Rolling stock brake with self-stabilising brake shoes

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport, particularly, to rolling stock braking equipment. Brake comprises brake shoe holder swinging about axis and at least one brake shoe. Said shoe has wearing section interacting with friction pair. Brake shoe geometry allows wear centre, in the case of skew wear, to displace so that torque counteracting said skew wear originates. Multiple polygonal brake shoes may swing about their holders in all directions. Cross section of wearing section narrows toward pair of friction in whatever plate perpendicular thereto.

EFFECT: reduced skew wear, longer life.

5 cl, 10 dwg

 

The invention relates to a brake device for railway vehicles according to paragraph 1 of the claims.

Brake device for railway vehicles disclosed in DE 19508034 A1. To achieve the maximum service life of brake pads and brake linings need the most uniformly use the prescribed amount of wear. For this it is important that the friction pad in the wear process was not inclined position, which decreases provided for use by the thickness of the wear.

In rail rolling stock wheelsets performed, as a rule, the lateral movement relative to the trucks. In addition, it is also possible limited displacement of the wheelsets in height relative to the trucks carrying the wheel brake, such as drum brakes. Installation with swing arms of the brake linings, holders of brake pads and brake shoes pads needed for brake linings and brake pads, despite the lateral movement of the axes and their height offset could be paired opposite friction surfaces of the braking wheels wheelset. The disadvantage is that the brake pads and the brake pads occupy in relation to the adjacent braking surface inclined position and can sredstv is E. this to wear with a bevel. The determining factor for oblique wear is the position of the so-called centre of wear on the friction surface of the brake linings or pads, on which fictitiously affects braking force FTormand which can be determined by calculations in complex ways.

As an example of such problems figure 1 shows the normal suspension holder 1 brake pads with the help of finger joints 2 on the levers 4 compact brake 6 ticks, which interact with the brake disc (not shown)rigidly fastened to the axle. Due to the installation of the holder 1 brake pads with swing center wear 10 with a slight oblique wear of the brake linings 8 are shifted due to the reaction force in the direction for a distance h1 relative to the line of force 12 acting on the finger connection 2 power finger Ffingerwhile on the brake pad 8 torque occurs, leading to the increase in the duration of stubble wear, as shown in figure 2. In the unstable mode, this causes samoushirenie beveled wear, which increases. Beveled wear can occur not only on one brake pad 8, but also on several brake pads 20, are fixed on under them and installed with the ability to swing the holder 16 compact Tormos the x ticks 18, while the brake pads 20 according to figure 3 are, for example, a hexagonal cross-section. The same problem applies to Shoe brakes 22, and figure 4 shows the holder 24 brake pads, through which the finger connection 28 rotatable mounted relative to the brake lever 26 and the piston rod.

Mentioned at the beginning of the notches extending from the surface of the friction facing to a pair of friction, inside the wear volume and is made usually in the form of passing along and across the slots 19 (see figure 1), are, on the one hand, to drain out on the friction surfaces of water, so that when humidity environment to prevent formation of a hydrodynamic lubricant film on the friction surfaces and the reduction of the coefficient of sliding friction. On the other hand, referred to the slots 19 to prevent the bending of the brake pads, if the latter is unevenly heated by its thickness and the result is uneven thermal expansion.

To counter beveled wear, there are several technical solutions. One possibility, used for traditional brake mites is to use broad pendant earrings, opposing beveled wear. Another possibility, used for compact brake mites, I had are parallel gear levers, described in DE 19508034 A1. For both solutions should be taken into account that the pair of wheels of a rail vehicle usually has some radial samostanovlenie when moving along the curve, while the brake pliers are mounted on the carriage stationary. To radially samostanovlenie wheel pair and brake pads parallel to the truck frame, to avoid unacceptably high pressures at the edge of the brake pads during braking, guiding rectilinear movement must have some elasticity. These conventional rectilinear motion guides are, therefore, a compromise between exact parallel direction and ductility when moving along the curve. In addition, the necessary guiding rectilinear motion is a factor of certain expenses.

