Laminar film compositions, packages made thereof and their applications

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of perforated film packages. Perforated film package comprises at least three layers. Note here that at least one layer make inner layer with lower fusion temperature compared to those of two outer layers arranged on opposite sides of said inner layer. With film composition subjected to higher temperature, at least one inner layer gets softened to allow sealing of sufficient number of perforations in inner layer at compression to produce higher-efficiency moisture barrier in film composition. Layers of film composition features common center of perforations. Note here that every outer layer is formed by film containing at least one thermoplastic polymer, or by foamed thermoplastic material. Inner layer is made up of film containing at least one thermoplastic polymer, or of foamed thermoplastic polymer wherein at least one inner layer containing thermoplastic resin with Vicat softening temperature varying from 20°C to 150°C.

EFFECT: production of perforated moisture-resistant packages.

32 cl, 8 tbl, 6 dwg

 

The reference to the earlier application

This application claims the priority of provisional application No. 60/697915 filed July 8, 2005. and fully incorporated here by reference.

The scope of the invention

The invention relates to a perforated layered film of a composition which when exposed to high temperatures and compressive forces forms a barrier to moisture, for example in relation to transport water in a predominantly liquid through the perforations of the film. The film composition can be used for various packaging, in particular for flexible packaging. The package formed from the film of the composition, can be effectively filled with the powdered materials in high pressure conditions. In addition, the present invention relates to packages made from such film compositions, to methods of producing such film compositions and such packages and to a method of filling such packaging powder materials.

Prior art

In the field of packaging powder materials, it is important to have breathable bags when the bags are filled with compressed air, which pseudogiant powder particles. Entrained air must be removed from the bag, otherwise it will increase the internal pressure in the bag and it will be the gap. In the us Aasee time entrained air is removed by forming perforations in plastic bags. Unfortunately, perforated bags cannot be transported over long periods of time in a humid environment or stored outside due to possible rain or high humidity. There is a need for an inexpensive, breathable bag, which can effectively reduce the air during the filling process, and after that can prevent moisture from contacting the contained materials. In addition, such packaging should be easily applicable in standard packaging lines without the need for additional technological operations or changes to the original process operations.

When designing packaging for powdered materials important elements that you should pay attention to are the volume and in the void air, inner product loading and heat process. During the filling process you need to remove the air that is used for transportation of powder during filling, packing powder, and air remaining in the voids of the powder. With modern packaging powder materials such as cement powder material is injected into the flexible packaging, using compressed air, which pseudogiant powder particles. Gone with the air should be removed from packaging and in a controlled way, to allow maximum recovery of fluidized powder.

Optimal packaging should keep the powder from leaking; however, the retention of the powder should be weighed against the need to allow venting during the filling process. As discussed above, one way air release is perforation of the packaging. However, the size and number of perforations in the package will predetermine the amount of powder that can leak out of the bag. Other methods used to reduce the dust from the powder and allow the release of air, includes the construction of "bag in bag"that has a different implementation of the perforations in each bag. These designs do not prevent the penetration of moisture in the goods contained in the package.

Packaging for powdered goods must be able to withstand the pressure from the contained goods, which may vary from a relatively small load - in 1 kg bags - up to 50 kg bags of cement. The load associated with 50 kg of cement, can be simulated using the calculations in axial tension. Calculations show that even a relatively thin film (~75 microns) have sufficient yield strength to withstand axial stress associated with 50 kg. in Addition, the polymer of the outer or surface layer should have the ü high enough melting temperature to avoid substantial melting at temperatures of filling. The issue of resistance will strongly influence the choice of the individual resins for the structure of the film.

Furthermore, in addition to the above factors additional factors of interest, associated with the supplied external forces arising from process operations in a production setting. For example, the filled package is transported through the plant, using a series of conveyors. These conveyors can contain slanted surface (ascending and descending), numerous bends under a variety of angles and many different surface structure (metal rollers, rubber conveyors, textile conveyor and so on). Packaging should move on these lines no slip or mascalzone. The stability of the packaging conveyor lines will be associated with the structure of a surface of a package (including a possible coefficient of friction), as well as with the internal pressure in the bag.

