Apparatus and method of producing carbamide

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus for producing carbamide from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia at high pressure and temperature, comprising a carbamide synthesis reactor, a pump for feeding liquid ammonia into the carbamide synthesis reactor, a compressor for feeding gaseous carbon dioxide into the carbamide synthesis reactor, a pump for feeding liquid carbon dioxide into the carbamide synthesis reactor, a device for bringing into contact carbon dioxide streams, characterised by that the device for bringing into contact carbon dioxide streams has a cylindrical housing with nozzles for inlet of liquid carbon dioxide, inlet of gaseous carbon dioxide and outlet of the mixed gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, as well as the following, arranged in series inside the housing and coaxial with the housing: a convergent nozzle connected to the liquid carbon dioxide inlet nozzle, and a variable cross-section insert in form of a pipe, the inlet part of which is convergent and the outlet part divergent, where the insert lies in such a way that an annular slit forms between itself and the housing. The invention also relates to a method of producing carbamide using the described device.

EFFECT: use of the present invention simplifies process design, reduces materials consumption of the equipment used and increases reliability of the equipment used.

2 cl, 3 ex, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to devices and methods for the production of urea and can be used in the chemical industry and industry for the production of fertilizers.

Known equipment for production of urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia at high pressures and temperatures, including the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a pump for supplying liquid ammonia to the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a compressor for supplying gaseous carbon dioxide in the reactor for the synthesis of urea (Whicharray, Bee. Synthesis and application of urea, L.: Chemistry, 1970, p.178).

Closest to the proposed installation is a known device for producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia at high pressures and temperatures, including the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a pump for supplying liquid ammonia to the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a compressor for supplying gaseous carbon dioxide in the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a pump for supplying liquid carbon dioxide to the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a device for the evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide by heat transfer through the wall with a fluid, a device for contacting fluxes of carbon dioxide in the form of a tee, connecting pipelines for their submission (Technical gases, 2009, №2, p. 24).

Known methods for producing urea dioxide from coal is ode and of liquid ammonia in the synthesis zone at high pressures and temperatures, in which carbon dioxide in the synthesis zone is sent to a gaseous form (Whicharray, Bee. Synthesis and application of urea, L.: Chemistry, 1970, p.178).

Known methods for producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia in the synthesis zone at high pressures and temperatures, in which carbon dioxide in the synthesis zone is sent in the form of liquid carbon dioxide (Whicharray, Bee. Synthesis and application of urea, L.: Chemistry, 1970, s-229; GB 1302424, SS 127/04, 1973). Liquefaction of carbon dioxide at a pressure lower than the pressure of the synthesis of urea, followed by supply of liquid carbon dioxide using a pump can reduce energy costs for compression of carbon dioxide.

Known methods for producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia in the synthesis zone at high pressures and temperatures, in which carbon dioxide in the synthesis zone is sent in the form of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid carbon dioxide prior to feeding into the synthesis zone is evaporated (UA 21689 U, F25B 25/00, 2007; UA 38273 U, F25B 1/00, 2008).

A known method of producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia in the synthesis zone at high pressures and temperatures, in which carbon dioxide is directed to the synthesis zone two streams, one of which is gaseous and the other liquid, and liquid deoxycholate before serving in the synthesis zone is mixed with liquid ammonia (WO 2009/043365, SS 273/04, 2009).

Closest to the proposed method is a method of producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia in the synthesis zone at high pressures and temperatures, in which carbon dioxide is directed to the synthesis zone two streams, one of which is gaseous and the other liquid, and liquid carbon dioxide prior to feeding into the synthesis zone is evaporated in a specially prescribed heat exchanger and mixed with gaseous carbon dioxide (industrial gases, 2009, №2, p. 24). Evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide prior to feeding it into the synthesis zone allows to avoid possible equipment damage due to hydraulic shock by direct contact volatile liquid with high temperature environment.

A disadvantage of the known installation and known method is the necessity of using material of heat-exchange equipment and ensure the supply of coolant.

The technical result, which sent the invention consists in the simplification of the technological scheme, the reduction of the material used equipment and improving the reliability of the equipment used.

