Universal high-performance navigation system

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: navigation is performed using low earth orbit (LEO) satellite signals, as well as signals from two sources of ranging signals for determining associated calibration information, where a position is calculated using a navigation signal, a first and a second ranging signal and calibration information. Also possible is providing a plurality of transmission channels on a plurality of transmission time intervals using pseudorandom noise (PRN) and merging communication channels and navigation channels into a LEO signal. The method also involves broadcasting a LEO signal from a LEO satellite. Also disclosed is a LEO satellite data uplink. The invention also discloses various approaches to localised jamming of navigation signals.

EFFECT: high efficiency and ensuring navigation with high level of integration and security.

14 cl, 34 dwg

 

The technical FIELD

The present invention relates generally to navigation and, more particularly, to satellite navigation.

PRIOR art

The efficiency of the navigation system can determine the distribution of error in the navigation measurement (e.g., accuracy), performed by the system. The efficiency of the system may also depend on its ability to timely warnings to users when it should not be used (e.g., reliability). Efficiency can also be measured by the amount of time that you want the navigation system to the first location after a cold start (e.g., time to the first location. In addition, the efficiency of the system may depend on the length of time or specific circumstances under which specified performance parameters are within the prescribed limits (e.g., availability).

Unfortunately, navigation and communication signals supplied various existing navigation systems often do not provide satisfactory system performance. In particular, signal strength, bandwidth, and geometric factors for such navigation signals generally insufficient to meet the needs of many scenarios that when there is a demand.

Existing approaches to navigation, based on, for example, on signals from the Global positioning (GPS), often give insufficient signal strength or insufficient geometry for easy penetration into the building or into the space between urban houses. Such signals may also be exposed to intentional interference in hostile environments and may prevent their use in emergency situations. Other approaches to navigation, based on, for example, a cellular telephone, or television signals, usually lack the vertical navigation information.

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION of the INVENTION

In accordance with one implementation of the invention a method of navigating includes receiving a signal from a low earth orbit (LEO) from the LEO satellite; decoding the navigation signal from the LEO signal; receiving the first and second ranging signals from the first and second sources of the ranging signals; determining the calibration information associated with the first and second sources of the ranging signals; and calculating the position using the navigation signal, the first and second ranging signals and the calibration information.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention, the navigation is operating the device includes an antenna, made with the possibility to receive a signal from LEO LEO satellite and receive the first and second ranging signals from the first and second sources of the ranging signals; the processor of the receiver is made with the possibility of conversion with decreasing frequency of the LEO signal for further processing; and a navigation processor configured to decode the navigation signal from the LEO signal, and configured to calculate the position of the navigation device by means of the navigation signal, the first and second ranging signals and the calibration information associated with the first and second sources of the ranging signals.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention, the navigation device includes means receiving the signal from LEO LEO satellite; a means of decoding the navigation signal from the LEO signal; means receiving the first and second ranging signals from the first and second sources of the ranging signals; means for determining calibration information associated with the first and second sources of the ranging signals; and means for calculating the position using the navigation signal, the first and second ranging signals and the calibration information.

In accordance with yet another option run izopet is the way of the signal from LEO LEO satellite includes providing multiple transmission channels on the set of time slots of the transmission, moreover, the transmission channels include a set of communication channels and a set of navigation channels; the production of the first distance measuring overlapping signal based on the pseudo-random noise (PRN)corresponding to the navigation signal; applying a first distance measuring overlapping signal based on the PRN to the first set of the navigation channels; link aggregation and navigation channels in the LEO signal; and a broadband signal transmission from LEO satellites LEO.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention, the LEO satellite includes an antenna configured to transmit the LEO signal from the LEO satellite; and a processor configured to provide multiple transmission channels into multiple time slots of the transmission, and the transmission channels include a set of communication channels and a set of navigation channels, development of the first distance measuring overlapping signal based on the PRN corresponding to the navigation signal, applying the first rangefinder overlapping signal based on the PRN to the first set of the navigation channels and link aggregation and navigation channels in the signal LEO.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention, the LEO satellite includes means for providing multiple transmission channels on the set of time slots of the transmission, and the channel re the ACI include a set of communication channels and a set of navigation channels; the means of developing the first rangefinder overlapping signal based on the PRN corresponding to the navigation signal; a means of applying the first rangefinder overlapping signal based on the PRN to the first set of the navigation channels; tool link aggregation and navigation channels in the LEO signal; and means for transmitting the signal from LEO satellites LEO.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention a method of providing data on the rising channel on the satellite LEO includes the determination of the position information by using the LEO signal, received from the LEO satellite, and the first ranging signal is received from the first source of the ranging signal, and the second ranging signal is received from the second source of the ranging signal; determining parameter advance through binding to the local clock and bind to the clock of the LEO satellite; training signal used for data transmission on uplink communication, which includes data for transmission via uplink communication, which are transferable to the satellite LEO; a synchronization signal used for data transmission on uplink connection with the LEO satellite using the timing parameter; and transmitting data on uplink connection to the satellite LEO.

In accordance with another variant of execution invented the I device data uplink communication includes an antenna, made with the possibility of receiving the signal from LEO LEO satellite, receiving the first and second ranging signals from the first and second sources of the ranging signal and a broadcast signal used for data transmission on uplink connection to the LEO satellite; and a processor, configured to determine position information using the LEO signal, the first ranging signal and the second ranging signal, parameter definition timing by binding to the local clock and bind to the clock of the LEO satellite, the training signal used for data transmission on uplink communication, which includes data for transmission via uplink communication, which are transferable on the LEO satellite, and the synchronization signal of the data in the ascending line of communication with the satellite LEO in the lead.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention, the device data in ascending includes means for determining status information using the LEO signal, received from the LEO satellite, the first ranging signal received from the first source of the probing signal, and the second ranging signal received from the second source of the ranging signal; means for estimating parameter advance through binding to the local clock and bind to h is m a LEO satellite; the preparation tool signal data in the ascending line of communication, which is transferable to the LEO satellite; means synchronizing signal data in the ascending line of communication with the satellite LEO in the lead; and means broadcast transmission signal data in the ascending line of communication to the satellite LEO.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention the navigation signal contains at least part of the LEO signal, supplied by a LEO satellite, a method of creating a localized intentional interference with navigation signal includes filtering noise source in many frequency bands to obtain a set of filtered noise signals in these frequency ranges, and the navigation signal is distributed across the multiple channels of the LEO signal, the channels are distributed over the frequency band and multiple time intervals; creating a PRN sequence, the respective sequence of modulation used by the LEO satellite to distribute the navigation signal channels; modulation of the filtered noise signals by using the PRN sequence for getting multiple modulated noise signal; and broadcasting the modulated noise signals in the zone of action to provide many sple the Cove intentional interference, corresponding to the navigation signal, and bursts of intentional interference is made with the ability to essentially mask the navigation signal in the zone of action.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention the navigation signal contains at least part of the LEO signal issued by the LEO satellite, the device for intentional interference is made with the ability to create localized intentional interference with the navigation signal includes a noise source configured to provide a noise signal; a lot of filters configured to filter the noise signal in multiple frequency bands to create a set of filtered noise signals in these frequency ranges, and the navigation signal is distributed across the multiple channels of the LEO signal, the channels are distributed over the frequency ranges and for many time intervals; PRN sequence generator made with the possibility of coherence modulation used by the LEO satellite to distribute the navigation signal channels; many oscillation generators made with the possibility of modulation of the filtered noise signals by using the PRN sequence to provide many of the modulated noise signal; and an antenna, is accomplished with the ability to broadcast a modulated noise signal in the zone of action to ensure that the multiple bursts intentional interference, corresponding to the navigation signal, and bursts of intentional interference is made with the ability to essentially mask the navigation signal in the zone of action.

In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention the navigation signal contains at least part of the LEO signal, supplied by a LEO satellite, intentional interference device, configured to create a localized interference with the navigation signal includes means for filtering noise source in many frequency bands to provide many of the filtered noise signals in these frequency ranges, and the navigation signal is distributed across the multiple channels of the LEO signal, the channels are distributed over the frequency ranges and for many time intervals; means for creating a PRN sequence, the respective sequence of modulation used by the LEO satellite, the navigation signal distribution channels; means for modulating the filtered noise signals using the generated PRN sequences to provide many of the modulated noise signal; and a means to broadcast a modulated noise signal in the zone of action to ensure a variety of intentional interference bursts corresponding to the navigation signal, when the em bursts of intentional interference is made with the ability to essentially mask the navigation signal in the zone of action.