In addition, during the installation of packages on pallets and stacking pallets are usually placed 45 bags on one pallet using an automatic machine for packing bags on pallets. Then the stack pallets up to three pallets in the stack, with packing near the bottom of the piles under significant stress from the top of the load. In this case, the possibility for resistance is tyuleniy creep could lead to deformation of the packages near the bottom of the pile and to the release of materials.

In the United Kingdom patent GB 1265547 describes a method of packaging crushed or powdered products in packaging means made of plastic sheet material. This source describes a container that is intended for use as a packaging means made of oriented plastic sheet material and provided with perforations having a diameter smaller than the average particle size of the product. The container is filled with product, clean after filling and then heated until then, until you close the perforation. To remove the plastic sheet material, the pressure exerted by the product during heating the sheet material to fill the container until the closure of the perforations can be applied external force to ensure closure of perforations. Strength is applied in the direction parallel to the plane formed by the perforated part of the plastic sheet material, and acts against the tensile force applied to a perforated sheet material due to the pressure of the product. In U.S. patent 4332845 describes the bags, in which at least part of the material constituting the bag has been sealed in her absorbent for oxygen and consists of a laminated sheet in which the gas-permeable sheet is layered on one or both sides of the microporous film for the formation of the layered material. Two outer layers of the laminate have different softening temperatures, the layer having a lower softening temperature, forms the inner surface of the bag. The bag can be produced with great speed, using conventional machine for heat sealing.

In U.S. patent 4743123 describes a plastic bag from a polyolefin material such as polyethylene for packaging materials containing particles smaller than 50 microns. This patent also describes a closed bag containing such materials, and film material for this bag. Film the wall of the bag is equipped with ventilation holes with smooth edges, obtained by irradiation with a laser and having a maximum size of 50-100 μm. The distance between the ventilation holes is such that the perforated tape tensile strength is essentially the same as that of similar non-perforated film. In addition, this patent describes the bags, which contain a film of low density polyethylene, and bags that contain two perforated film layer with staggered perforations. In U.S. patent 4672684 describes thermoplastic bag for Maritime transport, which has a thermoplastic inner layer containing the grid, and which enables the packaging of finely then skabreznye materials without release into the atmosphere of unacceptable quantities of powders during filling bags or after him. The walls of the bag may contain multiple layers, with the layers and the mesh lining can be made of different materials. Bags can without significant modification to use on existing packaging systems used for filling and processing of multi-layer paper bags for shipping.

In U.S. patent 3085608 describes a plastic sheet or bag which is permeable to air and substantially impervious to water and which contains many air valves in the form of a tiny butterfly valves, which are formed by perforating the material of the bag without removing material from the perforations. The pressure on either side of the bag is the smallest opening valves to allow the passage of air through them, and the perforations are of such small magnitude as water, for example, on the outside of the bag does not pass through a small perforation due to the effect of surface tension. In addition, this patent describes a plastic sheet or bag which is perforated over go a less structured way of obtaining the myriad of perforations located at a specified distance from each other. In U.S. patent 5888597 describes the packaging, which contains thermoplasty film-based polymer containing polyamide blocks and polyether blocks. The polymer is permeable Davidenko pair, ethylene, CO2and oxygen, and its permeability for CO2much greater than its permeability to oxygen.

In U.S. patent 5891376 describes the film with controlled permeability and method of its manufacture, when this film contains a film-forming polyolefin polymer and an inert porous filler in an amount effective to reduce the relationship of permeability to carbon dioxide and water permeability of the film to its permeability to oxygen. As described in this patent, the film is subjected to the operations of the modification of the permeability, which may include a pressure treatment, heat treatment, processing, stretching, or a combination thereof. Additional films described in patent documents EP 0500931A1; EP 0391661A; U.S. patent 5807630; patent documents W0 2004/106392; EP 0060599; EP 0368632; and UK patent GB 1248731. In patent document Germany 3832673A1 describes the use of tubes of non-woven type for filling powdered materials.