To achieve this result, a device for producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia at high pressure and t is mperature, includes a reactor for the synthesis of urea, a pump for supplying liquid ammonia to the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a compressor for supplying gaseous carbon dioxide in the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a pump for supplying liquid carbon dioxide to the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a device for contacting fluxes of carbon dioxide, characterized in that the device for contacting fluxes of carbon dioxide includes a cylindrical housing with fittings liquid carbon dioxide input of carbon dioxide gas and output the mixed gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, as well as consistently placed inside the housing coaxial with the body tapering nozzle, coupled with the hose liquid carbon dioxide, and the insertion of a variable cross-section in the form of a pipe, an inlet pipe which is tapering, and the output is expanding, and the insert is positioned in such a way that between the case and the insert formed by the annular gap.

To achieve the specified result also proposed a method of producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia in the synthesis zone at high pressures and temperatures, in which carbon dioxide is directed to the synthesis zone two streams, one of which is gaseous and the other liquid, and liquid carbon dioxide before it enters the zone of the synthesis is evaporated and mixed with gaseous carbon dioxide, characterized in that the liquid carbon dioxide is vaporized and mixed with the gaseous carbon dioxide in the device for contacting fluxes of carbon dioxide, used in the proposed installation, when the supply of liquid flow into the insert variable cross-section through a converging nozzle, and the gas flow in the cylindrical body, thus carry out the evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide by contacting in box with part of the stream of carbon dioxide gas when the mass ratio between the flow of liquid carbon dioxide and a stream of carbon dioxide gas supplied into the inner space of the insertion, in the range from 1:1.5 to 1:2.5 with the subsequent contacting of the mixed flow on leaving the insert with the rest of the gaseous stream of carbon dioxide.

Due to the direct contact of the stream of liquid carbon dioxide with a part of the flow of carbon dioxide gas in the proposed installation, its evaporation is carried out with a minimum of material equipment and without the use of an intermediate heat transfer fluids.

The amount of carbon dioxide gas, which is directed on the proposed method for contacting with a stream of liquid carbon dioxide depends on the amount of liquid carbon dioxide and the temperature of both the flow of the century This number should be such that the mass ratio between the flow of liquid carbon dioxide and a stream of carbon dioxide gas supplied into the inner space of the insert was in the range of from 1:1.5 to 1:2,5. When smaller quantities of carbon dioxide gas supplied into the inner space of the insertion, the amount of heat transferred from the gas flow to the flow of liquid carbon dioxide, can, at low temperatures, liquid carbon dioxide, to be sufficient for complete conversion of liquid carbon dioxide in the gas. This can lead to the penetration of droplets of the liquid phase on the inner wall of the pipeline and cause cavitation erosion of the breach. When larger quantities of carbon dioxide gas supplied into the inner space of the insert increases the porosity of dispersed torch and difficult contact between the drops of liquid and gas. This can also lead to an increase in residual drops of the liquid phase in the gas flow and cause cavitation erosion fracture on the inner wall of the device and subsequent pipeline.

The invention is illustrated by the attached figures 1, 2. Figure 1 shows schematic diagram of the proposed installation, carrying out proposed the method, figure 2 - design of the device for shielding the flow of liquid and gaseous carbon dioxide.

In accordance with figure 1, the device for producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia at high pressures and temperatures includes a reactor for the synthesis of urea 1, a pump 2 for supplying liquid ammonia to the reactor 1, a compressor 3 for supplying gaseous carbon dioxide in the reactor 1, the pump 4 for supplying liquid carbon dioxide to the reactor 1, the device 5 for contact fluxes of carbon dioxide. In accordance with figure 2, the device 5 consists of a cylindrical body 6, the valve 7 to the input of carbon dioxide gas fitting 8 for liquid carbon dioxide fitting 9 to output the mixed flow of carbon dioxide gas. The fitting 8 is connected to the nozzle 10 located centrally in the casing 6 and tapering in the direction of fitting conclusion 9. Inside the housing 6 is coaxially he placed the insert 11 of variable cross-section, an input section which is tapered, and the output is expanding. Between the box 11 and the inner surface of the housing 6 is formed by the annular gap 12, which also has a variable cross-section. The insert 11 is fixed inside the housing 6 by means of a support plate 13. The nozzle 10 can be located in the same plane with the inlet of the insert 11 or the inside of the insert 11.

