Improvement of press cushions

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: cushion contains woven material out of heat resistant threads. At least warp and/or cross fibres of woven material contain core made of multitude of threads. Said threads are placed inside a shell of elastomer material. At least another part of warp or cross fibres contain metal threads. Threads making the core are arranged in essence parallel to each other and to lengthwise axis of the core.

EFFECT: maintaining flexibility and ability to compensation at large amount of pressing cycles without decrease of heat conductivity.

15 cl, 9 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a pressing cushion for use in a laminating press for the manufacture of sheets of plastic laminate (laminate), such as decorative laminates, laminated floor boards, and boards for printed circuits, single and multi-storey presses low pressure and high pressure.

The purpose of the press cushion is to compensate for density changes in the compression sheet of the laminate and thus provide uniform pressure on all parts of the sheet. In addition, pressing the pillow compensates for any roughness in the surfaces of the plates of the press and any deflection or tilting of the plates under pressure. In addition, it helps to produce a flat smooth thick laminate. Therefore, it is important to press the pillow was elastic and differed natural elasticity to compensate for such changes in the density and surface roughness of the plates of the press, as well as for wound after each pressing operation and return to the original shape, to be able to use it again. The ability of the press cushion after each pressing yourself to take the original shape is an important characteristic, which helps to ensure a long service life and to reduce the downtime of the press, yet produced the lead replacement pressing the pillow.

Therefore, as a rule, conventional pressing cushion is a densely interwoven combination of non-asbestos yarn, high heat resistance, and metal wire. A metal wire is used to ensure a good transfer of heat through the pillow to the sheet laminate. On the other hand, non-metallic yarn adds cushion springiness and elasticity needed for unclamping pillow after each pressing. The relative proportion of the two types of material is a major factor when designing the pressing cushion for a particular purpose. Usually reach a compromise between the transfer of high temperature and springiness or elasticity, depending on the specific case.

Conventional pressing cushion is described in European application EP 0735949 A1. The pillow contains a woven fabric of heat-resistant fibers, for example, copper wire, in which a significant portion of the base or transverse fibers of the fabric comprises a silicone elastomer. Practically, as shown in figure 1, the base 1 is generally made of twisted or twisted brass or copper wire and transverse fibers 2 are usually made of a coated silicone metal wire, in particular from twisted or twisted copper wire 3, covered with a protective film 4, the implementation of the Noah extrusion method from silicone. Due to the presence of silicone 4, such a pressing cushion has a high elasticity and springiness, while the metal wire provides good transfer of heat through the cushion from the press plates compressible material.

To date copper wire, coated with silicone, was a copper cord, including seven curled or twisted single conductors with a diameter of 0.2 mm Stranded wire includes a wire, in which the fibers are subjected to forced and managed to curl with one of seven lived forming the core around which is wrapped the other six lived. This cord 5 is illustrated in figure 2, and lived, forming the Central core 6 surrounded by six conductors 7, which wrapped around her. If the diameter of each conductor 6, 7 is equal to 0.2 mm, the diameter d1 of the entire cord (see Figure 1) is equal to 0.6 mm Across, twisted wire includes a wire, in which veins are twisted in a random way, and none of them occupies a Central position. The full diameter of such twisted wire is also equal to approximately 0.6 mm, if used seven single conductors with a diameter of 0.2 mm each. The degree of interlacing lived in twisted or stranded wire for the base 1 and the transverse fibers 2, called "the step of twisting", is usually 15 mm pitch is a length made of cord, required for turnover of all wires in the twisted 360 degrees.

When coating a silicone outer diameter d2 of the transverse fibers 2 with a silicone coating is usually equal to 1.4 mm, and, thus, the wall thickness d3 silicone coating equal to 0.4 mm, As a rule, the initial thickness T1 (see Figure 1) woven pressing pillows made from such coated with silicone wire, equal to about 2.5 mm, but after a relatively short use of the thickness of the cushion is reduced approximately to 2.0 mm. Reason that wire basics pressed into the silicone transverse fibers. In this state, pressing the pillow usually withstands 200 000 cycles pressing, then it will be useless. Cushion wears out, because when using a woven structure, ultimately smoothed to such an extent that the pressing cushion unable to decompress after each pressing operation, and the cushion loses its elasticity and springiness.