Scope of the invention defined by the claims, which are incorporated in this section by reference. A more complete understanding of embodiments of the present invention, and the disclosure of its other advantages will be given to specialists in the art as the following detailed description of one or more embodiments. While reference is made to the accompanying sheets of drawings, in front of which a brief description.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 provides a General view of the integrated high-performance navigation and communication in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 2 also contains a General view of the system of figure 1 in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 3 illustrates a General scheme of the system of figure 1 in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 4 illustrates the approach to signals from low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 5 illustrates the autocorrelation function associated with the signals from low earth orbit, in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

6 illustrates the process of decoding military navigation signal components with low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

7 illustrates a block diagram of the correlator of the navigation device in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates the decoding process for commercial navigation signal components with low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig.9 illustrates an alternative process for decoding a commercial navigation signal components with low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 10 illustrates the process of decoding civil navigation signal components with low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

11 illustrates a comparison between the navigation signal components with low earth orbit and GPS codes in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of a device for intentional interference, which can be used to create localized intentional interference with navigation signals, in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig contains a representation in the frequency and time domain operation of the device for intentional interference on Fig in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates the process of creating pseudo-random noise in accordance with vari is Tom the execution of the invention.

Fig illustrates the process of building a uniformly distributed integers of the range of modules from the set of channel selection in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates the process of converting a pool of channel selection in a list of random non-overlapping channels in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a diagram of frequency-hopping, produced by the process Pig, in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of the processor of the receiver, configured to receive and sample rate of the navigation signals for conversion with decreasing frequency in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of a navigation processor configured to perform processing of the ranging signal in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates the definition of the various parameters used by the navigation processor Fig, in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of the tracking module, configured to implement the tracking signal in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig-29 illustrate various examples of the application on hatzioannou system to perform navigation in different environment in accordance with various implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a generic frame structure for uplink communications satellite in low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates ground infrastructure to synchronize uplink communication data for a satellite in low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates an implementation of the signal data of the low level of upward communication in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of the transmitter to support uplink communication data for a satellite in low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of various components of the uplink communication data for a satellite in low earth orbit in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

For understanding embodiments of the present invention and their advantages will be better to address the following detailed description. It should be understood that these item numbers are used to indicate similar elements provided on one or more drawings.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In accordance with various options, you can use the system, use the th satellites in low-earth orbit (LEO) for the implementation of various navigation signals to ensure navigation with a high level of integration. The system can be integrated passive ranging signals from satellites in LEO and other non-LEO transmitters.

Basic network of observation stations can estimate the clock skew, the structure of the signal and the location of the transmitter or the ephemeris different platforms, which are transmitted to the passive distance measuring signals. This resulting assessment information (also referred to as calibration information) can be transmitted to various navigation devices on the data line for communication with satellites LEO or other data lines.

To implement high-precision navigation the navigation device can be made with the ability to mix information broadcast and several different types of signals. The broadcast signal LEO can be implemented in the form of military, commercial and civilian navigation signals to provide separation of consumers on different navigation signals and to provide the distribution infrastructure costs. Can also be proposed integrated broadband ascending line of communication with a low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D).

If we now turn to the drawings, the image of which is given solely for the purpose of illustration, embodiments of the present invention, and not with zuluaga restrictions, the figure 1 shows a General view of the integrated high-performance system 100 navigation and communication (also called system iGPS) in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. System 100 may include navigation device 102 (also referred to as user equipment, a user device and / or user of the navigation device implemented using suitable hardware and / or software means for receiving and decoding signals from various cosmic and terrestrial sources ranging signals for navigating. Such signals may include, for example, satellite broadcast signals from GPS, LEO (for example, Indium or Globalstar), wide area augmentation augmentation systems (WAAS), European geostationary optional navigation system (EGNOS), multi-functional satellite augmentation system (MSAS), Galileo system, quasicentral satellite system (QZSS), and (or) satellites, mobile satellite ventures (MSV). Such signals may also include terrestrial broadcast signals from the supports cellular, television supports, WiFi, WiMAX, components of the national infrastructure integration vehicle (VII) and from other relevant sources.

In the example shown in figure 1, the navigation device 102 can be performed with prob is a possibility of receiving signals of a global system 106 positioning (GPS) (e.g., protected and (or) unprotected GPS signals) from ordinary navigation satellites. In addition, the navigation device 102 may also receive signals 104 from different satellites 108 in low-earth orbit (LEO). In this regard, each of the signals 104 LEO (also known as iGPS signals) may be a composite signal that includes the signal A communications, military navigation signal V, commercial navigation signal S and civil navigation signal 104D. This implementation allows the satellites 108 LEO simultaneously serve military, commercial and civilian users and allows the users to share the cost of operation of the system 100.

In one example, the satellites 108 LEO can be the companions of the existing communication system (for example, Iridium or Globalstar), which were modified and (or) modified to support the system 100 described herein. As also shown in figure 1, the satellites 108 LEO can be performed with the support of the signal 110 to the inter-satellite communication lines between different satellites 108 LEO.

Using 106 GPS signals and / or signals 104 LEO navigation device 102 can accurately calculate its position (and thus the position of the associated user). The calculated position data determined in this clicks the zoom (and other data may be required), you can then transfer upward communication satellites 108 LEO with the assistance described in this document uplink data transmission spread spectrum.

In addition, the navigation device 102 may be configured to receive and perform navigation using broadcast signals from other satellite and ground-based sources ranging signals, which may be required in certain embodiments of the execution. In addition, the navigation device 102 can be equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), for example a device with a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)to provide described herein protection from intentional interference.

The navigation device 102 can be implemented in any desired configuration, which may correspond to specific applications. For example, different versions of the navigation device 102 may be implemented as a portable navigation device, the navigation device in a vehicle, the navigation device on an aircraft or device type.

Figure 2 shows another General view of the system 100 in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In particular, figure 2 shows the satellites 108 LEO and satellites 202 GS in orbit around the Earth. In addition, figure 2 additionally shows the different aspects of infrastructure subsystems of the system 100. For example, system 100 may include control network 204, is configured to receive signals 104 LEO or other ranging signals, ground infrastructure 206 GPS and ground infrastructure 208 LEO. It should be clear that different versions of the system 100 may have other space and (or) ground-based components.

Figure 3 shows the General scheme of operation of the system 100 in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. It should be clear that although figure 3 shows a set of subsystems, not all of these subsystems must contain all versions of the system 100.

As shown in Figure 3, the satellites 108 LEO move with high angular velocity relative to the navigation device 102 and different is shown in the drawing ground subsystems. This rapid angular movement can contribute to the resolution of ground-based subsystems of the ambiguities associated with recurrence. In addition, signals 104 LEO can be implemented with a higher capacity compared to conventional navigation signals 106. In addition, signals 104 LEO can also provide penetration through obstacles or buildings.

Signals 104 LEO may include a communication line for rangefinder and the information is s signals to different ground terminals. As shown in Figure 3, these terminals may include geographically distributed control network 204 and the navigation device 102 (shown in this example in the form of a cell phone, the MEMS device and the vehicle).

It is also shown various satellites, including satellites 202 GPS satellites 306 system Galileo satellites 302 WAAS, and satellites 304 QZSS/MSV, each of which can be made with the possibility of broadcasting the ranging and information signals on the downlink to the core network 204 and the navigation device 102 in accordance with various execution.

It should be borne in mind that for greater clarity, some of the ranging signals in figure 3 are not shown. For example, in one embodiment, all depicted satellites can be made with the ability to broadcast to all of the navigation device 102 and the core network 204.

As also shown in Figure 3, the control network 204 and the navigation device 102 may be controlled by different ranging signals 318 from a variety of sources 310 of the ranging signals. Control network 204 may be configured to determine characteristics of each source 310 of the ranging signals to provide calibration information associated with each source of the ranging signals. Such information is of Oia can be transmitted to the satellite 108 LEO on the corresponding uplink 320 data coded satellite 108 LEO in one or more military, commercial, or navigation signals 104B/104C/104D signal 104 LEO, and transmitted by way of a broadcast transmission to the navigation device 102 as an integral part of the signal 104 LEO. After that, the navigation device 102 can use the calibration information to process the ranging signals 318 to perform navigation in combination with the ranging measurements, performed using signals 104 LEO.

In General, different transmitters may transmit time (and therefore range) characteristics. In this regard, for a generic source of the ranging signals associated with the ranging signal may be adopted by reference network 204 and the navigation device 102. Control network 204 may determine calibration information associated with the ranging signal, and telemeter such calibration information to the navigation device 102 for information uplink communication satellites 108 LEO and (or) ground communication lines.