The dispersion device 5 torch fluid in the gas phase allows you to create a large surface area of contact of the liquid with the gas, and the difference of the velocities of gas and liquid promotes turbulence and mixing of gas and liquid flows. All this contributes to the efficient flow in the torch of the processes of heat and mass transfer. Due to transfer of heat from a hot gas to a liquid is heated and vaporized. At the output section of the insert 11 to liquid carbon dioxide is fully converted to gas. After the release of the cooled gas stream from the insert 11 in the free space inside the housing 6 there is a mixture of this cold gas stream with the rest of the hot gaseous carbon dioxide passing through the gap 12 between the inner surface of the housing 6 and the insert 11. In the contact of these two flows is an increase in cold temperature of the mixed gas stream C is the heat the rest of gaseous carbon dioxide.

The insert 11 not only allows you to create the optimal geometry of the flow part for efficient contacting of the flow of liquid carbon dioxide gas, but also protects the casing wall 6 from contact with droplets of liquid carbon dioxide. It is known that when the gas-liquid mixture in the pipeline, especially during the flow phase transition, on the inner surface of the pipeline are observed cavitation erosion damage. Especially dangerous such phenomena at high pressure. The insert 11 is not designed for high pressure, because it is inside the housing 6, and the thickness of its wall is much less than the wall thickness, designed for high pressure. Therefore, the metal insert is small, and it may be manufactured from a material resistant to cavitation erosion phenomena, and can be replaced in case of wear and tear.

The gap 12 between the box 11 and the inner surface of the housing 6 has a variable cross-sectional area along the length of the insert 11. The narrowing of the insert 11 in the initial section provides the efficiency of the injection box stream of carbon dioxide gas. Expansion of the insert 11 and the narrowing of the gap 12 at the output section of the insert 11 can increase the flow rate of carbon dioxide gas at the outlet of the slit 12, which contributes to more effective is mechaniy flows of cold and hot gas in the free volume of the device after insertion 11. For more efficient mixing of the flows of the support plate 13, the locking insert inside the housing 6 may be made at an angle to the flow of the moving gas.

The use of the proposed installation and the method will simplify the process flow and to refuse the setting of material heat transfer equipment and ensure the supply of coolant to the heat exchange equipment. Device for shielding the flow of liquid and gaseous carbon dioxide is mounted on the pipeline as its plot. The use of inserts in the design of the device allows you to protect the walls of the high pressure pipeline from cavitation erosion damage and to increase the reliability of the equipment.

The invention is also illustrated by the following examples.

EXAMPLE 1. In the reactor 1 of the synthesis of urea, working at a pressure of 20 MPa and a temperature of 185°C, serves 13200 kg/h of liquid ammonia pump 2, 2500 kg/h of liquid carbon dioxide with a temperature of from -25 to +15°With the pump 4 and 12500 kg/h of carbon dioxide gas with a temperature of 130°C the compressor 3. The flows of liquid and gaseous carbon dioxide are mixed in a device for shielding 5. In the inner space of the insert 11 is fond of from 30 to 50% of the flow of carbon dioxide gas (the mass ratio of liquid flow is about and of carbon dioxide gas in the inner space of the insert is from 1:1.5 to 1:2,5), which ensures complete conversion of liquid carbon dioxide gas inside the insert 11. Mixed flow temperature 72-87°C and then exposed in the housing 6 of the device with the rest (50-70%) hot stream of carbon dioxide gas. At the output of the device 5, the flow of carbon dioxide gas has a temperature of about 100°C. the Melt of urea formed in the reactor 1, is processed by the known methods and get 20450 kg/h of urea.