However, none of visualsourcesafe sources not described multilayer (at least three-layer) perforated film, in which the core and outer layers have different thermal properties and which is intended for the formation of a durable bag that will let the air during the filling process and which can the be without compromising the structural integrity of the bag is treated with warmth and compression for the formation of a superior barrier to moisture, in order to prevent the penetration of volumetric moisture in the goods contained in the bag.

Thus, there is a need in perforated, moisture-proof packaging, which will allow the air during the filling process, and then to form an improved moisture barrier to prevent the transport of water through the perforations. In addition, there is a need for packaging that can retain structural integrity at elevated temperatures and under applied stresses during the packaging process and during storage. These and other needs are met by the following invention.

The invention

According to the invention offers breathable (perforated), laminated packaging, which can be efficiently filled with the powdered materials in conditions of high pressure and which when exposed to high temperatures and compressive forces forms a barrier to moisture. The package is formed of a perforated, multi-layer film composition which is a breathable during filling of powdery materials and which can be heated during filling or after filling to elevated temperature sufficient to melt at least one inner layer, but insufficient to impair article is uctural integrity, at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer. When a compressive force is sealing a sufficient number of perforations in the inner layer to give the film composition, enhanced moisture barrier.

Thus, according to the invention it is also proposed perforated film composition comprising at least three layers, with at least one layer is an inner layer with a lower softening temperature and/or melting point than the corresponding temperatures of softening and/or melting at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer, and in this film when the composition is exposed to elevated temperature, at least one inner layer is softened and/or melted to such an extent that when exposed to a compressive force is sealing a sufficient number of perforations in the inner layer to give the film composition, enhanced moisture barrier. Perforation through each layer of the film have a common center. The moisture barrier on the film composition is greater than the moisture barrier on the film composition before it is exposed to high temperatures and compressive forces. The gain is arera to moisture due to the sealing of perforations, that, in turn, reduces the amount of surface area of the film through which can pass water. Strengthening the moisture barrier can be measured using hydraulic test, as for example, hydraulic pressure test. According to one aspect of the invention, the differences in the barriers to moisture determine, using hydraulic pressure test according to ISO 1420 A1. According to another aspect of the invention, the influence of high temperature and exposure to compressive forces occur simultaneously. According to another aspect of the invention, the perforations have a size which individually equal to 100 microns or more. According to another aspect of the invention, the perforations have a size which individually equal to 1000 microns or less.

According to another aspect of the invention, at least one inner layer contains a thermoplastic resin having a softening temperature by Vic from 20°C to 150°C. According to another aspect of the invention a thermoplastic resin selected from the group consisting of copolymers of propylene and α-olefin, copolymers of ethylene and α-olefin and mixtures thereof. According to an additional aspect of the invention, thermoplastic resin is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture. According to another aspect of the invention is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture is a FOSS is emer, formed from monomers selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, ethylene and 1-butene, ethylene and 1-hexene, ethylene and 1-pentene, ethylene and 1-Heptene, ethylene and propylene, ethylene and 4-methylpentene-1 and mixtures thereof. According to another aspect of the invention is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture has a melt index (I2from 1 g/10 min to 100 g/10 min According to another additional aspect of the invention is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin has a melt index from 1 to 50 grams/10 minutes, a density from 0.86 to 0,920 g/cm3and molecular weight distribution, Mw/Mn of 2 to 10.