For example, figure 3 shows the signals 106 GPS, take one of the sources 310 of the ranging signals, implemented in the form of a WiFi node. If the ability to measure the temporal characteristics (equivalent to the ranging characteristics, if multiplied by the speed of light) satanachist WiFi signal is implemented in the GPS receiver, this receiver can measure the time of receiving the signals of WiFi and GPS. You can calculate the difference between these values to bind to the time and pass the core network 204 to provide the calibration information associated with the host WiFi. In response to the signal 106 GPS and other types of ranging signals 318 through the core network 204 to determine additional calibration information. In each case the reference network 204 may telemeter in real-time calibration information associated with the node, WiFi, navigation device 102 via satellite 104 LEO ascendant 320 communication and using signal 104 LEO (for example, for space communication lines). The calibration information can also be provided in the navigation device 102 on the ground lines of communication. In addition, each source 310 of the ranging signals need not necessarily be visible to all nodes of the core network 204, if there is a network 316 (e.g., the Internet) between different ground nodes.

As mentioned above, the satellites 108 LEO can be implemented in the form of communications satellites (e.g., the satellites of the system Indium or Globalstar), which has been modified and / or modification, as described herein, to support the navigation performance of the system 100. The following tables 1 and 2 contain different character who sticks communications satellites Indium and Globalstar communications satellites, which can be used as satellites 108 LEO in accordance with the variations in implementation:

Table 1
Based on the architecture of cell phones GSM
And FDMA, and TDMA
Channel separation 41,667 kHz
Frequency band on the downlink of 10.5 MHz
40% of the quadrature phase modulation according to the law of root raised cosine with 25000 on/off
The frame 90 MS
Time intervals: (1) downward simplex, (4) 8,28 MS upward duplex; (4) 8,28 MS downlink duplex

td align="left">
Table 2
Based on the architecture of cell phones CDMA IS-95
And FDMA, and CDMA
The separation channels of 1.25 MHz
Frequency band on the downlink of 16.5 MHz
Relay type "straight hole

In one example, in which to implement the satellites 108 LEO communication satellites are used system Indium, flight computers, communication satellites Indium can be reprogrammed with the appropriate software to facilitate the processing of navigation signals. In another example implementation satellites 108 LEO communication satellites are used system Globastar, satellite architecture type "straight hole" allows to upgrade the ground-based equipment to provide many new signal formats.

In variants of execution, in which the satellites 108 LEO implemented using communication satellites, communication satellites can be configured to support communication signals and navigation signals. In this sense, these navigation signals may be implemented to account for various factors, such as the suppression of multipath propagation, the accuracy of determining the distance, cross-correlation, resistance to intentional and accidental failures and security, including ballot access, countermeasures radar traps and low probability of intercept.

On IG shows an approach to implement signals 104 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In particular, blocks 410, 420 and 430 in figure 4 illustrate the structure of the signals sent and received by the satellites 108 LEO, to support the communication signals and navigation signals, and the satellites 108 LEO implemented using existing communications satellites system Indium. In blocks 410, 420 and 430 frequency deferred on the horizontal axis, time flows in the direction into the page, and the spectral power density pending on the vertical axis.

In one embodiment, the satellite 108 LEO can be configured to support multiple channels, implemented as a set of intervals 402 transmission and multiple intervals 404 reception generated by type multiple access with time division multiplexing (TDMA) frame width 90 MS and then generated according to the type of multiple access frequency division multiple access (FDMA) on the frequency band width of 10 MHz. It should be understood that each channel may correspond to a particular interval of transmitting or receiving in the frame presented in a certain frequency range. For example, in one embodiment, the satellite 108 LEO can be implemented to support the transfer of approximately 960 channels with 240 frequency bands, providing 4 time slots per frame (for example, 240 frequency range × 4 time interval = 960 channels).

As shown in Blake, some of the intervals 402 transmission and intervals 404 reception can refer to the existing communication systems (for example, in figure 4 it is shown in the form of phone calls 440). Used intervals 402 transmission can correspond to the data provided by signal A communication signal 104 LEO transmitted by the satellite 108 LEO.

It should be borne in mind that in an embodiment, as shown in block 410, the set of intervals 402 transmission remain unused. In accordance with various implementation of the invention unused bandwidth unused intervals 402 transfer can be used to support navigation signals in accordance with the order, as described in this document.

As shown in block 420, each of the remaining intervals 402 transmission can be introduced ranging overlapping signal 422 pseudo-random noise (PRN). Ranging overlapping signal 422 can be controlled with a low average power on a channel-by-channel basis, but the total distance measuring overlapping signal 422 has a high power to overcome intentional interference. On the contrary, in block 430 shown rangefinder overlapping signal 422, implemented using a narrow beam maximum power generated by the satellite 108 LEO.

In one embodiment, the implementation of the program ranging overlapping signal 422 may be implemented using a combination of frequency-hopping and direct sequence PRN. For the component frequency-hopping can be selected subset of frequencies in a pseudo-random basis for each burst. Then in each burst are also selected on a random basis data bits.

In one embodiment, the telephone calls 440 may be given priority in the interval 402 transmission over distance measuring overlapping signal, ranging overlapping signal 422 is almost not affected by rare missed or distorted bursts. In another embodiment, the distance measuring overlapping signal 422 may be given priority in the interval 402 over phone calls 440, phone calls 440 likewise almost not affected by rare missed or distorted bursts.

In one embodiment, the distance measuring overlapping signal 422 may be implemented with a wide bandwidth, which only allow rules for the allocation of the frequency band. In this case can be used all available channels, and can be used in various ways multiple access with frequency, time or code division multiplexing (CDMA) to generate a signal downlink, which looks like a flat white noise, if the user does not know the code. This uniformity gives a signal that is well suited to ensure the ecene accuracy, resistance to intentional interference and suppression of multipath propagation. Cross-correlation can be minimized using a suitable encryption algorithm, which provides fast digital signal processing in the navigation device 102.

In one embodiment, the signal 104 LEO can be implemented in the form of a complex signal s(t) on time t, as shown in the following equation:

In the above equation a is the signal amplitude, n is the index of the symbol, p - value pseudo-random noise direct sequence, which can be ±1, h is the impulse response of the symbol, m is the index of the channel frequencies, f0- band broadcast spread spectrum, and N is the number of frequency channel forming range broadcast spread spectrum.

In another embodiment, in which the satellites 108 LEO implemented as satellites of the Globalstar system, each of the channel widths of 1.25 MHz may be provided with a low-power direct code sequence that is orthogonal to the telephone traffic.

Figure 5 shows the function 502 autocorrelation, which can be implemented in a navigation device 102 for connection with the signal 104 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. The piano is g τ - the argument autocorrelation, R is the autocorrelation function of the main switching characteristics symbol by law, 40% root raised cosine, N is the number of channels, the allowable range allocated to the satellite 108 LEO (for example, a maximum of 240 in one embodiment), f0allowable bandwidth (equal to the number N multiplied by the distance between the channels, which gives f0=[41,667 kHz] N one embodiment, a φmthe offset from the phase of the satellite for each channel.

In addition, figure 5 shows graphs 504 and 510 of the autocorrelation function 502 at different scales. The graph 504 shows the envelope 506 autocorrelation function 502 formed effective length correlation data direct sequence at 25 krotscheck per second. In this embodiment, the autocorrelation is formed by the combination of broadband channels, divided into 41,667 kHz. For example, to broadcast a width of 10 MHz, the effective length of the chip direct sequence may be the length of Y-code, namely 30 M. For comparison, the graph 510 shows the coarse code/detection code (C/a) 512 GPS and military (M) code 514 GPS. As shown in graph 510, the side lobes of the autocorrelation function 502 to operate as easily as petals M-code 514 GPS. In this sense, the side lobes of the autocorrelation function 502 or strongly donkey is blenny, either clearly visible.

As described above, the signal 104 LEO may include various navigation signals, including military navigation signal V, commercial navigation signal S and civil navigation signal 104D. In addition, the navigation device 102 can be configured to decode one or more of these signals to navigate.

For example, figure 6 shows the decoding process of military navigation signal V of signal 104 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. It should be borne in mind that the process of figure 6 may be performed by the navigation device 102 in response to the reception signal 104 LEO.