EXAMPLE 2. The process is carried out analogously to example 1 with the difference that the device for shielding 5 mix 4300 kg/h of liquid carbon dioxide with a temperature of from -25 to +15°C, supplied by a pump 4, and 10700 kg/h of carbon dioxide gas with a temperature of 130°C, supplied by a compressor 3. In the inner space of the insert 11 is fond of from 70 to 90% of the flow of carbon dioxide gas (the mass ratio of the flow of liquid and gaseous carbon dioxide in the inner space of the insert is from 1:1,74 to 1:2,24), which ensures complete conversion of liquid carbon dioxide gas inside the insert 11. Mixed flow temperature 73-88°C and then exposed in the housing 6 of the device with the rest (10-30%) hot stream of carbon dioxide gas. At the output of the device 5, the flow of carbon dioxide gas has a temperature of 80-95°C.

EXAMPLE 3. P is ocess carried out analogously to example 1 with the difference, in the device for shielding 5 mix 5000 kg/h of liquid carbon dioxide with a temperature of from -25 to +15°C, supplied by a pump 4, and 10000 kg/h of carbon dioxide gas with a temperature of 130°C, supplied by a compressor 3. In the inner space of the insert 11 is fond of from 90 to 98% of the flow of carbon dioxide gas (the mass ratio of the flow of liquid and gaseous carbon dioxide in the inner space of the insert is from 1:1.8 to 1:1,96), which ensures complete conversion of liquid carbon dioxide gas inside the insert 11. Mixed flow temperature 72-87°C and then exposed in the housing 6 of the device with the rest (2-10%) hot stream of carbon dioxide gas. At the output of the device 5, the flow of carbon dioxide gas has a temperature 78-88°C.

1. Device for producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia at high pressures and temperatures, including the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a pump for supplying liquid ammonia to the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a compressor for supplying gaseous carbon dioxide in the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a pump for supplying liquid carbon dioxide to the reactor for the synthesis of urea, a device for contacting fluxes of carbon dioxide, characterized in that the device for contacting fluxes of carbon dioxide includes zylindrische housing with fittings liquid carbon dioxide input of carbon dioxide gas and output the mixed gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, as well as consistently placed inside the housing coaxial with the body tapering nozzle, coupled with the hose liquid carbon dioxide, and the insertion of a variable cross-section in the form of a pipe, an inlet pipe which is tapering, and the output is expanding, and the insert is positioned in such a way that between the case and the insert formed by the annular gap.

2. A method of producing urea from carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia in the synthesis zone at high pressures and temperatures, in which carbon dioxide is directed to the synthesis zone two streams, one of which is gaseous and the other liquid, and liquid carbon dioxide prior to feeding into the synthesis zone is evaporated and mixed with gaseous carbon dioxide, wherein liquid carbon dioxide is vaporized and mixed with the gaseous carbon dioxide in the device for contacting fluxes of carbon dioxide according to claim 1 when the supply of liquid flow into the insert variable cross-section through a converging nozzle, and the gas flow in the cylindrical body, when this exercise evaporation of liquid carbon dioxide by contacting in box with part of the stream of carbon dioxide gas when the mass ratio is between the stream of liquid carbon dioxide and a stream of gaseous carbon dioxide, received in the inner space of the insertion, in the range from 1:1.5 to 1:2.5 with the subsequent contacting of the mixed flow at the outlet of the insert with the rest of the gaseous stream of carbon dioxide.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel method of producing carbamide with a stable 13C isotope used in medical diagnostics, involving reaction of labelled carbon dioxide and ethylene oxide at temperature 80-150°C, pressure 2.1-6 MPa in the presence of a catalyst - complex of zinc bromide and tertiary organophosphines in molar ratio of ethylene oxide to the catalyst equal to 500-5000:1, followed by extraction of the labelled ethylene carbonate and ammonolysis of the extracted ethylene carbonate at temperature 120-170°C and pressure 2.8-4.7 MPa.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining an end product with good output using a fairly simple and technologically effective method.