Pressing cushion used in presses, creating the average specific pressure of about 35 kg per square cm, so that the full load on one square meter of material extrusion pillows equal 350000 Kg. Typical pressing cushion includes approximately 550 inserts transverse fibers per meter length and 900 warp threads per meter width. This means that a square meter of the press cushion is typically 550×900=49500 points of intersection, each of which when using the applied load approximately 0,707 Kg during each compression cycle of the press. During use at each point of intersection of the wire basics 1 very quickly cut into the silicone coating 4 transverse fibers 2, and, before intersecting deformation of the wire due to the applied pressure, the two wires 1, 3 each having a diameter of 0.6 mm come into contact with each other. This is schematically illustrated in Figure 3 (silicone not shown). After prolonged use of the press cushion two intersecting wires 1, 3 tightly vimutta each other, and their total thickness, which at the beginning of operation equal to 0.6 mm + 0.6 m = 1.2 mm, can be reduced approximately to 0.8 mm Is the usual finite thickness of the pressing cushion as she comes in worn condition and ceases to act as a flexible tool compensation. Silicone by this time forced to fill the interstices of the wire grid formed of intersecting wire 1, 3, and, thus, the intersection point of the wire take full load.

The number of cycles of pressing, which is resistant to the conventional pillow, such as those described above, before coming into disrepair, to a very large extent depends on the nature of the compression laminate sheets. Decorative laminates are different natural springiness, progos is d, therefore, during the operation of pressing they also help to provide the necessary compensation. However, laminate floor boards made of fiberboard of medium to high density, have a very low natural springiness, and, as it turned out, the usual pressing cushion, such as those described above, wear out relatively quickly when they are used for pressing the laminates of this type.

The present invention is to provide a pressing cushion, which retains its springiness and the ability to compensate with a larger number of pressing cycles than conventional pressing cushion, without reducing the capacity for heat transfer.

According to the present invention proposed a pressing cushion for use in pressing a laminate containing woven fabric of heat-resistant lived, in which at least a base and/or transverse fiber contains a core made up of a number of veins inside the shell of elastomeric material, and at least another base or transverse fiber contains metal wires, and wherein the wires constituting the core are essentially parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the core.

It should be noted that the requirement that the wires constituting the core was, essentially, PA is allele each other and to the longitudinal axis of the core, applies to all press the pillow. Therefore, the core may include a group of veins that were loosely twisted or gathered in a bun.

Preferred features of the invention are described in dependent clauses appended claims.

The present invention will be further described based on examples with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows a cross-section on an enlarged scale conventional forging pillows to use;

Figure 2 shows a perspective view of a segment of transverse veins with a metal core, which is part of the pressing cushion, shown in figure 1;

Figure 3 shows a schematic perspective view of the point of intersection of the cross-veins and veins fundamentals pressing cushion, shown in figure 1, while the silicone extrusions pillows are not shown;

Figure 4 shows a schematic cross section of a press for laminate illustrating the deflection of the cushion plates press using conventional pressing cushion;

Figure 5 shows a perspective view of a segment of transverse veins with a metal core, which is part of the pressing cushion in accordance with the present invention;

6 shows a cross-section transverse veins, which is part of the press cushion according to the first variant of implementation in accordance with the present image is taneem, includes a metal core, as shown in Figure 5, to use;

7 shows a cross-section similar to that shown in Fig.6, but veins transverse fibers shown during use and under pressure;

Fig shows a schematic perspective view of the intersection point, similar to that shown in Figure 3, but for the press cushion according to the present invention; and

Fig.9 shows a view of the cross-veins, similar to that shown in Fig.6, but in accordance with another embodiment.