In various applications it is desirable to implement a military navigation signal V in the form of a powerful signal to overcome the possible intentional interference. Accordingly, as shown in step 1 of figure 6, the signal 104 LEO may include several parallel channels 602 (Fig.6 shows the 12 channels)made with the possibility of transfer of military navigation signal V. In one embodiment, it is possible to use a pseudo-random process to determine the specific channels 602 involved for each burst broadcast from the satellites 108 LEO. In addition, at the stage shown in Fig.6, for each pair of the behaviour splash on the channels 602 shows the character string 604 quadrature phase modulation (QPSK), while the time axis passes through the page. Symbols 604 quadrature phase modulation modulated using direct encoding PRN sequence and also demonstrate a shift and rotation based on their frequency shift in the signal 104 LEO.

In stage 2 figure 6 PRN-encoding subjected to nerasshirenii by turning each spike in the primary frequency band, subtraction interchannel bias and deletion schema PRN direct-sequence to generate a series of bursts that carry data associated with the military navigation signal V that presents modified QPSK symbols 606.

On stage 3 6 data low-speed transmission demodulated in accordance with the set M of possible orthogonal macro characters 608. If QPSK modulation are ambiguity quarter of the cycle, together ambiguity and macro characters may not be exactly orthogonal. After evaluation of the data through the hard solution algorithm removes estimates, after which it only remains unmodulated carrier 610.

At stage 4 on the carrier 6 is averaged throughout the surge and then for each channel. The result can be obtained in-phase-quadrature measurement 612 instant error tracking. It then uses the system phase-locked loop (PLL) of the navigation device 102 d is I the carrier tracking of the satellite.

Figure 7 shows the block diagram of the correlator of the navigation device 102, which can be used to perform the process shown in Fig.6, in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. Generator 702 oscillations numerical control generates a carrier that converts to a lower frequency incoming signal 104 LEO (e.g. via the antenna of the navigation device 102) to the modulating signal 714. The modulating signal 714 is supplied to the upper tract 704, which performs tracking of the carrier with the point code. The modulating signal 714 is supplied also to the lower tract 706, which provides differential detection.

On the lower tract 706 Bank of synthesizers 708 and PRN generators 710 repeats each channel signal 104 LEO. On the upper tract 704 repeatable signals 712 mixed with the modulating signal 714 to remove all code and phase rotation separately for each channel. Generator 716 hypotheses calculates the signal associated with each of the possible macro characters 608 and adenosarcoma quarter of the cycle, if any. The processor 718 uses the maximum a posteriori MAP algorithm to obtain an estimate of 720 data indicating which of the hypotheses macro characters is the most plausible. As shown in the drawing, the assessment of 720 data is supplied to the lower tract 706 for the use of the Finance for differential detection. To perform spot detection in the upper tract 704, the processor 718 removes the data and delivers the received bursts in summing block 722, which integrates the cumulative bursts over a long period of time to obtain in-phase-quadrature error 724 tracking.

On the lower tract 706 repeatable signals 712 additionally modulated differential block block 726 and 728 of the data generator (using estimates 720 data received from the upper tract 704). As shown in the drawing, the resulting modulated signals are summed with the formation of integral copies of a differential signal 730, which is mixed with the modulating signal 714 and to the accumulating unit 732 for averaging over time with the aim of obtaining a differential discriminator 734. Accordingly, under the condition of fixing the carrier and sufficient averaging interval differential discriminator 734 criterion gives the instantaneous tracking error.

Fig illustrates the decoding process for commercial navigation signal C in signal 104 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. It should be borne in mind that the process Fig can be performed by the navigation device 102 in response to the reception signal 104 LEO.

As shown in the drawing, the process Fig similar to the process figure 6, and steps 1-4 on Fig in General conformity with Tvout stages 1-4 figure 6. However, it is necessary to take into account that in the process Fig uses fewer channels 802 (e.g., channel 2 in the embodiment) in comparison with the channels 602 of figure 6. Due to the smaller number of channels 802 commercial navigation signal C in signal 104 LEO can be implemented with less power and less bandwidth compared to military navigation signal W.

Figure 9 shows an alternative decoding process commercial navigation signal C in signal 104 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. As shown in the drawing, the process of figure 9 is similar to the process for Fig, and stages 1-2 figure 9 generally correspond to steps 1-2 on Fig. However, at stage 3 figure 9 it is assumed that the downlink (for example, calibration information) may be received by the navigation device 102 other than the signal 104 LEO (e.g., via communication with the control network 204 or one or more nodes 310, shown in Figure 3). Then at stages 4 and 5 of figure 9 can be performed further processing respectively similar to steps 3 and 4 on Fig. The inclusion of step 3 in the process of figure 9 can provide higher sensitivity when you are indoors. In this sense, the navigation device 102 can receive reliable, not only is the data downlink from one or more reference stations reference network 204, without requiring navigation device 102 perform delete operation data downlink and / or quarter cycle, which reduces the amount of processing required from the navigation device 102, and win in the process.

Figure 10 shows the decoding process of civil navigation signal 104D in the signal 104 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In different versions of the use of civil navigation signal 104D may be mainly focused on navigation only with the carrier. In the end, civil navigation signal 104D can be implemented with a relatively narrow bandwidth (for example, about 1 MHz), and can be shared. While channels 1002 used for civil navigation signal 104D can be implemented without a significant expansion of the range. In this sense, it should be understood that the channels 1002, shown in step 1 of figure 10, are grouped close to each other compared to the channels 602 and 802 shown in step 1 on each of 6, 8 and 9. It should be understood that the action steps 1-4 in Figure 10 can be understood on the basis of the action steps 1-4 figure 6, discussed earlier.

Taking into account the above consideration, it should be understood that in some embodiments, execution of military, commercial and civilian navigation signals V, si 104D in the signal 104 LEO can be implemented with the following parameters, listed in table 3:

Table 3
The signalPowerBandwidth
MilitaryMaximumMaximum
CommercialModerateLarge
CivilModerateModerate

In another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented in such a way as to enable the military use of military navigation signal V and simultaneously to prevent the use of commercial and (or) civil navigation signals S and 104D to enemies in a specific area of action, without interfering with the use of commercial and civil navigation signals S and 104D outside the zone of action.

For example, in one embodiment, the decoding of commercial navigation signal S can be carried out with the use of the distributed encryption key, which you can afford to lose the action in the zone of action. In another embodiment, the implementation of the broadcast commercial navigation signal S satellites 108 LEO can optionally be interrupted in the zone of action (for example, separate narrow beams from the satellites 108 LEO can be independently disabled).

In another embodiment, the commercial navigation signal S and (or) civil navigation signal 104D can be locally plugged in the zone of action. In this sense, figure 11 shows the comparison between military navigation signal V, civil navigation signal 104D and C/a-code 512 and GPS M-code 514 GPS.

As shown in figure 11, C/a-code 512 GPS can be muted for military purposes, suppressing a frequency band, C/a-code. As also shown at 11, civil navigation signal 104D can be considered as a subset of military navigation signal V as spectral power density and bandwidth. If the ranging overlapping signal 422 is implemented using FDMA and TDMA, we can see that civil navigation signal 104D manifests itself in bursts with an abrupt change of frequency as shown figure 11.

On Fig is a block diagram of a device 1200 intentional interference, which can be used to perform localized killing of civil and commercial navigation signals S and 104D in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. As shown in Fig, source 1202 white noise (for example, generated by the Brownian motion) obrabatyvatsya 1204 for receiving the noise signal 1206 with wide bandwidth, corresponding approximately to the transmission channel of the satellite 108 LEO.

Military receiving device 1208, generator 1210 and generators 1212/1214 fluctuations are designed to provide many channels 1216 corresponding to the current frequency of the civil navigation signal 104D-defined preset, public civil PRN sequence. Channels 1216 are used for modulation of the noise signal 1206, which is then converted with increasing frequency using the following additional components for radiation bursts intentional interference exactly at such times, for such duration and at such frequencies that correspond civil navigation signal 104D taken from satellites 108 LEO as an integral part of the signal 104 LEO. It should be borne in mind that the above approach can also be used to create a preliminary interference to commercial navigation signal S that may be necessary in some implementations.

On Fig given representation in the frequency and time domain operation of the device intentional interference on Fig in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. As shown in Fig, individual noise bursts 1302 generated by the device 1200 intentional interference, are concentrated in a narrow frequency band 304, appropriate civil navigation signal 104D. The components of military navigation signal V (represented by dark rectangles 1306) actually remained unchanged and available for military operations.

Generation rangefinder overlapping signal 422 in the satellite 108 LEO described below with reference to Fig-17. Here are the various processes described in relation to Fig-17, can be carried out by respective processors of the satellite 108 LEO. In addition, the satellite 108 LEO may, by appropriate software and hardware to be configured to modulate and broadcast transmission of communication signals (e.g., bursts of telephone signals in QPSK format.