According to another aspect of the invention, at least one outer layer comprises a thermoplastic resin selected from the group consisting of homopolymers of propylene, copolymers of propylene, homopolymers of ethylene, copolymers of ethylene and mixtures thereof. According to an additional aspect of the invention, thermoplastic resin is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture. According to an additional aspect of the invention is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture is a copolymer formed from monomers selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, ethylene and 1-butene, ethylene and 1-hexene, ethylene and 1-pentene, ethylene and 1-Heptene, ethylene and propylene, ethylene and 4-methylpentene-1 and mixtures thereof. According to another and is the aspect of the invention is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture has a melt index (I 2) from 0.1 g/10 min to 100 g/10 min According to an additional aspect of the invention is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin has a melt index from 0.2 to 50 g/10 minutes, a density of from 0.900 for up to 0,940 g/cm3and molecular weight distribution, Mw/Mn of 1.5 to 5.

According to another aspect of the invention the film composition further comprises a layer consisting of a General purpose polystyrene, high impact polystyrene, copolymer of Acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene, copolymer of styrene and Acrylonitrile, nylon, block copolymers of styrene or mixtures thereof. According to another aspect of the invention the inner layer contains a heat-transfer agent.

According to one aspect of the invention, each of the outer layers of the film composition is adjacent to the surface of the inner layer. In another embodiment of the invention, one or both of the outer layer is separated from the inner layer of one or more intermediate layers. In another embodiment of the invention, the film composition comprises only three layers. In another embodiment of the invention the film composition contains only five layers. In yet another embodiment of the invention the film composition contains more than five layers.

According to another aspect of the invention, the softening temperature by Vika inner layer, at least the 20°C below their softening temperature, at least two outer layers. According to another aspect of the invention, the softening temperature by Vika inner layer, at least 30°C below their softening temperature, at least two outer layers. According to another aspect of the invention, the moisture barrier is maintained at a pressure of from 10 to 21.5 mbar, as defined by hydraulic pressure test (ISO 1420 A1).

According to the invention also offers film composition and packaging, which are perforated in the planned locations and/or which contain gradients of perforations and/or specific locations of the perforations. According to one aspect of the invention, the package contains two or more joints, and also contains perforations on one or more designated portions of the surface of the package. According to another aspect of the invention, the perforations are located on one or more designated areas that are high in compressive strength, perceived from the device, which exerts a compressive force to the surface of the packaging. According to an additional aspect of the invention the device is a pair of vertically arranged rollers. According to another aspect of the invention the device is a series of two or more pairs of vertically location is different rollers.

According to another aspect of the invention the film composition of the packaging has a permeability of at least about 20 m3/hour. According to another aspect of the invention the film composition has a thickness of from 50 microns to 250 microns. According to another aspect of the invention, the packaging has a capacity from 1 kg to 100 kg

According to another aspect of the invention, the package contains one or more specific sites located in one or more horizontal flat surfaces of the package. According to an additional aspect of the invention the perforations evenly spaced intervals on one or more designated areas. According to another aspect of the invention, the perforations are located more densely along the longitudinal middle line of each of the one or more designated areas. According to another aspect of the invention one or more specific sites are located along each of the longitudinal medial line of the surface of the package, and each section has a width which is less than half the width of the package.

According to the invention it is also proposed a method of obtaining a perforated film composition containing at least three layers, with the specified method contains:

a) choose a thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers that are suitable for each layer;

b) forming from thermoplastic polymers or mixtures film obtained by extrusion injection blow or by casting from solution, and the film obtained by extrusion injection blow or by casting from a solution that contains at least three layers;

in) perforined specified film obtained by extrusion injection blow or by casting from a solution to form a perforated film composition; and

in this case, at least one layer in the film is performed in an inner layer with a lower softening temperature and/or melting point than the corresponding temperatures of softening and/or melting at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer, and the layers of film making with perforations with a common center; and

in this case, when the film is subjected to the action of elevated temperature, at least one inner layer is softened or melted to such an extent that when exposed to a compressive sealing force is a sufficient number of perforations in the inner layer for providing a film composition enhanced moisture barrier.