On the other hand, the wear of brake pads and brake linings depends on other parameters, such as surface pressure, sliding velocity, surface roughness of the sliding surfaces, the flatness of the sliding surfaces, which may vary, for example, due to thermal expansion during braking, the material of the wheel or brake disc material from the brake pads or brake linings, from the ambient temperature, cooling, wet the minute air or braking energy. Taking into account these effects can point input power to choose so that the tendency to splay wear decreased. According to EP 551868 A1 it is suggested to place the insertion point force reniform brake disc brake pads are not in the plane of the center of gravity of the friction surface, and with a slight radial offset it in the direction of the axis of the brake disc to create where the circumferential speed of the friction surface is smaller, higher pressure on the pad and thereby get her uniform wear.

In addition, to determine the optimal point of the input power, there are computer programs. Test result or optimization can be performed on a test rig for friction studies or trials.

Note that the optimal location of the force depends on the speed of movement of the vehicle, but to find the optimum for each application point of pressure application is impossible. This means that one and the same plate in a faster vehicle has a tendency to splay wear in one direction and at a slow vehicle is a tendency to splay wear in the other direction.

Corresponding to the generic characteristic of the brake device for railway vehicles with drum brake disclosed in US 6,241,058 B1. In the specified IP is the source of information cross-section of the wear volume of the brake pads, situated in the plane perpendicular to the axis about which with swing set brake pad, tapers in the direction of the wheel. Thanks to this performance is the center of the wear of the friction surface due to the inclined position is shifted in the opposite direction. So there is a stabilizing torque straightening obliquely located on the brake pad.

The basis of the invention lies task is to improve the brake device for railway vehicles of the aforementioned type in such a way as to ensure further reduction beveled wear and thus it is better to use provided the wear volume.

This problem is solved by means of a braking device, characterized by the characteristics of claim 1 of the formula.

Advantages of the invention

The invention is based on the idea of making brake linings such geometric shapes, so that when the oblique wear of the brake linings in any direction was such a displacement of the centre of wear of the brake lining, which occurs torque opposing beveled wear.

When this brake pad contains, for example, holding the volume located in the holder brake pads, and wear volume, interacting with a pair of friction, such is for example, as the brake disc or the rolling surface of the wheel.

In accordance with the invention, at least one brake pad in the form of a polygon made with respect to its holder with the ability to swing in all directions, and the cross-section of the wear volume of the brake pads narrows in the direction of the friction pair in any plane perpendicular to the pair.

Due to the fact that the lateral surface of the brake lining is made from all sides sloped like a ship's hull, the center of the wear of the friction surface is shifted due to the inclined position in the opposite direction. So there is a stabilizing torque, which again straightens obliquely located on the brake pad just as it does when the roll of the ship.

In patent DD-PS 87058 disclosed brake pads with a tapered cross-section, however, such a shape is selected only with the intention that when replacing the brake pads due to wear, to provide a simple introduction it is made in the form of a dovetail guide holder without the necessity of making brake lining difficult the outer contour, expensive to manufacture. The same applies to the brake pads as described in the application DE-OS 2100009.

The effect of semistability is achieved also in the case when the according to the following preferred variant implementation of the invention, at least located in the plane perpendicular to the axis, the cross section of grooves extending from the surface of the friction facing to a pair of friction, wear inside volume of the brake pads, extend in the direction of the friction pair.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which presents the following:

figure 1 is a view in perspective of interacting with the brake disk brake ticks according to the prior art;

figure 2 is a cross section of the tool holder for brake pads and brake linings in the composition brake ticks of figure 1;

figure 3 is a view in perspective of interacting with the brake disk brake ticks according to the prior art in the following embodiment;

4 - in the perspective of the device with a brake Shoe according to the prior art;

5 is a cross-section of the holder for brake pads and brake linings in neizvestnom state;

6 is a cross-section of the holder for brake linings and brake pads on figure 5 in a worn condition;

7 is a cross section of the tool holder for brake pads and brake linings according to a preferred variant implementation of the invention in neizvestnom state;

Fig is a cross section of the tool holder for brake linings and brake pads on FIGU worn condition;

Fig.9 is a cross section of the tool holder for the brake pads and the brake pads neizvestnom state;

figure 10 is a cross section of the tool holder for brake pads and brake pads on Fig.9 in a worn condition.