On Fig the above approach to generate pseudo-random noise in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In an embodiment, is shown in Fig, used generator 1400 pseudo-random numbers on the basis of the counter. In this sense, the value of the counter 1402 is combined with a 128-bit session key 1404 encryption to provide 128-bit cipher. Linking value 1402 counter with cipher 1406, it is possible to construct various PRN-items ranging overlapping signal 422. In one embodiment, the input value 1402, and the cipher 1406 can be implemented in the form of 128-bit words using the process to improve the frame encryption standard (AES).

As shown in Fig, each value of the counter 1402 may include a flag 1412 type that defines each value 1402 counter as an indication of either the channel selection (for example, if the flag 1412 type is set to "1") or a chip direct sequence (for example, if the flag 1412 type is set to "0"). If the flag 1412 type is set to select the channel, then the other bits of counter 1402 can specify the channels from the set 1408 select a channel for transmission of chips bursts of broadcast data to be transferred. If the flag 1412 type was set on a direct sequence, other bits of counter 1402 may correspond to the index block 1414 chips (for example, specifying a certain chip chip 1410 direct sequence, which is transferable) and the reference 1416 burst (e.g., indicating the frame number of a particular chip 1410 direct sequence, which is transferable).

In one embodiment, the cipher 1406 may be used to select values from a population 1408 random numbers to select the channel, which is controlled by an abrupt frequency change. In another embodiment, the cipher 1406 may be used to select the chip 1410 direct sequence, which fill bits are QPSK data.

On Fig shows the process of building a uniformly distributed from a range of modules from the overall 1408 channel selection in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. It should be borne in mind that the process Fig can be used in conjunction with the totality of 1408 channel selection described above with respect Fig.

On Fig shows the conversion process together 1408 channel selection in a list of random non-overlapping channels in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. The process Fig can be used for military navigation signal V, commercial navigation signal S and civil navigation signal 104D by selecting different parameters for M and N (shown in Fig) in accordance with the values given in the following table 4:

Table 4
The signalPower (N)Bandwidth (M)
MilitaryLarge240
Commercial1 or 2>100
Civil1 or 28-32

On Fig is a diagram of frequency-hopping generated by the process on Fig in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. Ka is shown in Fig, for sequential burst transfer is provided by various random channel selection (associated with the respective transmission frequencies). It should be borne in mind that each frequency and the chip are generated pseudo-random manner using a common key (for example, 128-bit key), known in advance to the satellite 108 LEO and the navigation device 102.

On Fig-21 show various aspects of the navigation device 102, which may be implemented in accordance with different variants of execution of the invention. For example, on Fig shows the block diagram of the processor 1800 receiver of the navigation device 102, is made capable of receiving and sampling the signals for conversion with decreasing frequency in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. As shown in Fig, the navigation signals received by the antenna 1802, filtered multiband filters 1804 (for pre-selecting the desired frequency bands), amplified by amplifier 1806 and is discretized scheme 1808 sampling and fixation to provide raw digital RF samples 1816.

The processor 1800 receiver also includes an oscillator 1810 and synth 1812, which can be used for reference synchronization and locking circuit 1808. In various embodiments, performing the sampling rate and therefore the s 1808 sampling and fixation can be chosen in such a way to prevent overlap between appearing under the alias of a pre-selected frequency ranges.

The processor 1800 receiver also includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) 1814 implemented as a tri-axis gyroscope and accelerometer MEMS whose time stamps of the measurements are synchronized with the common clock of the receiver, and can be used to provide raw digital samples 1818 movement. Keep in mind that you can alternatively use other embodiments of the receiver to facilitate single or multi-stage conversion with decreasing frequency.

On Fig shows the block diagram of the navigation processor 1900 navigation device 102, is configured to perform processing of the ranging signals in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. As shown in Fig, block 1902 conversion Gilbert converts the raw digital RF samples 1816 in complex samples 1904. There are many tracking module 1906. Each tracking module 1906 is associated with its own signal contained in complex samples 1904, and can be used for tracking or satellite or terrestrial sources ranging signals.

The navigation processor 1900 provides commands 1908 on tracking modules 1906 is based raw digital reports 1818 movement, processed inertial processor 1916 and generalized Kalman filter 1914. Supporting information 1908 shifts tracking modules 1906 at a small fraction of the wavelength. The raw measurement 1910 code and phase of the carrier from the tracking module 1906 read in the navigation pre-processor 1912, processed generalized Kalman filter 1914, and joined together to provide notches 1918 location.

On Fig given different definitions of the state variables used generalized Kalman filter 1914 navigation processor 1900 in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention.

On Fig equation 2002 is a model correlator integration and reset. The output tracking error Δ simulated by averaging over time T the difference between the actual phase and the phase predicted by the filter. The equation of 2004 represents a model of continuous updates in time full navigation system includes an inertial unit, a clock, and all sources of synchronization and ranging signals both terrestrial and space. Variables of the state vector operator estimates represent the accumulated phase correlator, the user's location, speed, angular orientation, the displacement of the accelerometer, the gyroscope bias, the bias of the distribution range, the speed of displacement of the definition range, the offset hours, the speed shift hours. The equation of 2006 is a model of the observation phase of the carrier, which shows the transfer ahead of time to the user from the reference space taking into account the geometry and atmospheric errors.

On Fig shows a block diagram of one of the monitoring modules, 1906, in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. Tracking module 1906 accepts the command 1908 advance billing code phase and carrier-specific ranging signal tracking tracking module 1906. At the first stage of processing Converter 1950 with decreasing frequency carrier rotates presented in complex samples 1904, to the main band. Then converted to a lower frequency signal 1952 split and transmitted to the agreed differential filter 1954 and at an agreed point filter 1956.

The waveform for each of the ranging signal, which is in the field of view, either pre-stored in the user memory or, alternatively, is updated via communication with the satellite 108 LEO or from a network node (e.g. node cellular, WiFi, WiMAX, or VII). Update on the wire allows you to extend the architecture and use it almost any transmitted signal. This impulse response (similar PRN for GPS satellite) forms the basis for consistent processing filter. Impulse response of the terrestrial signal, such as signal cellular, WiFi, WiMAX, VII or a TV signal can be adjusted by storing deterministic part of the reference signal. Any part of the signal that contains the non-deterministic characteristics, such as unknown data of the reference signal is excluded. Then on each of these concerted served filters impulse response patterns of the reference signal to implement in a consistent filter/correlator. As a result, the filters 1954 1956 and provides in-phase and quadrature representations, respectively, of the differential errors 1958 tracking and spot errors 1960 tracking.

You can use different data structures to encode the sources of the ranging signals in accordance with different variants of execution of the invention. For example, in one embodiment, the distance measuring signal can be represented with the following code:

struct ranging_signal {/* generic parameters of the source of the ranging signals */ impulse_response broadcast_signal; /* the structure of the signal from the source of the ranging signals */

double broadcast_frequency; /* frequency of the source of the ranging signals location */ position broadcast_location; /* phase center of the ranging signals */ time broadcast_clock; /*offset clock source of the ranging signals */

<> };

In the above code, the form of the reference signal is encoded as a parameter of the impulse response, the start time of which is tied to the clock broadcast. Frequency broadcast is the carrier frequency of the source of the ranging signals. The location of the broadcast is encoded in the form of precise ephemerides for the satellites and in the form of a static Cartesian coordinates for land-based sources ranging signals. Correction clock calibrates the source of the ranging signals relative to the system time based on coordinated universal time (UTC) (e.g., provided by the naval Observatory United States of America (USNO)).

In different versions of the appropriate ground station can be configured to decrypt the new codes ranging signals used by the satellites 108 LEO, in close to real time. In this regard, such ground station can transmit the decrypted codes, navigation devices 102, thereby allowing the navigation device 102 to navigate using almost any signal, acting in concert or not.

On Fig-29 shows the various applications of the system 100 for navigating in the discrepancies between the different services, operating in different environments, in accordance with various implementation of the invention. For example, on Fig shows the application of the system 100 for providing location within the premises in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In this sense, it should be borne in mind that Fig navigation device 102 may be located inside a building or other structure.