4 cl, 14 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide involves the following steps: feeding ammonia and carbon dioxide into a urea synthesis section working at given high pressure, reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the synthesis section to obtain aqueous solution containing urea, ammonium carbamate and ammonia, feeding a portion of the said aqueous solution containing urea, ammonium carbamate and ammonia into a processing section working at given average pressure for extraction of ammonium carbamate and ammonia contained therein, dissociation of the said portion of the aqueous solution containing urea, ammonium carbamate and ammonia in the processing section to obtain aqueous solution of urea and a vapour phase containing ammonia, carbon dioxide and water, condensation of said vapour phase containing ammonia, carbon dioxide and water in the processing section to obtain aqueous solution of ammonium carbamate, recirculation of said aqueous solution of ammonium carbamate into the urea synthesis section, feeding the remaining portion of the said aqueous solution containing urea, ammonium carbamate and ammonia into a decomposition apparatus in the urea extraction section through an evaporation zone, essentially working at said given high pressure, and characterised by that it also involves the following steps: feeding aqueous solution of urea obtained after dissociation in the processing section into the decomposition apparatus in the urea extraction section working at given low pressure, decomposition of the aqueous solution of urea in the decomposition apparatus of the urea extraction section to obtain concentrated urea solution and a second vapour phase containing ammonia, carbon dioxide and water, condensation of the second vapour phase in the condenser of the urea extraction section linked with said decomposition apparatus to obtain recycled aqueous solution of ammonium carbamate. The invention also relates to apparatus for realising said method and a method of renovating an already mounted installation.

EFFECT: high conversion of carbon dioxide to obtain urea with low power consumption.

12 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to basic organic synthesis and a method of producing ethylene glycol together with carbamide from carbon dioxide, ethylene oxide and ammonia. The method involves carrying out the process in two steps: first, reaction of carbon dioxide and ethylene oxide at temperature 80-150°C, pressure 2.1-6 MPa in the presence of a homogeneous catalyst - complex of zinc bromide with tertiary organophosphines with subsequent extraction of ethylene carbonate, followed by ammonolysis of ethylene carbonate in a single process step in ether-type solvents which partially dissolve carbamide, at temperature 120-170°C and pressure 2.8-6 MPa to obtain ethylene glycol and carbamide.

EFFECT: method enables virtually complete conversion of starting material to the end products, and also considerably lowers power consumption due to improvement of the process of separating ethylene glycol and carbamide.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 14 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to obtaining urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. As a result of ammonia and carbon dioxide interaction at high pressure in reactor obtained is water solution, which contains urea, ammonium carbamate and ammonia. From obtained water solution carbamate and ammonia are separated by decomposing carbamate and thermal evaporation of ammonia and carbon dioxide in stripping apparatus, obtaining ammonia and carbon dioxide, which after that are again condensed in condenser obtaining carbamate, which is returned to reactor. All stages together with reaction of synthesis are carried out in fact at one and the same pressure. In addition, into reactor additionally supplied is passivating oxygen, obtained as a result of interaction waste gases, which contain carbon dioxide, ammonia and passivating oxygen which did not take part in the reaction, are removed from reactor and are supplied into bottom part of stripping apparatus for passivation of at least part of its internal surfaces. Installation for obtaining urea contains communicating with each other and forming closed high pressure contour reactor, stripping apparatus, condenser, section of final urea purification and pipelines for supply into reactor of carbon dioxide and ammonia. It is equipped with pipeline for supply into reactor of passivating oxygen and pipeline for connecting upper part of reactor with bottom part of stripping apparatus.

EFFECT: ensuring even and efficient passivation of all apparatuses of high pressure contour.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. A reaction mixture is obtained in a synthesis reactor at given high pressure as a result of a reaction between NH3 and CO2, where the said reaction mixture contains urea, ammonium carbamate and free ammonia in aqueous solution, from which ammonium carbamate and ammonia are extracted and subsequently returned to the synthesis reactor. Ammonium carbamate and ammonia are extracted from the reaction mixture on process steps for decomposing ammonium carbamate to NH3 and CO2 and their stripping and on the next process step for their re-condensation to obtain ammonium carbamate which is returned to the synthesis reactor. The reaction mixture obtained as a result of the reaction between ammonia and carbon dioxide is taken to the process steps for decomposition and stripping using a pump.