Shown in figure 5 and supporting the brake pad holder 30 32 according to one variant of the invention preferably is used in a compact brake grip 34, as they are represented in figure 1 with the brake pads 8 of the prior art. Compact brake clamp 34 act on the brake disk 31 and the brake pads 30 enter into bilateral frictional contact with the side surfaces of the brake disc 31. Each holder 32 of brake pads mounted on the levers compact brake ticks 34 by means of two bolt connections 62 and the clamping screws 36. Finger connection 62 allow the holders 32 brake pads rotate around the axes of the fingers, installed parallel to the plane of the brake disc. This is necessary so that the brake pads 30 can be oriented parallel to the lateral surfaces of the brake disc 31 when the latter together with the axis of the wheel with which it rotates, performs an axial movement.

As follows from figure 5, each brake pad 30 is located in a corresponding holder 32 holding volume 38 and interact with the s with the brake disc 31 wear volume 40, which can wear down to a certain limit. The connection between retention volume 38 of the brake linings 30 and the holder 32 can be implemented, for example, through the guide 42 in the form of a dovetail.

Figure 5 also shows the line 44 force impact force of the finger Ffingerwhen she neizvestnom the condition of the brake lining 30 is collinear with the center wear 54, in which the braking force is FTormthe effect on the friction surface 46 of the brake pads 30. Dashed line shows wear available in volume 40 of the transverse slots 48, intended, on the one hand, to drain out the water, located on the friction surface, so that when the humidity of the environment was not accompanied by the formation of a hydrodynamic lubricant film on the friction surface 46 and an unwanted image is not reduced coefficient of sliding friction. On the other hand, these transverse slot 48 to prevent the bending of the brake pads 30, if the last non-uniformly heated along its thickness and, as a result, there is an uneven thermal expansion.

Cross-section of the wear volume 40 brake pads 30 located in the plane perpendicular to the axis of a pin connection 62 that tapers in the direction of the brake disc 31. Preferably, the specified eugeniopacheco-section went smoothly and gently, that is, to the side surface 50 of the brake pads 30 are smooth and, being neizvestnom condition according to figure 5, were located relative to the centerline 52 of the brake linings 30 obliquely converging to the brake disk 31.

Thanks to this shape, when the oblique wear of the brake linings 30 center wear 54 brake pads 30, which fictitiously affects braking force FTormis offset relative to the line of force 44 forces the finger Ffingerat a distance of h2so, what occurs opposing beveled wear torque, which creates a pre-tension brake pads 30 in the direction in which experiencing less wear on the plot - 6 right - wear volume 40 of the brake lining 30 is loaded to a greater extent. Due to this decrease beveled wear and achieves a more uniform wear of the brake pads 30.

7 and 8 shows the form of the shank 56 of the brake linings, which uses, for example, spherical nests 60 swivel in all directions have several, for example, hexagonal brake linings 58 made of metal. The shank 56 of the brake lining, in turn, mounted by a pin connection 62 opposite the brake lever clamp. The basic design is the instruction corresponds to the execution of figure 3 except for the shape of the cross-sections of the hexagonal brake pads 58. Due to the fact that hexagonal brake pads 58 are installed swivel in all directions, beveled wear can appear not only in the plane of the cross-section perpendicular to the axis of a pin connection 62, but in any direction. So here the cross-section of the wear volume 64 of the brake linings 58 should narrow in the direction of the brake disc 66 in any plane perpendicular to the brake disc 66.