As shown in Fig, the navigation device 102 (e.g., a portable user navigation device) may receive a signal 104 LEO directly from the satellite 108 LEO and additional ranging signals 318 from node 310. It is also shown that the base station control network 204 may also receive the ranging signals 318. As described above, the control network 204 may be equipped with appropriate hardware and / or software means for determining the calibration information associated with each source 310 of the ranging signals transmitted to the satellite 108 LEO ascendant 320 connection, encoded by the satellite 108 LEO signal 104 LEO and transmitted through a broadcast transmission to the navigation device 102 as an integral part of the signal 104 LEO. The calibration information can then be used by the navigation device 102 for processing the ranging signals 318 for domestic the navigation in combination with measurement range, performed using signal 104 LEO. In the navigation device 102 can use the signal 104 LEO and the ranging signals 318 to navigate.

Military navigation signal V (e.g., provided by the satellite 108 LEO as an integral part of the signal 104 LEO) can, as well as the ranging signals 318 (e.g., provided by sources 310 of the ranging signals, such as signal sources, cellular, or television signals) can be implemented as signals of high power, able to penetrate building materials and to achieve the navigation device 102, inside the premises. Accordingly, when using such signals high power in the approach shown in Fig, the navigation device 102 can navigate in the room and quickly capture information after a cold start.

Fig illustrates the application of the system 100 for providing location within the premises in accordance with another variant implementation of the invention. It should be borne in mind that the embodiment shown in Fig, in General, corresponds to the above variant implementation Fig. However, in an embodiment shown in Fig, the navigation device 102 may also communicate with about the a priori network 204 or nodes 312 or 314 via the network 316.

In addition, the system 100 can be configured to use the commercial processing of signals with reference, as described with reference to Fig. 8. In this case, commercial navigation signal S with lower power can be used to gain more winnings while processing by transferring a copy of the navigation data encoded in commercial navigation signal S on top of the ranging signals 318. Because in the process Fig navigation data is deleted, bandwidth contour tracking can be significantly reduced.

In one embodiment, the navigation device 102 can determine the final cut of his position by creating a vector of pseudorange for each source of the ranging signals, k, with subsequent mineralizatsiei relative to the initial approximation for the user position, x, and shift hours user τ.

For a more accurate estimate of the user position is used the least-squares method:

In another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to provide high-precision, highly reliable navigation. In this respect Fig illustrates when is the change of the system 100 to implement navigation using signals 106 GPS and dual-band signals 104 and 104' LEO, in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In particular, Fig shows how you can use single-frequency GPS signal L1 with two different signals 104 and 104' LEO (for example, with different LEO signals in different frequency bands from different satellites 108 and 108' LEO) to provide high quality navigation. In an embodiment, is shown in Fig enough bearing 106 GPS signals and signals 104 and 104' LEO - phase code signals is not necessary to use. However, in another embodiment uses both code and carrier to obtain the maximum information from the available observed values.

On Pig station control network 204 can monitor the signals 106 and GPS signals 104 and 104' LEO and to collect information about the continuous phase carrier to determine the precise orbit satellites 202 GPS satellites 108 LEO. Using different signals 104 and 104' LEO, you can exclude the influence of the ionosphere and give the phase of the carrier signal, in which no influence of the ionosphere. You can evaluate cyclic ambiguities for all satellites 202 GPS satellites 104 and 104' LEO (for example, represented by ellipsoids 2402), using a large angular velocity of the satellites 104 and 104' LEO.

The position of the navigation device 102 (e.g., a plane in this embodiment) can be identified on Fig in the same way that was described above with reference to Fig-23. In particular, negaprion the th entry gives k-e measurement of the pseudorange to determine the user position x in the time interval m and tropospheric Zenith delay DZ together with all offsets determining the distance of the satellites, modeled as a continuous variable b.

Again use the method of least squares to solve the system of equations for position adjustments, offset time and the vector of displacements of determining the distance. Although measurements using signals 106 GPS are single and susceptible to ionospheric bias in the resulting solution ionospheric dependence is absent. Because measurements using signals 104 and 104' LEO deprived of ionospheric dependence and because the satellites 104 and 104' LEO have a high angular velocity (in comparison with almost zero angular velocity of the satellites 202 GPS) matrix geometry matrix is full rank except for the in-phase mode between hours and shifts range determination. This means that the estimates of displacement for satellites 202 GPS take values that correctly identify the user's position based on the dimensions deprived of ionospheric based, using 104 and 104' LEO.

Fig illustrates the application of the system 100 for navigating through 106 GPS signals and one signal 104 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the present invention. The geometry of the orbit is the only satellite 108 LEO, located within sight, seeks to place the satellite 108 LEO trajectory, which combines the ellipsoid 2502 uncertainty of the situation with the local horizontal. In addition to the signal 104 LEO and signals 106 GPS navigation device 102 (e.g., the plane in this embodiment) can be also used third signal 2504 (for example, from the satellite 306 Galileo system or from other satellites to determine its position.

The accuracy of the navigation system can be measured by the ability of the system to timely warn users when it should not be used. In this sense, the risk of unreliability can be described as the probability of undetected dangerous anomalies navigation system. In one embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to ensure high reliability by using Autonomous control over the authenticity of the receiver (RAIM). In embodiments of RAIM navigation device 102 may be configured to control self-consistency of the measurements for the detection of navigational errors associated with failures of various kinds. Rapid movement of satellites 108 LEO can facilitate such measurements.

Using RAIM accuracy of approximation by the least squares method is used to test hypotheses of system failure method Chi-square. In this case, you can use the following formula:

In the above formula φ corresponds to the ranging measurements, N corresponds to the matrix of the geometry of the satellite, andcorresponds to the assessment of the situation. After defining each notch position of the navigation device 102 may be configured to calculate the measurement error of R. If R is less than the threshold value, it is assumed that the system 100 is functioning properly. If R is greater than or equal to the threshold value, the navigation device 102 may complain about a breach of confidence.

On Fig shows the influence of the error of determining the distance to the decision on determining the position in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. Usually the ranging measurements are self-consistent. However, if one or more dimensions are distorted or displaced, this error may divert from the truth, the resulting solution. RAIM able to detect an error, because there is an inconsistency between measurements of strongly correlated with the actual position error.

On Fig shows how the accuracy of the phase of the carrier system balances the geometry, which is characterized by obscurities and lower precision (DOP). In the two-dimensional case, the approximation by the least squares method eliminates the vertical component of the position error. In one variant the execution system 100 may be preferably implemented with centimeter accuracy in the phase of the carrier to provide a reliable navigation during blackout. As shown in the drawing, in the process shown in Fig, you can also use pre-prepared map heights.

Fig illustrates the application of the system 100 to implement navigation using signals received directly from the satellite 108 LEO satellites and 202 GPS in accordance with the option run. On Fig there is a similar option, on Fig, but with the addition of network 316 and the ranging signals 318 to briefly interrupt signal 104 LEO and signals 106 GPS did not affect continuity of service.

As described above, the system 100 may be configured to maintain an ascending line 320 data from the reference stations to the core network 204 to facilitate navigation carried out by the navigation device 102 using signals 104B/104C/104D. Ascending line 320 data can also be maintained properly configured the navigation device 102. In this case, the ascending line 320 data can also be used to pass any required data from the reference network 204 and (or) navigation device 102 to the satellite 108 LEO for later broadcast as part of the signal A communication signal 104 LEO.

Since the accurate time feature of system 100 is available, the GPS time and UTC, it is possible to set about nestorone Protocol uplink communication, which provides the ascending line 320 data without direct two-way synchronization. Time and frequency phasing ascending line 320 data can be pre-installed in such a way as to act on the satellite 108 LEO in exact accordance with the instantaneous phase of the carrier and the frame structure on a per-symbol basis. If there is a suitable Protocol for multiple use can be shared channel uplink many navigation devices 102. This Protocol multiple use can be implemented by time, frequency, code, or any combination of the above. In one embodiment, the ascending line 320 data may be in the form of upward spread spectrum resistance to intentional interference and low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D). In another embodiment, the low power signals on the uplink data 320 can be summarized in many characters to extract total microemboli from noise and provide an ascending line with LPI/d

On Fig illustrates the structure of the loop for bursts 3002 data on the ascending line 320 to the satellite 108 LEO in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In one embodiment, the ascending line 320 before the Chi data can be performed with the support of data bursts on the uplink communication about 240 channels at 414 bits per burst. To align properly ascending line 320 data on a per-symbol basis in one embodiment, the frame structure of the satellite 108 LEO can be pre-placed in the idle state (for example, when no offset and time offset in frequency relative to the main clock of the satellite 108 LEO). In another embodiment, the base station control network 204 may be configured to generate the appropriate clock signal for uplink 320 data transmission to the satellite 108 LEO. The sense clock signal is in the preliminary alignment of the frame structure for data symbols in the burst relative to the reference UTC and GPS time.