EFFECT: changing production capacity by changing pump parameters, possibility of horizontal assembling, reduced expenses on servicing and increased safety.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of 13C-urea by reacting ammonia with carbon monoxide 13CO in the presence of oxygen, taken in molar ratio ranging from 8.9:2.8:1 to 4:2:1 at 15-25°C and pressure of 25-35 atm. The catalyst used is selenium powder taken in molar ratio Se:13CO ranging from 1:790 to 1:158. The solvent used is tetrahydrofuran or a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and methanol.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain urea containing the stable 13C isotope with isotopic purity of not less than 99% in a single step.

1 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to corrosionproof fluid flow conducting parts and equipment comprising one or more such parts. Equipment component comprises first fluid corrosionproof flow conducting section that comprises first corrosionproof material and second fluid flow conducting section that comprises second material. First and second sections are, directly or indirectly, have their ends welded together in solid state to make integral fluid flow conducting part. Invention covers also the method of replacing at least one fluid flow conducting equipment part that proposes replacement component comprising first fluid flow conducting section that includes first material and second fluid flow conducting section that includes second material. Second material is, in fact, identical to that of equipment section whereat spare part is to be mounted. First and second sections are, directly or indirectly, have their ends welded together in solid state to make integral fluid flow conducting part. Space part is secured to equipment by flush butt welding of second material of second space part with material being, in fact identical, to that of equipment attachment section.

EFFECT: higher efficiency due to replacement with parts that feature improved corrosion resistance properties.

101 cl, 2 ex, 4 tbl, 14 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of condensing carbamate through condensation of gaseous phase of carbon dioxide and ammonia into a liquid phase, which is carbamate in aqueous solution and optionally a solution which contains urea and non-reacting substances and liquid ammonia, in a submerged-type condenser, containing a given number of heat-exchange pipes in a bundle, meant for condensing carbamate, into each of which gaseous and liquid phases are fed simultaneously and independently from each other. The invention also relates to a submerged-type device for condensing carbamate.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and output of the method of condensing carbamate in the proposed device.

14 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of carbamide.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods and devices for production of carbamide from ammonia and carbon dioxide. At realization of the method the reaction mixture from the synthesis reactor is fed in the stripper for the partial decomposition of the ammonium carbamate in the flow of the source carbon dioxide at the pressure practically equal to the pressure in the synthesis reactor. The stream of the source carbon dioxide is divided into two parts, one of which is routed into the stripper, and the other part is used as the working stream for injection of the gas stream from the stripper into the vertical condenser. The liquid stream from the stripper is fed at the stage of the subsequent decomposition of the ammonium carbamate, and the gaseous stream from the stripper is injected into the lower part of the vertical condenser for its mixing with source liquid ammonia. The liquid stream from the vertical condenser is fed into the synthesis reactor, butt from the gaseous stream absorb ammonia and carbon dioxide. The installation for production of carbamide consists of: the synthesis reactor; the scrubber for purification of the gaseous streams from the reactor from ammonia and carbon dioxide; the stripper for the partial decomposition of the ammonium carbamate; the vertical condenser, in which the mixing of the gas stream from the stripper with the source liquid ammonia takes place. The stripper is connected to the lines of feeding of the fluid stream from the reactor and the stream of the source carbon dioxide, and also is equipped with tool for injection of the gaseous stream from the stripper into the vertical condenser by the part of the stream of the source carbon dioxide. By the liquid stream the stripper is linked with the apparatuses for the subsequent decomposition of the ammonium carbamate and extraction of carbamide. The method of upgrading of the installation for production of carbamide consists in connection of the reactor of the synthesis to the stripper for the partial decomposition of the ammonium carbamate in the flow of the source carbon dioxide, in equipping the stripper with the tools for injection of the gaseous stream from the stripper into the vertical condenser with the part of the stream of the source carbon dioxide, and also in the availability of the lines of delivery of the gaseous mixture after the injector and the feeding line of the source liquid ammonia into the lower part of the vertical condenser. The technical result of the invention is the increased degree of conversion of the source reagents into carbamide at reduction of the scale of recirculation of the non-converted reactants.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased degree of conversion of the source reagents into carbamide at reduction of the scale of recirculation of the non-converted reactants.