In addition, according to the invention proposes a method of filling a packaging powder materials, including:

a) introduction of powdery materials in packaging appropriate to estoya capacity for the formation of packaging, the packaging is formed from a perforated film composition containing at least three layers; at least one layer is an inner layer with a lower softening temperature and/or melting point than the corresponding temperatures of softening and/or melting at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer; and the layers of film composition have perforations with a common center:

b) heating the package to a temperature sufficient to soften or partially melt at least one inner layer;

(C) effect on the filled packaging compressive strength.

According to another aspect of the invention, the perforations are located on one or more specific areas of the package and one or more specific areas are experiencing the maximum compressive force that is perceived from the device, which exerts a compressive force to the surface of the package.

According to another aspect of the invention is additionally filled seal the package after it has been subjected to the action of compressive forces.

According to an additional aspect of the invention a method of filling includes attaching invented the bag to the filling pipe. According to another additional aspect invented the I to facilitate the removal of air during the filling process can be used trumpet, made from non-woven material, as described in DE A (included here by reference).

In addition, according to the invention offers the film in accordance with a combination of two or more aspects described herein of the invention or variants of its implementation.

In addition, according to the invention proposes a packaging in accordance with the combination of two or more aspects described herein of the invention or variants of its implementation.

In addition, according to the invention offers a method of the formation of films or packages in accordance with the combination of two or more aspects described herein of the invention or variants of its implementation.

In addition, according to the invention provides methods of filling packaging in accordance with the combination of two or more aspects described herein of the invention or variants of its implementation.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 - schematic view of the cross-section of a film of a composition containing three layers, before and after applying high temperature and pressure. The relative thickness of each layer of the film before and after the application of elevated temperature and pressure may vary from that shown in figure 1,

figure 2 - graph of the relationship between permeability on Gurley (sec) and the total area of the holes (trometry 2/inches2) perforated polyolefin film as compared with a porous paper bag,

figure 3 - schematic view of the three packages (1A, 1b, 1C), each containing a different arrangement of the perforations (3A, 3b, 3C) in the designated place (2A, 2b, 2c),

4 is a schematic view of a pair of rolls (1, 2) for the application of compressive force to the package (3)formed from a film of the composition according to the invention.

Detailed description of the invention

According to the invention features a breathable laminated film composition, which under conditions of high pressure can be effectively filled with the powdered material and which when exposed to elevated temperature and the applied compressive force forms a barrier to moisture. Packaging according to the invention is based on a perforated film composition containing at least three layers, with at least one inner layer has a lower softening temperature and/or melting point than the corresponding temperatures of softening and/or melting at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer. The layers of film composition have perforations with a common center. In one embodiment of the invention each of these outer layers adjacent to comply is it the surface of the inner layer.

When exposed to high temperature, this inner layer is softened to such a sufficient degree that when exposed to a compressive sealing force is a sufficient number of perforations in the inner layer to give the whole film composition enhanced barrier against moisture. This change in performance of the film shown in figure 1. Strengthening barrier against moisture due to sealing of perforations helps to prevent the passage of water mainly in liquid form with the outer side of the film composition to the inner side of the film composition, and Vice versa. Strengthening the moisture barrier can be measured using hydraulic test, as for example, hydraulic pressure test. In one embodiment of the invention, the differences in the barriers to moisture determine, using hydraulic pressure test according to ISO 1420 A1.

Under the application of compressive strength heat-treated layer flow, sealing the open perforations. This "fluidity" in part will depend on the applied temperature, applied pressure, the thickness of the inner layer, the softening temperature and/or melting temperature of the inner layer and/or the rheological properties of the inner layer. In one embodiment of the invention the film composition can maintain the barrier FR is in moisture and structural integrity at a pressure of from 10 mbar to 21.5 mbar according to the hydraulic pressure test (ISO 1420 A1) after as she was subjected to heat treatment and compressive strength.

The influence of high temperature and exposure to compressive forces may occur simultaneously or sequentially with temperatures before exposure compressive strength. In a preferred variant of the invention, the film composition is subjected to temperature 90°C or higher and the compressive force in 30-60 kPa. In another embodiment of the invention the inner layer has a softening temperature by Vika on at least 30°C below their softening temperature, at least two outer layers. In another embodiment of the invention the inner layer has a softening temperature by Vika on at least 30°C below their softening temperature, at least two outer layers.