On Fig the above ground infrastructure to synchronize uplink 320 data in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In particular, the ground infrastructure on Fig includes a control station control network 204, which may be used for combining field 3104 payload of each burst 3002 data. In one embodiment, the base station may be configured to not perform broadcast transmission during part of the burst allocated to the payload 3104 (this time is reserved for navigation devices 102). In one embodiment, the implementation of the each of the navigation device 102 may be authorized to transmit in uplink communication, one character at a specified time and frequency interval. Thus, each character (or each orthogonal bits in the frame structure for uplink communication QPSK) equipped with individually addressable by the navigation device 102, which knows its position and the UTC/GPS. The navigation device 102 can be implemented using any suitable Protocol, multiple use, in accordance with which the navigation device 102 selected bits in certain fields. For example, according to the CDMA Protocol a set of navigation device 102 may even share the same bits.

In various embodiments, the ascending line 320 data transmission can be implemented with low-power signals. For example, in one embodiment, the ascending line 320 may be implemented using broadcast on miliwatts level for transmitting multiple bits of data per second to the satellite 108 LEO. If this power is distributed, for example, bandwidth 10 MHz, the spectral density of the received power flow is acceptable for applications LPI/D. This implementation ascending line 320 spread spectrum can also provide protection from intentional interference.

On Fig shows an embodiment of a signal with a low level, used for uplink 320 data in accordance with the var is the ant execution of the invention. In one embodiment, the satellite 108 LEO can be made with the possibility of reception of each bit in QPSK modulation, together with the background noise. Since QPSK can be synthesized from two orthogonal streams binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), on Fig shows a simplified distribution of the probability of BPSK (pair of offset Gaussian distributions). Typically, the detector in the satellite demodulator 108 LEO decides to "1" or "0" (defined in this case as -1) based on the threshold values at zero, and the error probability per symbol is calculated by integrating the area under the Gaussian depending on the signal-to-noise.

In one embodiment, the demodulator is considered as a hard amplitude limiter. When the signal-to-noise ratio much less than one representative is the Central curve of the Gaussian distribution shown in Fig. The presence of a signal (i.e., bits of data) is only slightly shifts the curve from one side to the other, but in General the output signal hammered interference. However, by averaging many discrete times, the satellite 108 LEO can detect the appearance of the signal. Calculating, well-known specialists in the field of technology, establish loss hard limiter at about 2 dB. In other words, except for the effective conversion losses of the analog signal in the a or level 2 dB input signal is fully preserved, even if the satellite 108 LEO was originally implemented as a communications satellite. The above approach is not limited to the specific implementation of the satellite 108 LEO.

In various embodiments, processing of data bits can be performed control network 104, the navigation device 102 or on the satellite 108 LEO. In another embodiment, it is possible to use specially designed demodulators with multibyte high-frequency unit to eliminate the 2 dB loss of the hard limiter in the satellites 108 LEO implemented with analog configurations of type "straight hole.

On Fig shows the block diagram of the transmitter 3300, configured to support uplink 320 data in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In this respect it should be borne in mind that the transmitter 3300 may be part of a base station supporting network 204 or part of one or more navigation devices 102. For example, in one embodiment, the transmitter 330 may be included in the pocket of the defense advanced receiving GPS device (DAGR), cell phone or any other cheap compact device. Such navigation device 102 preferably can be performed with the possibility of sending text messages and status messages with the crimson lag time from anywhere in the world in the ascending line 320 data for later broadcast signal A connection.

As shown in Fig, position, and watch the navigation device 102 (e.g., provided in accordance with the navigation solution 3302) and the position and the offset hours of the satellite 108 LEO (for example, wealthy navigation pre-processor 1912) are subtracted from each other to obtain a priori parameter timing τ0used, as shown in the drawing, the block 3308 calculation timing. In this case τ0corresponds to the lead time, which must be completed transmission of individual bits of data dnmfor admission to the satellite 108 LEO at exactly the right time and with the exact phasing.

Parameter timing then controls the synthesis signal processor main frequency bands. Data to be reported on an ascending line, encoded and encrypted in block 3304 in accordance with user preferences. Block 3306 modulator generates data pulses 40% root raised cosine modulated corresponding bit data, PRN-code direct sequence and frequency offset of the channel, given by the block 3310 PRN generator and block 3312 synthesizer. You can simultaneously handle any desired number of channels. The signals are summed, are converted with increasing frequency (in this case, up to 100 MHz)is converted to its real form, is converted and the digital to analog and is converted to high frequency for a broadcast, as shown by blocks 3316-3324 on Fig.

For compact and low-power operation the main component of frequency bands can be implemented in such a way as to be modified in real plot of the main range in DAGR or cell phone. In one embodiment, the antenna 3324 may also be used for GPS signals in DAGR or cell phone. In one embodiment, the power consumption and size of the equipment to broadcast in the ascending line of communication can be implemented in such a way as to be suitable for the phone or for a compact device. For example, in one embodiment, such transmission equipment can be implemented on the basis of the chip RF2638 supplied by RF Micro Devices, which provides high-frequency output power level 10 dB relative to 1 mW and requires 25 mA at a voltage of 3 V

On Fig shows the block diagram of the various components 3400 satellite 108 LEO, configured to support uplink 320 data in accordance with a variant implementation of the invention. In one embodiment, the satellite 108 LEO can be made with the possibility of reception of pulses with bits of data through the antenna 3402 and the receiving unit 3404 and fill the internal structure of the frame of the resulting solution, namely +1 or-1. Block 3406 PRN-is enerator gives a command for frequency hopping for uplink scheme, previously known as the navigation device 102 and the satellite 108 LEO. Block 3408 PRN generator applies also to the incoming bits of the PRN-code direct sequence. Waveforms associated with various hypotheses macro characters (generated by the block generator 3410 hypotheses), is mixed with the incoming signal and then processed by the processor 3412 (for example, as described above with respect to processor 718), to ensure the resulting message 3414 data. As in the case of signal 104 LEO, also described herein, orthogonal coding provides excellent value spectral density relationship of energy to noise (Eb/N0) for uplink 320 data.

Ascending line 320 data also contains a built-in distance measuring signal due to the modulation with PRN-encoding. Additionally, the satellite 109 LEO may be provided for automatic adjustment delay (DLL) to estimate the distance from the navigation device 102 to the satellite 108 LEO. In the result, it is possible to perform a reverse triangulation and use a variety of satellites 108 LEO for passive triangulation of the position of the navigation device 102.

The system 100 advantageously can be used to provide the required characteristics in a variety of applications. For example, in one embodiment, the system 10 can be implemented to ensure rapid directional change of keys. Using the infrastructure of the methods open the private key in the system 100 of the navigation device 102 can be authenticated using a two-way data line to transmit the encrypted key exchange via wireless lines. Thus, it can be supported by reliable control of a specific user, a receiver, and shift keys.

In another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to obtain information about the situation with the United forces of the enemy. In this case, the navigation device 102 can share information on the status of other nearby friendly forces, and the exchange of information on dangerous areas and the location of the enemy can be performed in real time.

In yet another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented for navigation, communication and air traffic control. In this case, the navigation device 102 can be performed on an aircraft (for example, instead of the antenna Board and GPS in megaregion the receiver (MMR) aircraft for landing category III, internal communication, integrated automatic dependent surveillance and integrated management of air traffic, based on satellite data.

In yet another variant implementation of the system 100 can be implemented to support search and rescue operations. In this case, the navigation device 102 can be configured to provide global characteristics E both military and civilian purposes. Features LPI/D military option ascending line 320 data allow conversion of the modified device DAGR for use in a hostile environment.

In another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to support retargeting on the route. In this case, a controlled means of destruction you can give commands and you can make them redirect in real time using commands modified device DAGR.

In yet another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to support damage assessment of military equipment. In this case, the information collected from individuals or from sensors can be easily connected through the ascending line 320 data. In another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to support that it was possible to combine information about the weather, correlated by location.

In yet another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to ensure the Association of measurements with the network navigation device 102 power of intentional interference, or a good time, or frequency characteristics of the device prednasone the governmental interference to determine by triangulating their exact location.

In yet another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to support the management of narrow beam. In this case, the scope of authority of the management capacity of the narrow beam can be transmitted to the navigation device 102. For example, in the presence of intentional interference with the navigation device 102 can be implemented with the possibility to request an increase in the real time power of the broadcast signal 104 LEO. This embodiment can be made available for military and civil users, carrying out rescue operations, and scope of authority determined by the state policy.