11 cl, 2 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of carbamide from carbon dioxide and ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of carbamide from carbon dioxide and ammonia. The method of production of carbamide is realized in the reactor of synthesis with the subsequent thermal distillation from the reaction mixture of the carbamate and partially ammonia in the high-pressure apparatus at heat input by means of the steam. The separated gas phase is directed for condensation into the high-pressure condenser, where gas condensation heat is transferred to the heat-carrier with formation of the steam A. The carbamide solution from the high-pressure apparatus is fed for the ammonium carbamate decomposition into the apparatus at the average pressure with usage of the heat carrier. At that as the heat carrier use the steam condensate produced after the high-pressure apparatus in the combination the steam A. The high-pressure condenser represents the submerged condenser. The installation for production of carbamide includes the reactor of the synthesis of carbamide, the high-pressure apparatus for the thermal distillation of the carbamate and ammonia from the solution of synthesis of carbamide with the heat supply by means of the heat carrier, and also contains the apparatus for ammonium carbamate decomposition at the average pressure. As the high-pressure condenser used for the gas phase condensation the installation contains the submerged condenser. The method of the installation upgrade consists that the existing high-pressure condenser is substituted for the submerged condenser. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power inputs due to upgrade of the equipment and the combined usage of the scheme of recuperation of the heat of the heat carriers.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced power inputs, the upgrade of the equipment, the combined usage of the scheme of recuperation of the heat of the heat carriers.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: chemical reactor for processes performed in heterogeneous media consists of housing with heat exchange jacket, guide devices, cover, loading and unloading branch pipes and shaft with mixing device. In addition, reactor is equipped with loading branch pipe connected to dosing unit of granulated or powdered product. In addition, at the dosing unit outlet there is shutoff device with actuator electrically connected to dosing unit actuator. Guide devices are made in the form of radial plates fixed on inner surface of housing.

EFFECT: invention allows providing safety and serviceability of the device.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to α-olefin gaseous polymerisation in reactor with fluidised bed in the presence of polymerisation catalyst. Fluidised bed reactor 1 is equipped with fluidisation grid 3, circulation circuit R and solid product discharge pipeline 13. Circulation circuit comprises vertical 10 and air conveyor pipe 11. Vertical 10 communicates fluidisation grid 3 with top zone of reactor 1. Solid product discharge pipeline 13 communicates via control valve 12 with vertical 10.

EFFECT: reduced amount of gas removed from plant together with polymer.

22 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used at thermal electric power stations. Proposed plant comprises material receiver, first heat source, first heat exchanger coupled with material receiver, second heat source to generate heat of another type, and second heat exchanger. Material is kept in receiver subjected to heat of first and second heat sources. Heat source means gas or fluid medium with increased heat content resulted from heat recovery at separate process plant.

EFFECT: ruling out pipeline clogging, efficient processing.

20 cl, 4 ex, 4 tbl, 37 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a methanol synthesis method, during realisation of which natural gas and water vapour are fed into a primary conversion section where the two interact to form a gaseous mixture containing CO, CO2, H2 in stoichiometric excess and CH4. Said gaseous mixture containing CO, CO2, H2 in stoichiometric excess and CH4 is fed into a methanol synthesis section where a reaction takes place to produce methanol and the gas stream containing CO, CO2, H2 and CH4 is collected from the methanol synthesis section by blowing. H2 is extracted from the gas stream collected from the methanol synthesis section to obtain a first gaseous phase primarily consisting of H2, and a second gaseous phase containing CO, CO2, H2 and CH4 and essentially not containing H2. The second gaseous phase containing CO, CO2, H2 and CH4 and essentially not containing H2 is then recuperated for use in the conversion process in the primary conversion section. Nitrogen is first removed from natural gas before feeding the natural gas into the primary conversion section. The invention also relates to apparatus for realising the disclosed method.

EFFECT: obtaining end product with high efficiency at low operational and capital expenses and low power consumption.

8 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in petrochemical industry. Catalyst precursor 202 is first mixed with thinner 204 to produce diluted catalyst precursor 207. Stock 208 containing low-gravity oil with viscosity exceeding that of catalyst precursor 202 is divided into two flows 208a and 208b. First flow 208a contains 30% to 90% of stock 208. Diluted catalyst precursor 207 is mixed with first stock flow 208a to produce mixed composition of oil stock to be mixed with residual part of stock 206b that contains low-gravity oil.