Using different film composition, it is possible to apply this invention depending on the stiffness and maximum load required in this application. The use of load-bearing polymer INSPIRE (trademark from the company Dhow Camel) as the outer layer provides a higher rigidity of the final film, while the use of plastic polymers DOWLEX (trademark), polyethylene polymers ELITE (trademark) and polypropylene polymers INSPIRE (tov the cent sign) (all from Dow of Camel) as the outer layer provides a higher flexibility of the final films.

The package formed from the film of the compositions according to the invention may contain powdered materials with different particle size. In one embodiment of the invention the particle size of these materials may range from 1 μm to 100 μm. Particles can be of any shape, such as spherical or irregular shape and non-uniform.

Film composition according to the present invention can be used for packing materials of any type, as for example, powdered, powdery, granular and bulk materials, in particular for the packaging of moisture-sensitive materials and moisture-sensitive powder materials. The package formed from the film of the composition according to the invention, particularly useful for packaging powder materials such as cement, lime, talc, talc powder, polyvinyl chloride, gypsum, cocoa, corn flour, flour and sugar.

Package made from the film of the composition according to the invention can be thermally or mechanically treated to additional technological operations required for the specific needs of packaging. However, according to the invention offers the film composition, which can be converted under the action of heat and stress during about is cnyh technological operations for packing powder materials without the need for additional technological operations or a change of process operations. In the normal process of packing powder materials heat produced during filling of the bag, can increase the temperature of the bag up to 100°C. in Addition, in the normal process of filling filled bags immediately squeeze between adjacent rolls to displace the air. In addition, the package can be exposed as increased temperature and compressive force through the rollers to displace air, which is heated to a certain temperature. These technological operations can produce the desired change in the film structure shown in figure 1.

In the future, the film composition is breathable during the filling process and can be used in the form of flexible packaging in cases of difficult filling powdered materials. After filling packaging film composition can be heated to a temperature sufficient to soften and/or melt, at least one inner layer, but insufficient to impair the structural integrity of at least two other layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer.

The temperature of the film composition can be improved in various ways of heating, including, but not limited to, contact heating, as for example, the heated platens; convict wny heating, as for example, hot air; and alternative methods of heating such as infrared (IR), microwave (MB), high frequency (HF) and pulse heating. Some of these ways of heating may require one or more receiving elements in one or more layers, preferably in the inner layer. These adopted or heat transfer elements for absorbing and transferring the heat to the surrounding polymer matrix. In a number of materials such elements may include polar substances or polymers, vinyl polymers, ECO-polymers, siloxanes) or other substances and particles (metal, carbon black) or a combination thereof.

The film composition should be exposed to elevated temperature sufficient to soften or partially melt the inner layer and then subjected to the subsequent action of compressive force for extruding melted resin on the open perforations. The compressive force can be applied, passing the film through a pair of rolls or a series of rolls (see figure 4). Depending on the case of application rollers can be room temperature or can be heated to a certain temperature. At the end of this process a significant portion of the perforations or all of the perforations in the inner layer are sealed with the creation of enhanced moisture barrier film to the position.

In one embodiment of the invention, the package may be subjected to a further heat treatment after application of compressive force to reduce the amount of packaging.

In another embodiment of the invention the film composition can be made so as to allow re-opening of the sealed perforations, for example, under the action of external tensile stress or under the influence of relaxation oriented core material.

In yet another embodiment of the invention the inner layer can be introduced water-absorbing material for the swelling of the inner layer under the action of moisture. Swelling of the inner layer will provide additional sealing of the perforations in the inner layer.

In yet another embodiment of the invention the inner layer may contain a crosslinking agent, such as silane agent or silane grafted copolymer and, in addition, may contain a curing accelerator. Under the influence of moisture will occur stitching for additional sealing of the perforations in the inner layer.