Press cushion according to the present invention, such a cushion, known from the prior art in that it includes a woven fabric of heat-resistant lived, and, at least, or base, or transverse fibers include a core composed of a number of veins inside the shell of elastomeric material. The difference of this invention from prior art is the structure of the lived, which is covered with an elastomeric sheath. In the following description, veins, covered with an elastomeric membrane will be referred to as transverse veins and other veins will be referred to as the core framework, but it should be noted that the opposite is also possible structure with conductors, covered with an elastomeric material, which is used as basis. Can also be used a structure in which the elastomer is a material covered at the same time and veins basis, and transverse veins. In addition to these lived in the press cushion may also be included veins of other types, such as non-metallic fibers, such as fibers of polyester and fiberglass, as well as wire wrapped polyamide fiber. In addition, can also be used mixed patterns, such as copper wire or stainless steel, wrapped in the usual way by the fibers of aromatic polyamides.

It should also be noted that the elastomeric sheath need not be made of silicone, as described in EP 0735949 A1, but may include any elastomeric material such as rubber. However, preferably, the shell is composed of a siloxane, such as silicone or ferrosilicon. The shell can be applied to the core using any suitable process. In most cases, the shell is formed by extrusion of elastomeric material on the core in the usual way.

Veins of the core preferably are metal wires, but can include any of the following, namely copper wire, brass wire, stainless steel wires, wire of copper alloy, aramid yarn, fiberglass or stekloprjazhi, and fibers of aromatic polyamides. The choice of which lived depends on destination and pressing cushion, a given level talpirid the Chi and the necessary elasticity or springiness. The Foundation also selected depending on the purpose of the press cushion. Based twist with transverse veins from the apex to the base of the pillow. Therefore, it forms the channel of the heat transfer through the pillow. To this end, the base usually contains metal wires and can be made of metal wires, in particular of copper wire, made of pure copper or copper alloys, which have high thermal conductivity.

Option implementation the implementation of the press cushion according to the invention, in cross section may be similar to the pillow shown in figure 1, in which the base 1 contains the metal wire, and the transverse fibers 2 contain the threads of the core 3 of the individual conductors surrounded by a sheath 4 of elastomeric material. However, as mentioned above, the structure of the transverse fibers according to the invention differs from the structure of the prior art and various embodiments of implementation of the present invention will hereinafter be described in more detail with reference to Figure 5-9.

Figure 5 and 6 shows the threads of the transverse fibers according to the first variant of implementation, which include the core 11 of the metal wire, made a series of essentially parallel metallic lived 12, which are substantially not twisted together inside the shell 13 of e is Estemirova material. The core structure 11 shown in figure 5. As can be seen from the drawing, the conductors 12, constituting the core are a bunch in which all wires are essentially parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the core 11. Preferably the conductor 12 is not twisted or not twisted, but it should be noted that if the styling is rather long compared to the width of the pressing cushion, can be used in the core 11, in which the wires 12 are intertwined or twisted freely but within the scope of the pressing cushion they essentially almost parallel to each other.

The sense of ensuring that the wires 12 lay essentially in parallel, it becomes clear, when pressing the pillow is in use and is compressed in the process of pressing a laminate of the pressure applied in the direction of arrow R, as shown in Fig.7, with the wires 12 within the core 11 can move relative to each other and therefore tend to flatten, as shown in Fig. In contrast, in prior art core 6 incapable of such flattening compression due to twisted relative position 12 and lived a short pitch. The thickness of the core after the initial deformation remains the same even when considerable pressure to the laminate.

If the inside of the core 11 are seven parallel lived 12 instead of seven twisted lived as used in the press cushion of the prior art, the application of nominal pressure flattens (flattens) the core 11 to the full thickness of 0.2 mm. similarly, if the warp threads 14 also contain a number of essentially parallel metallic lived 15, for example seven parallel lived, they also plushevaya when using pressurized up to the full thickness of 0.2 mm, As schematically illustrated in Fig no image of elastomeric material, each point of intersection of the framework 14 with transverse fibers 10 brings together the conductors, the thickness of each of which is equal to 0.2 mm, so that the full thickness lived at the point of intersection is equal to only about 0.4 mm, instead of about 1.2 mm in the prior art. In addition, the total number of intersection points between the metal conductors used in the cushion, increased significantly. Pressing cushion, which includes 550 transverse fibers per meter length and 900 warp threads per meter width, now contains(550×7)×(900×7)=24255000 points of intersection on one square meter. In conventional press this reduces the load at each point of intersection, during use by 98% or to 0.01443 Kg, i.e. 350,000/24,255,000. On the other hand, each point of intersection, which was previously included 1×1 mine, now, in fact, contains 7×7=49 points of intersection. This provides an effective increase in the number of points of intersection of 98%.