As in the example described above, the execution of such geometric shape of the brake linings 58 contributes to the fact that when the beveled wear center wear 68 on the friction surface 70 is shifted to a distance of h2, resulting in opposing beveled wear torque, which creates a pre-tension brake pads 58 in the direction in which experiencing less wear on the plot wear volume 64 is loaded to a greater extent, as it follows from Fig. Due to the inclination of the side surfaces 72 of the brake linings 58 from all sides, this effect is not restricted to the shown in Fig.7 and Fig the cross section plane perpendicular to the axis of the finger finger connection 62, but possible in all planes of the cross-section perpendicular to the braking surface of the brake disc 66.

The idea of the invention to attach the brake loser is E. this form, so that when the beveled wear the center of the wear of the friction surface was shifted to any opposing beveled wear torque may be applied to the drum brakes 74. In the embodiment of figure 9 and figure 10 we are talking about the holder 78, the carrier brake pad 76 and the friction surface 80 of the brake pads 76 has a circular cross-section in accordance with the roll surface stornaiuolo wheels, brake forming the friction surface 82. Here, the shank 78 of the brake pads the same as in figure 4, the rotary fixed by means of a pin connection 84.

In this embodiment, the cross-section of the wear volume 86 brake pads 76, located in the plane perpendicular to the axis of a pin connection 84, narrowed towards the braking surface of the friction wheel 82. Preferably, this narrowing of the cross-section also went smoothly and gently to the side surface 88 of the brake pads 76 are smooth and in neizvestnom condition according to Fig.9 converge obliquely relative to the centerline 90 of the brake pads 76.

As in the above examples, the geometric shape of the brake pads 76 contributes to the fact that when the beveled wear center wear 92 on the friction surface 80 moves relative to the part line of force 94 forces the finger F fingerat a distance of h2, resulting in opposing beveled wear torque, which creates a pre-tension brake pads 76 in the direction in which experiencing less wear on the plot wear volume 86 - figure 10 left - loaded to a greater extent.

In addition, the cross section of the slots 96 in the brake Shoe 76 in contrast to the prior art according to figure 4, where it is evenly rectangular, extends at least partially toward the surface 82 of the wheel. As the side surfaces 88 of the brake pads 76, this extension of the cross-section is preferably limited to the cross section plane perpendicular to the axis of a pin connection 84. Since the inner surface 98 of the brake pads 76, bounding the slots 96, to some extent represent a lateral surface of the brake pads, this form has the same effect, compensating bevel wear that and the inclination of the outer side surfaces 88 of the brake pads 76.

1. Brake device for railway vehicles with at least one holder (56) brake pads installed with the ability to swing around the axis (62) and the carrier, at least one brake pad (58), with brake pad (58) has were deistvuushie with a pair of friction (66) wear volume (64), and geometric shape of the brake pads (58) is performed so that an oblique wear of the center wear (68) on the brake pad (58) is shifted so that there is opposing beveled wear torque, characterized in that a set of brake pads (58) in the form of a polygon made with regard to their holders (56) with swing in all directions, and the cross-section of the wear volume (64) brake pads (58) narrows in the direction of the friction pair (66) in any plane perpendicular to the pair of friction (66).

2. The brake device according to claim 1, characterized in that at least located in the plane perpendicular to the axis (62), the cross-section of grooves extending from the friction surface (70), converted to a pair of friction (66), inside the wear volume (64) brake pads (58), expand in the direction of the friction pair (66).

3. The brake device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the narrowing of the cross-sections and/or expansion of cross-sections is made of a smooth and flowing.

4. The brake device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it is made in the form of a device with a brake Shoe or device with the disk brake.

5. Braking device according to claim 3, characterized in that it is made in the form of a device with a brake Shoe or device is the disk brake.



 

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