the outer rim of the rotor and the channel of the housing, can be displayed by passing through these discharge passages or under the influence of gravity, or being washed away by the fluid flow passing through the discharge passages for foreign objects.

Brief description of drawings

In figure 1, in the projection, oriented along the axis, shows a typical turbine, in this case the turbine with a hollow center and blades mounted on rims, containing a rotor with an external annular stator housing containing a channel enclosing the outer rim of the rotor.

Figure 2 presents the case of the stator in the dapc is hometree.

3 shows the rotor in a perspective view.

4 shows a partial section along the line IV-IV in figure 1, showing the discharge passage for foreign objects in the stator housing.

Detailed disclosure of the invention

Below the invention in the best mode and the preferred implementation will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. In the most General sense, the object of the invention is a turbine to produce electricity. In a typical implementation turbine contains installed in the stator housing, the rotor with the outer annular rim, placed and fixed in the annular channel or groove of the stator. This generator might contain a collection of a large number of magnets located on the annular rim of the rotor, and a large number of coils located on the inner surface of the stator, preferably within the channel accommodating annular rim of the rotor, although can be used by other generators. For illustrative purposes, the turbine on the drawings depicted in the form of a rotor with a hollow center and blades mounted on the rims, and the fastening of the rotor is supplied by the stator housing, but it should be understood that the invention also applies to turbines with a rotor, which is mounted on the shaft and has an outer annular rim. It should also be kept in view is, the invention is applicable to any turbine, having an external rim, inside the body, regardless of the type of generator.

As shown in figures 1 to 3, the invention is a turbine or power unit, 10, containing usually a circular casing 30. The configuration of the housing 30 is not limited to the one shown here, that is, there may be other configuration, provided that the housing 30, including its functions, holds the rotating Assembly, or rotor 20, from unwanted displacement in the axial and radial directions and provides the rotation of the rotor 20 around the axis of rotation. The housing 30 includes a pair of mounting flanges 31 that define a channel 32, where placed and fixed rotor 20.

The rotating Assembly, or rotor 20 has an internal annular rim 23 and the outer annular rim 22, and the rims 22 and 23 preferably are relatively thin in the direction perpendicular to the Central axis of rotation. Between the inner rim 23 and the outer rim 22 there are many elements of the screw or impeller or blades 21, and the blades 21 according to the known solutions are at such an angle or curved so that the flow of fluid through the housing 30 in the axial direction causes rotation of the impeller 20. Specific number, configuration and material of the set of blades 21 may be the ranks, but preferably the vanes 21 are made as light as possible without compromising the structural integrity of the structure.

In most cases, the turbine 10 are oriented so that the axis of the rotor 20, in General, horizontal, this blade 21 rotates in a vertical plane. Thus, the annular channel 32 in the housing 30 is also oriented so that it is located in a vertical plane. As a result, in the channel 32 and especially in its lower part accumulate foreign objects that fall between the rotor 20 and the housing 30, and these objects are deposited with the passage of the fluid through the turbine 10. This problem of the accumulation of foreign objects in the channel of the housing 32 is particularly acute in hydroelectric turbines 10, which are operated at low pressures, such as in turbines 10 running on tidal currents. Relatively slow movement of water along with the relatively high concentration of foreign objects creates the conditions in which between the impeller 20 and the housing 30 may accumulate a significant amount of foreign objects. The rotation of the rotor 20 in a stationary housing 30, and the effects of gravity leads to the accumulation of foreign objects in the channel 32 and especially in its lower part. If the size of the clusters is significant is Elen as in the number of foreign objects, and in terms of the sizes of individual objects, it will lead to increased friction, which will adversely affect the rotation of the rotor 20, reducing the efficiency of the turbine. In addition, the accumulated foreign objects can damage the surface of the rotor 20 and the channel 32, which is particularly damaging if the rim 22 and the surface of the channel 32 of the turbine is set accordingly magnets and coil.

To solve the accumulation of foreign objects out of the housing 30 has one or more outlet passageways, channels or holes 50 for removal of foreign objects, as shown in figure 4, this provides a means of discharge or remove any foreign objects inside the channel 32. Preferably the discharge passages 50 for removal of foreign objects during operation is directed, in General, down to the removal of foreign objects contributed to the force of gravity. Particularly preferably, though not necessarily, to at least one of the lateral passages 50 for removal of foreign objects was located directly in the bottom or the lower part of the channel 32 of the housing. Because under the influence of rotation of the turbine 10 foreign objects can within channel 32 to move along the circumference of the discharge passages 50 to remove foreign objects can be located with some is that intervals across the channel 32, including in its upper relative to the horizontal part. Specific dimensions, orientation and configuration of the discharge passages 50 to remove foreign objects are selected based on various design considerations and may vary from those shown on the drawing. For example, although the discharge passage 50 to remove foreign objects figure 4 shows perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the turbine 10, the discharge passages 50 to remove foreign objects can be oriented in the other, not perpendicular directions. Similarly, although the discharge passage 50 to remove foreign objects in figure 4 has parallel walls, and a discharge passages for removal of foreign objects can be expanding or Contracting.

It should be borne in mind that the experts in the art can easily find equivalents and substitutes for some of the features listed above, but because the actual volume and the nature of the invention are as set forth in the following claims.

1. Turbine driven fluid and containing a rotor mounted on the blades of the outer rim, the body with a channel containing the specified outer rim of the specified rotor, and the generator device generating electricity, and in the specified Cana is e is at least one outlet passage for removal of foreign objects, passing through the specified enclosure and for removing foreign objects caught between the specified outer rim of the rotor and the specified channel in the housing through the at least one outlet passage for removal of foreign objects.

2. Turbine according to claim 1, in which indicated at least one outlet passage for removal of foreign objects during operation is located in the lower part of the specified channel in the body.

3. Turbine according to claim 1, in which indicated at least one outlet passage for removal of foreign objects downwards.

4. Turbine according to claim 1, in which indicated at least one outlet passage for removal of foreign objects is implemented as several outlet passages for removal of foreign objects.

5. Turbine according to claim 4, in which all of these outlet passages for removal of foreign objects during operation directed downwards.

6. Turbine according to claim 4, in which these several outlet passages for removal of foreign objects allocated on the specified channel in the housing in such a way that some of these discharge passages for removal of foreign objects during operation are in the upper part of the specified channel in the housing.



 

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