The basis with the above structure is Roy, in which each thread basics 14 contains a number of essentially parallel metallic lived 15, it is difficult to handle. Therefore, preferably the core contains metal wires 15, the diameter of each of which is equal to about 0.2 mm with a step of twisting at least 25 mm, So the pitch is an improvement compared to conventional step 15 mm, because the higher the pitch, and, therefore, less number of twists in the metal veins 15, the better.

In practice, woven pressing cushion, the basis lies above and below the transverse fibers. In the press-cushion, in which the thread basics 14 contains seven essentially parallel metallic lived 15, the pressure for pressing the pillow compresses parallel veins bases 14 in an elastomeric sheath 13 to a thickness equivalent to their individual diameter of 0.2 mm, and aligns the surface of the base flush with the surface of the transverse fibers. This is half of the available wall thickness of the shell, if the normal wall thickness of approximately 0.4 mm, and, therefore, between the threads of the transverse fibers and the basis remains the layer thickness of 0.2 mm, This layer allows the individual veins of the framework 14 with a diameter of 0.2 mm loose in the shell and provides protection for them. In the prior art, the basis of twisted lived with full dia is a centre of 0.6 mm compression will provide a layer of shell thickness of approximately 0.6 mm, but as the wall thickness of the shell is equal to only about 0.4 mm, it means that the shell will quickly cut through, and a metal warp and weft fibers will almost immediately come into contact with each other when using the press cushion.

Reducing the thickness of the metal core 11 during compression compared with the prior art is the result of two advantages. First, the thickness of the cushion directly during compression is much less than the thickness of the cushion according to the prior art, and therefore, the surface of the hot plate of the press is more or less closer to the pressure plate. This increases heat transfer to the compression of the laminate. Secondly, the above-mentioned cushion of elastomeric material improves the recovery of the pressing cushion after compression, so the ability to compensate for the improved cushion. However, because the pillow has the same number of warp threads passing from the upper surface to the lower surface of the cushion, the natural ability of the heat transfer cushion will not suffer. These advantages will hereinafter be described in more detail.

As shown in figure 4, in a conventional laminating press Board 20, which is compressed between the two plates 21 of the press, is located between two metal press plates 22 and two presso the diversified cushions 23. Pressing cushion 23 is located between each one of the pressing plates 22 and one of the plates 21. The pressing plate 22 and the pressing cushion 23 typically have a larger width and length than the compressible Board. This creates a boundary region m is not supported by the pressing plate 22, which receives the pressure from the plates 21 of the press, passed through the press cushion 23. As for the press plate 22 around the edge of the Board 20 there is no support, then pressing plate 22 have a tendency to bend using the edges of the boards 20 as a fulcrum, as indicated by the arrow f. This action causes the defects, the so-called "white spots"that occur on the Board due to bending, pushing the pressing plate 22 of the Board 20, caused by abnormally high pressure on the edges of the boards, which act as fulcrums, and the resulting reduced pressure at a distance within 5 cm from the edge of the Board 20. This problem is aggravated in the corners of the plate 20, where crossed longitudinal and transverse edges. This causes high pressure in the corner of the Board 20 and the corresponding pressure drop in a small area, usually at a distance from 5 cm to 10 cm from the corner of the Board 20. "White spots" occur where the Board 20 attached insufficient pressure to satisfactorily complete the compaction process.

It should be noted that the bending moment applied to each not support the Noah pressing plate 22, commensurate with the difference in thickness between the compressed press cushions 23 above and below the boards 30 and slightly compressed press cushion 23 in the outer region of m. In General, this difference in thickness, as a linear function that varies in direct proportion to the thickness of the pressing cushion 23. Therefore, pressing the pillow with a reduced thickness provides a reduced difference in thickness between its compressed region and the edges of m, and therefore provides a reduced effect of bending on a non-supported region of the pressing plate. From this it follows that it is preferable to make such a pressing cushion, the thickness of which, according to the present invention is reduced compared to the conventional pillow, of course, without reducing the ability of air bags to compensate. However, pressing cushion in accordance with the present invention also improve your recovery after compression so that the ability to compensate pillows are also improved. This advantage will be discussed in more detail below.