Perforations in the film layers can be any size and any shape, including, but not limited to, forms with varying degrees of roundness, various triangular shapes, rectangular shapes, and many other ogolne form, irregular form and shape in the form of slits. In one embodiment of the invention the layers are perforations of the same size or gradient of sizes.

Film composition may also contain at least one other layer containing woven (including twisted) film tape made of polyolefin (e.g. polypropylene RAFFIA), or may also contain at least one porous structure. Film composition may contain an outer polymer layer, which serves as a filter to facilitate release of air during the filling process.

In one embodiment of the invention the film composition preferably has an air permeability of at least 20 m3/hour and preferably the number of physical Harley less than 30 seconds (test method ISO 5636/5, entitled "Paper and Board - Determination of air permeability (medium range) - Part 5: method of Harley". The film may have a density of perforations, at least 350,000 μm2/in2preferably, at least 500000 μm2/in2.

Film composition may have an average numerical density of perforations or holes from 6 to 50 holes per inch2and preferably, the average size of individual holes from 10000 μm2up to 70000 mi is Ron 2. The size of the perforations will vary depending on the size of the particle containing materials. The size of the perforations may range from 10 microns to 100 microns, 50 microns to 1000 microns or more. All individual values and subranges from 10 μm to 1000 μm included herein and specified here.

Film composition according to the invention can typically have a thickness of 25 microns (μm) to 1000 μm, preferably from 40 μm to 300 μm, preferably from 50 μm to 250 μm. All individual values and subranges from 25 μm to 1000 μm is incorporated herein and specifically described here. Film composition may also have a thickness of more than 1000 μm.

In one embodiment of the invention packaging made from film composition according to the invention may contain cargo from 1 kg to 100 kg, preferably from 1 kg to 50 kg, or 1 kg to 25 kg

Film compositions typically contain a thermoplastic polymer. The amount of thermoplastic polymer in the film composition will vary depending on the desired properties, such as strength properties, from other components of the film and the type or types of the used polymer. In General, the amount of polyolefin in the film is at least 40 wt.%, preferably, at least 50 wt.%, preferably, at least 60 wt.% the total weight of the composition.

In addition to the packages for powdered materials such as film composition according to the invention can be used in other applications. For example, the film composition can be used as a surface or protecting a part of the film, which makes it easy to release the air and then provides a protective layer of the film after treatment with heat and pressure. In addition, the film composition may allow for accurate sealing, when the core layer passes through the designated holes. This could be used to create 2-Platova sealed solid composition by punching one side of the film or layering of this film on the non-perforated film. In addition, the films according to the invention can be used for layering on a non-woven structure in order to achieve breathability plus water-resistance depending on temperature. Film composition may also contain multilayer films with different melting temperature to obtain a composite material with a temperature gradient.

In the resin composition may be added as stabilizers and antioxidants to protect the resin from degradation caused by reaction with oxygen, which are caused by such factors as heat, light or residual catalyst from the raw materials. Antioxidants available on the market from the company Ciba-Geigy, located in hothorn, new York, USA, and include Irganox (registered) 565, 110 and 1076, which are inhibited phenolic antioxidants. They are the primary antioxidants, which act as scavengers of free radicals and can be used separately or in combination with other antioxidants, such as topicname antioxidants such as Irgafos (registered) 168, commercially available from the company Ciba-Geigy. Fosfatnye antioxidants are secondary antioxidants are typically not used in isolation and are used mainly as decomposers of peroxides. Other available antioxidants include, but are not limited to, Cyanox (registered) LTDP, available from Cytec Industries in glenford, standartised, USA, and Ethanox (registered) 1330, available from Albemarle Corp. in baton Rouge, struation, USA. There are numerous other antioxidants for use by themselves or in combination with other antioxidants. Other additives to the resin include, but are not limited to, absorbers of ultraviolet rays, antistatic agents, pigments, dyes, nucleating additives reduce friction fillers, flame retardants, plasticizers, substances to improve the processing properties, lubricants, stabilizers, inhibitors, smoke, substances that regulate the viscosity, and substances that prevent the sticking.