EFFECT: efficient dispersion of catalyst precursor.

31 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

Isothermic reactor // 2425714

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: isothermic reactor includes a pressure body closed at opposite ends with according bottoms, a reaction zone, where a catalytic basket is installed, a heat exchange unit submerged into the catalytic basket, and multiple heat exchangers, every of which has an inner chamber designed for passage of a working coolant. The reactor comprises facilities to extract samples of the working coolant from groups of previously installed heat exchangers in each heat exchange unit. Method to detect availability of damaged heat exchangers in a group of heat exchangers includes extracting a sample of the working coolant from the group of heat exchangers and detection of availability of damaged heat exchangers in the group of heat exchangers by means of analysis of the specified samples of working coolant.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to detect damages of heat exchangers in a reactor in a simple manner and with lowest costs, in order to reduce duration of its disconnection and repair.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reactors used in steam reforming reactions. Proposed reactor comprises chamber, appliances to feed charge via catalytic zone in fixed bed, appliances to collect gas wastes flowing out of catalytic zone and appliances to heat said zone. Appliances to collect gas wastes have channels penetrating through catalytic zone and distributed therein and arranged between heating appliances. Heating appliances are contained in shells, in section immersed in catalytic zone. Shells are closed at one ends and closed on opposite ends. Open end is secured to top tubular plate that confines collection chamber arranged above catalytic zone. Heating appliances comprises combustion zone arranged nearby catalytic zone, appliances to feed combustion zone with oxidising gas mix and combustible gas, and appliances to discharge combustion gas wastes.

EFFECT: optimum heat distribution.

23 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to chemical and petrochemical industry and is designed for heat-and-mass exchanging processes. Here is disclosed the procedure of control over heat-and-mass exchanging processes in a reactor. The reactor consists of a reaction zone in form of a tubular reactor. At input this zone is restricted with a reagents supply chamber. Along whole length of the reactor it is artificially periodically cross roughed with interruptions; further, the reactor is equipped with a jacket connected to the chamber of heat carrier and cooling liquid supply to facilitate reaction medium recirculation heating or cooling. The chamber of reagents supply has a still-water chamber for stabilisation of flow. Polymerisation in this flow is performed at initial concentration of monomer 10 wt %, heat carrier 100 wt % and initiator 0.5-4.5 wt % thus creating an optimal mode of polymerisation and improved quality of polymer.

EFFECT: improved control over process, upgraded characteristics of molecular-mass distribution of produced polymer and reduced hazard of emergencies.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Proposed jet-type reactor for nanoparticles surface processing comprises casing with intake chamber provided with peripheral nanoparticles feed branch pipe and accommodating supersonic nozzle with working gas feed branch pipe, mixing chamber and diffuser. Said diffuser is communicated directly with tapered or cylindrical separation chamber. Nanoparticles are separated from carrier gas in separation chamber equipped with Petryanov's filter arranged inclined to carrier gas flow.

EFFECT: nanoparticles with modified surface properties.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of hydrogen fuel production. Proposed method differs from known processes in that it uses methane flow, catalyst and heating said catalyst by microwave radiation, feeding methane onto catalyst and control over methane flow and microwave radiation power.

EFFECT: lower costs, possibility to use diverse catalysts.

18 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing methanol, involving feeding a first stream of hot hydrocarbon-containing gas into a reactor, feeding an oxygen-containing gas into the reactor, oxidation of the hot stream of hydrocarbon-containing gas in the reactor with oxygen from the oxygen-containing gas to form a stream of products containing methanol and formaldehyde; and transferring heat from the stream of products to the first stream of hydrocarbon-containing gas, extracting methanol from the stream of products and extracting CO2 and formaldehyde from the stream of products to form a reduced stream of products containing hydrocarbons through physical absorption thereof with an absorbent, wherein the first stream contains at least a portion of the reduced stream of products, as well as apparatus (versions) for realising said method.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain an end product using an efficient and cheap method.

32 cl, 5 dwg

Up!