As mentioned above, the trade-off between heat transfer and elasticity or springiness any given pressing cushion in accordance with its purpose. However, improved recovery after compression pressing cushion in accordance with the present invention means that can be adopted into account the new compromise, wherein the outer diameter of the elastomeric membrane is reduced from a normal value of 1.4 mm to, for example, 1,15 mm If, at the same time, seven parallel lived 12 of the core 11 is replaced by three parallel conductors (see below), the reduction of the volume of the material of the shell to insert the transverse fibers is approximately 27%. This can lead to significant savings in the cost of the shell material, in particular if used expensive material, for example, ferrosilicon. However, the reduction of the thickness of the threads of the transverse fibers of 10 means that the number of transverse fibers per meter pillows can be increased from about 600 to about 710, i.e. by 18%. This provides two advantages. First, because the basis interwoven with transverse fibers and forms a "through" the heat, the total number of cross-cutting conductors is increased when the same content. Thus, it improves the ability of the cushion to transfer heat and reduces the duration of the pressing cycle. Secondly, increasing the number of transverse fibres 18% compensates the decrease in springiness cushion, caused by the reduction of the diameter of the elastomeric sheath. The total amount of elastomeric material in the pillow further reduced by 14%, but the new structure of the transverse fibers of the pillow shows the same level springy the STI and has the same compensation ability, as before, but with improved heat transfer.

In another embodiment, the transverse fibers instead of seven parallel lived 12, forming the core 11, used three parallel veins 12. In most cases, seven parallel lived 12 include copper wire. However, this strength of this multi-strand core 11 can be achieved using three lived 12 stainless steel forming the core 11. The use of stainless steel, thus, is preferable, because such material helps to eliminate any problems associated with metal fatigue affecting the springiness of the pillow.

Embodiments of transverse fibers in accordance with the present invention, as described above all include the core 11, which represents a beam of essentially parallel veins, as shown in Fig.6, which deforms under pressure so that the wires 12 are moved relative to each other and flattened, as shown in Fig.7. In another embodiment, the transverse fibers, as shown in Fig.9, the cords 12 placed essentially parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis essentially in the same plane with the core 11, when it is not applied pressure. This configuration lived can be made by extrusion of the elastomeric shell 13 in a non-circular profile. For such extrusion m what may be required is made in the appropriate form extrusion head, preferably elliptical extrusion head, as shown in Fig.9, although you may be used and other forms, such as square or rectangular shape. Wires 12 can also be laid in rows in matrix form, and not in a single plane.

It should be noted that the present invention provides a pressing cushion, which retains its springiness and the ability to compensate with a larger number of pressing cycles than conventional pressing cushion, without losing the ability to heat transfer. In addition, these pillows can be made with a larger number of elastomeric material and, therefore, with extended compensation ability, again without compromising the ability to heat transfer. As a rule, the replacement of press cushions carried out during operation, when their properties compensation for loss due to the failure of elastomeric material to restore the original shape. A large degree of compensation achieved when using the pillow according to the present invention, in and of itself is an advantage, but it also prolongs the life of your pillows for the following reasons.

1. The elastomeric material remains intact for a longer period, because the metal wires basis't cut it.

2. The number is the creation of metal wire, used in the pillow may be the same as in the pillows of the prior art, but the full thickness of a metal wire formed during use, much less. This means that the elastomeric material is a greater percentage of the full thickness of the cushion and, thus, creates superior "spring" action.

3. The underlying metal wire frame may limit the recovery of the elastomeric material during each pressing cycle, when relieve pressure. The present invention effectively forms a wire frame using wire with a diameter of 0.2 mm, instead of the wire diameter of 0.6 mm, and this frame is the best natural flexibility and less constraining shape recovery of elastomeric material.

1. Pressing cushion designed for use in a laminating press, containing woven fabric of heat-resistant lived, in which at least the base (14) and/or transverse fibers (10) includes a core (11), made up of many strands (15) inside the shell (13) of elastomeric material, and at least another part of the base or transverse fibers contains metal wires, wherein the wires (15)comprising a core (11)are essentially parallel to each other and the longitudinal OS the core (11).

2. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the core (11) contains the beam lived (15), which loosely twisted or curled, and within the press cushion they essentially parallel to each other.

3. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the core (11) contains many parallel veins (15), which is placed essentially in the same plane.

4. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the core (11) contains many parallel veins (15), arranged in rows.

5. The pillow according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the elastomeric sheath (13) is made with a non-circular profile.

6. The pillow according to claim 5, characterized in that the elastomeric sheath (13) is made with an elliptical profile.

7. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the core (11) contains a number of strands (15), made of any of the following: copper wire, brass wire, stainless steel wire, wire copper alloy, aramid yarn, fiberglass or stekloprjazhi, yarn of aromatic polyamide

8. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the core (11) contains up to seven metal veins.

9. The pillow of claim 8, wherein each metal vein has a diameter of approximately 0.2 mm

10. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the shell (13) of the elastomeric material at least 0,2 mm

11. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the external is iameter shell (13) of the elastomeric material at least 1,15 mm

12. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the elastomeric material contains a siloxane.

13. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the other part of the base (14) and transversal (10) comprises a metal core containing a number of metal lodes that are placed essentially parallel to each other.

14. Pillow on item 13, characterized in that the core contains a number of metallic veins, the diameter of each of which is approximately 0.2 mm, with the step of twisting at least 25 mm

15. The pillow according to claim 1, characterized in that the base (14) of the other part contains the metal wire, and cross-fiber (10) includes a core (11), made up of many lived inside the shell (13) of the elastomeric material.



 

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2 tbl

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: combined satin weave glass-synthetic fabric of constructional purpose contains in its basis aramid yarns and glass fibers in weft. Between aramid and glass yarns multifilament conductive yarns are stacked, made from poly-ε-caprone-amide fibers coated with a continuous layer of conductive composite based on fluorinated polyolefin and carbon black taken in a weight ratio of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8. At that the weight ratio of poly-ε-caprone fibers and a layer of conductive composition is from 55:45 to 60:40. Proportion of multifilament conductive yarns and glass and aramid fibers is from 1:7 to 1:10.

EFFECT: increase of operational reliability and operational life of coil-winding products.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: fireproof membrane-fabric material made on warp and weft from two-component combined thread, consisting of aramid thread twisted with the second component. At the same time aramid threads are based on polyparaphenyleneterephthalamid, polymetaphenyleneterephthalamid, copolyparaphenyleneterephthalamid or copolyparaphenylenebenzimidazolterephthalamid fibres. Material is arranged as double-layer, containing external fireproof layer and inner membrane layer, at the same time ratio of thickness of inner membrane layer to thickness of external fireproof layer is selected as 0.2-3.0. External fireproof layer is arranged with linear density of 38 tex, breaking load of 10-30 N and permanent strain after rupture of 3.9-4.5% from double-component combined thread, the first component of which in the form of rod represents aramid complex thread or yarn with linear density of 6.3-14.3 tex, and the second component of combined thread in the form of rod braiding with number of turns of 600-900 units/m represents cellulose-containing threads or yarn with linear density of 10-30 tex. At the same time in aramid threads or yarn polyparaphenyleneterephthalamid, polymetaphenyleneterephthalamid, copolyparaphenyleneterephthalamid or copolyparaphenylenebenzimidazolterephthalamid fibres are used with oxygen index of more than 30, and cellulose-containing thread or yarn is represented by modified fireproof viscose thread or yarn. Besides fabric of external layer is arranged by main weaving with surface density of 150-200 g/m2 at the following ratio of components, wt %: aramid thread 15-50, cellulose containing thread or yarn 85-50, inner membrane layer of material is arranged with pore size of 0.15-0.65 micrometre from mixture of polyvinylidene fluoride with 24-30 wt % of tetrafluorethylene copolymer. At the same time material of membrane layer has steam permeability at 36°C of 78.5-86 g/m2 hour, water-resisting property 1.7-1.8 kgf/cm2, bubble point of 0.4-0.6 kgf/cm2 and surface density of 20-118 g/m2.