In yet another embodiment, the system 100 can be implemented to support the global text messaging in the cellular system. For example, in the navigation device 102 (for example, in a modified device DAGR or mobile phone) may be provided for establishing uplink 320 data to ensure sending text messages to any place and from any location around the world.

The above-described embodiments of the illustrate, but not limit the invention. It should be understood that many possible modifications and alterations in accordance with the principles of the present invention. Accordingly, the volume of the m of the invention is defined only by the following formula.

1. The way to navigate, contains the following stages:
take the signal from low earth orbit (LEO) from the LEO satellite;
decode the navigation signal from the signal LEO;
take the first and second ranging signals from the first and second sources of the ranging signals;
determine calibration information associated with the first and second ranging sources;
calculate the position using the navigation signal, the first and second ranging signals and the calibration information, and
take a copy of the navigation signal over a cellular network; and
calculate the position by using the up navigation signal, first and second ranging signals and the calibration information.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the LEO signal contains signal communication and navigation signal, and the LEO satellite is a communications satellite that is configured to provide a signal LEO.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the LEO satellite is selected from the group consisting of a satellite system Iridium satellite Globalstar.

4. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the navigation signal contains the signal with pseudo-random noise (PRN)encoded in multiple channels of the LEO signal.

5. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that Naviga the ion signal selected from the group consisting of military navigation signal, commercial navigation signal and the civil navigation signal.

6. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that at least one of the ranging signals selected from the group consisting of a mobile phone signal, the television signal and the signal of the global positioning (GPS).

7. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, wherein the calibration information includes a temporal reference code, carrier phase, data bits and the phase of the symbol.

8. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, wherein the method is performed by a device selected from the group consisting of a portable navigation device, the navigation device on the basis of the vehicle and the navigation device on the basis of the aircraft.

9. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the implementation of the method is caused by the presence of the encryption key from the navigation device.

10. The navigation device containing
means for receiving the signal from low earth orbit (LEO) from the LEO satellite;
means for decoding the navigation signal from the signal LEO;
means for receiving the first and second ranging signals from the first and second East is nikov of the ranging signals;
means for determining calibration information associated with the first and second sources of the ranging signals;
means for calculating the position using the navigation signal, the first and second ranging signals and the calibration information;
means for receiving a copy of the navigation signal over a cellular network; and
means for calculating the position by using the up navigation signal, first and second ranging signals and the calibration information.

11. The navigation device of claim 10, further containing a means to assess the impact of the ionosphere using a single-frequency signal L1 global positioning (GPS).

12. The navigation device of claim 10 or 11, further containing a means for providing a three-dimensional pointing automatic landing of the aircraft by means of the navigation signal and the first signal, and a source of the first ranging signal is a satellite.

13. The navigation device according to any one of p-12, further containing a means for providing vertical guidance automatic landing using navigation signal.

14. The navigation device according to any one of PP-13, further containing a means for implementing Autonomous control over the authenticity of the receiver(RAIM).



 

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FIELD: physics.

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EFFECT: highly accurate determination of coordinates of a receiver based on differential processing of phase measurements with complete elimination of phase ambiguity.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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1 dwg

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8 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

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FIELD: physics.

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FIELD: physics.

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5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: there determined is location of reference station in reference station according to signals received in it from complex of satellites, there determined is location of user receiver where user is located on the basis of measurement results received in it and on the basis of modification values calculated in reference station for correction of errors and there calculated is vector of relative position by calculating difference between location of reference station and location of the user.

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19 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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29 cl, 6 dwg, 5 tbl

FIELD: physics.

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EFFECT: increased accuracy of determining location by providing the positioning device with a list of defective signals transmitted by a specific satellite.

29 cl, 6 dwg, 5 tbl

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: there determined is location of reference station in reference station according to signals received in it from complex of satellites, there determined is location of user receiver where user is located on the basis of measurement results received in it and on the basis of modification values calculated in reference station for correction of errors and there calculated is vector of relative position by calculating difference between location of reference station and location of the user.

EFFECT: improving determination accuracy of object location.

19 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises reception of radio signals, analysis of output data of a group of receivers in combination with the data of weather pickups, and generation of navigation data quality signals and corrections to said data for its consumers.

EFFECT: higher probability of detecting intolerable abnormality of navigation satellite signals coming from all operated navigation systems GLONASS, GPS and GALILEO.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: navigation system calculates positions which are corrected using complementary filters, each of which excludes data coming from one of the satellites when a fault is detected in one of the satellites. The complementary filter which excludes this satellite becomes the main filter and the other complementary filters are initiated by the new main filter.

EFFECT: reduced computational load in the navigation system.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: to receive a radio-navigation signal modulated by a signal containing a BOC (n1,m) component and a BOC (n2,m) component, correlation between the current signal at the reception point and the modulating signal, and correlation between the shifted signal at the reception point and the modulating signal is carried out in a time interval with duration T. The current signal at the reception point is generated in form of a binary signal containing one segment of the BOC (n2,m) signal with overall duration (1-αA)T during the said time interval. The shifted signal at the reception point is generated in form of a binary signal containing one segment of the BOC (n1,m) signal with overall duration αBT during the said time interval.

EFFECT: high accuracy of synchronising a received signal with a reference signal.

13 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: mobile communication device uses a position finding method using a position finding filter, for example a Kalman filter which is initialised by measurements from reference stations, for example satellites and/or base stations, which can be obtained during different periods. Accordingly, the position finding filter can be used to evaluate the position without the need to first obtain at least three different signals during the same measurement period.

EFFECT: high efficiency and reliability of position finding for mobile receivers of a global positioning system in unfavourable signal propagation conditions when coincidence of range measurements may not occur on time.

40 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: request for auxiliary data issued by a mobile station is received at a server station and in response to the request, the server station sends to the server station ephemeral data as part of auxiliary data. After receiving the request for auxiliary data issued by the mobile station, the server station decides on the possibility of the mobile station reaching given accuracy for determining location is provided with transmitted ephemeral data. In the affirmative case, the server station sends transmitted ephemeral data to the mobile station. In the negative case, the server station sends to the mobile station long-term ephemeral data instead of transmitted ephemeral data as part of the requested auxiliary data. The long-term ephemeral data are extracted from forecasts of orbit satellites and they have validity interval which is sufficiently long compared to the ephemeral data transmitted by satellites.

EFFECT: high accuracy of position finding.

8 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a GPS/GLONASS receiver, an antenna, a user interface (keyboard, display, sound), a communication interface, nonvolatile memory, a microcontroller, consisting of a unit for calculating the coordinate vector from code measurements, a unit for calculating the increment of the coordinate vector from phase measurements, a filter unit based on a least-square method, a unit for calculating a specified coordinate vector from the filtration results, a unit for working with interfaces, where the microcontroller includes a unit for analysing stability of the phase solution, a unit for evaluating duration of measurements and geometrical factor of the constellation of satellites, as well as a correcting unit consisting of a counter for counting stable solutions and a decision unit for deciding on continuing measurements, interfaces for time marking external events and outputting the second mark.

EFFECT: highly accurate determination of coordinates of a receiver based on differential processing of phase measurements with complete elimination of phase ambiguity.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a GPS/GLONASS receiver, an antenna, a user interface (keyboard, display, sound), a communication interface, nonvolatile memory, a microcontroller, consisting of a unit for calculating the coordinate vector from code measurements, a unit for calculating the increment of the coordinate vector from phase measurements, a filter unit based on a least-square method, a unit for calculating a specified coordinate vector from the filtration results, a unit for working with interfaces, where the microcontroller includes a unit for analysing stability of the phase solution, a unit for evaluating duration of measurements and geometrical factor of the constellation of satellites, as well as a correcting unit consisting of a counter for counting stable solutions and a decision unit for deciding on continuing measurements, interfaces for time marking external events and outputting the second mark.

EFFECT: highly accurate determination of coordinates of a receiver based on differential processing of phase measurements with complete elimination of phase ambiguity.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: navigation is performed using low earth orbit (LEO) satellite signals, as well as signals from two sources of ranging signals for determining associated calibration information, where a position is calculated using a navigation signal, a first and a second ranging signal and calibration information. Also possible is providing a plurality of transmission channels on a plurality of transmission time intervals using pseudorandom noise (PRN) and merging communication channels and navigation channels into a LEO signal. The method also involves broadcasting a LEO signal from a LEO satellite. Also disclosed is a LEO satellite data uplink. The invention also discloses various approaches to localised jamming of navigation signals.

EFFECT: high efficiency and ensuring navigation with high level of integration and security.

14 cl, 34 dwg

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