EFFECT: invention provides for high water impermeability, high resistance to wind penetration, high aerosol impermeability, sufficient steam and air permeability in removal of excessive moisture from surface of human body skin, high draping ability, and complex combination of incombustibility and fire resistance with sufficient rupture and tear strength.

4 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pressure-equalising cushions for hydraulic hot-pressing plants. Proposed cushion is made from pressure-equalising fabric. Said fabric comprises metal threads making fabric warp threads, filler threads and elastomer heat-resistant threads. The latter incorporate, preferably, stabilising rod threads and are arranged either as warp or filler threads alternating with metal threads. Cushion thickness in non-compressed state is subject to elastomer threads. At moderate pressure, sections of contact with hydraulic plant parts are formed at the start of elastomer threads. The latter are compressed to form additional sections of contact with hydraulic plant parts are formed at the start of elastomer threads in further increase of pressure to full operating pressure.

EFFECT: increased quality of final products.

14 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and can be used in hydraulic presses. Cylinder housing has a cylindrical section, thrust flange and recess. The latter is arranged nearby thrust flange. Cylindrical section ID-to-OD ratio makes 0.68 to 0.72. Recess features four smoothly mating profiles, each being formed by radius depending upon wall thickness h on cylindrical section of the housing. First of aforesaid profiles is formed by radius of 0.17 h on angle of 50°. Other profiles are made with radii of 0.33 h on angle of 30°, 0.7 h on angle of 20° and 0.2 h on angle of 30°.

EFFECT: simplified process.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to creating or modifying vertical hydraulic presses of different application. Proposed press contains upper cross rail and bed frame clamped by columns along which ram with upper tool travels, and intermediate plate with drawout table with lower tool secured on table. Bed frame is furnished with hydraulic cylinders and vertical tie rods from side of lower surface. Trunnions rigidly attached to intermediate plate are found on side surfaces of intermediate plate. Trunnions and bed frame are provided with holes through which vertical tie rods pass. Heads resting on trunnions are made on upper ends of tie rods. Lower ends of tie rods are connected with hydraulic cylinders by nuts. Plungers of hydraulic cylinders rest through spherical washers of lower surface of frame. Hydraulic cylinders are powered by constant liquid pressure from press hydraulic drive.

EFFECT: reduced wear of mating surfaces of intermediate plate and bed frame, reduced labor input at repairing, improved precision of drop castings.

1 ex, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used in the construction of the crank presses

The invention relates to a device and a hydraulic press high pressure for pressing items with base plate, the frame and the head stamp is made with the possibility of moving in the frame

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used in the construction of the crank presses

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in presses for precision cutting

The invention relates to forging and pressing machinery

The invention relates to a press-forging equipment, namely, hydraulic presses, in particular for pressing of wood-fiber plates, and horizontal presses for pressing pipe having a lateral supply of working medium from the pressure source to the cylinder

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure in particular to designs of hydraulic presses and can be used in various engineering industries.The inventive hydraulic press includes a hollow cylindrical frame 1, in the lower part of which is embedded in the role of the multiplier piston 2 and the plunger 3, and at the top there is an opening for loading and unloading of products, split yoke 7 with the upper stamp 8, which is moved by hydraulic cylinders 9

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to creating or modifying vertical hydraulic presses of different application. Proposed press contains upper cross rail and bed frame clamped by columns along which ram with upper tool travels, and intermediate plate with drawout table with lower tool secured on table. Bed frame is furnished with hydraulic cylinders and vertical tie rods from side of lower surface. Trunnions rigidly attached to intermediate plate are found on side surfaces of intermediate plate. Trunnions and bed frame are provided with holes through which vertical tie rods pass. Heads resting on trunnions are made on upper ends of tie rods. Lower ends of tie rods are connected with hydraulic cylinders by nuts. Plungers of hydraulic cylinders rest through spherical washers of lower surface of frame. Hydraulic cylinders are powered by constant liquid pressure from press hydraulic drive.

EFFECT: reduced wear of mating surfaces of intermediate plate and bed frame, reduced labor input at repairing, improved precision of drop castings.

1 ex, 2 dwg

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