Materialids inner and outer layers

The inner and outer layers can be made of various thermoplastic polymers. The choice of resin for each layer will depend on the location of the layer, the softening temperature and/or melting of the resin and the forces of adhesion between successive layers.

In the practical implementation of this invention can be any thermoplastic polymer or any mixture of thermoplastic polymers, and in a number of typical polymers include natural or synthetic resins, such as, but not limited to, styrene block copolymers; rubber; polyolefins, such as polyethylene, polypropylene and polybutene; copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate (CMEA) copolymers of ethylene and acrylic acid (SEAC); copolymers of ethylene and acrylate (copolymer of ethylene and methyl acrylate (SAM), a copolymer of ethylene and ethyl acrylate (SEEA) and a copolymer of ethylene and butylacrylate (SES); polybutylene; polybutadiene; nylony; polycarbonates; polyesters; polyethylene oxide; polypropyleneoxide; copolymers of ethylene and propylene, such as ethylene-propylene rubber and ethylenepropylene rubber; chlorinated polyethylene; thermoplastic vulcanite; copolymers of ethylene and ethyl acrylate (SEEA); copolymers of ethylene and styrene (SES); polyurethanes; and functionally modified polyolefins, such as modi is data polyolefins, grafted silane or maleic anhydride; and combinations of two or more of these polymers.

In addition, can be used foamed thermoplastic polymers having either an open or closed pores, or a combination of both.

thermoplastic polymer or mixture of thermoplastic polymers may contain one or more homopolymers or copolymers of ethylene as the sole polymer component or as a main polymer component. Among such polymers include linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene of low density (PESRP), polyethylene, very low density (PEEP), homogeneous-branched linear polyethylene, homogeneous-branched, substantially linear polyethylene and heterogeneous linear polyethylene. The number of one or more of these polymers, if any, in the film composition will vary depending on the desired properties of the other components and types of polyethylene (polythene).

In a number of suitable comonomers applicable for polymerization olefin, such as ethylene or propylene, include, but are not limited to, Ethylenediamine monomers, paired or unpaired diene or polyene. The use of the AMI of such comonomers are ethylene and C 3-C20α-olefins, such as propylene, isobutylene, 1-butene, 1-penten, 1-hexene, 4-methyl-1-penten, 1-hepten, 1-octene, 1-nonen and 1 of the mission. In a preferred comonomers include ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 4-methyl-1-penten and 1-octene, of which particularly preferred is 1-octene. Other suitable monomers include styrene, halo - or alkyl substituted styrene, tetrafluoroethylene, vinylbenzoate, BUTADIENES, isoprene, pentadiene, hexadiene, octadiene and cycloalkene, for example, cyclopentene, cyclohexene or cyclooctene. Ethylene is usually lightly copolymerized with one3-C20α-olefin. In a preferred comonomers include C3-C8α-olefins, such as propylene, 1-butene, 1-penten, 4-methyl-1-penten, 1-hexene, 1-hepten and 1-octene.

In one embodiment, the invention is a copolymer based on olefin, suitable as layer film or as a component of the film layer has a content of co monomer, which is not more than 20, preferably less than 15, preferably less than 10, most preferably 5 wt.% the weight of the specified copolymer. All individual values in weight percent and potentialy from 5 to 20 wt.% included here are outlined here.

In another embodiment, the invention is a copolymer based on olefin, suitable as film layer or kachestvennostju film layer, has the content of the co monomer, which is not more than 7, preferably less than 5, preferably less than 3, most preferably less than 2 wt.% the weight of the specified copolymer. All individual values in weight percent and potentialy from 2 to 7 wt.% included here are outlined here.

In another embodiment, the invention is a copolymer based on olefin, suitable as layer film or as a component of the film layer has a content of co monomer, which is not more than 50, preferably less than 40, preferably less than 30, most preferably less than 20 wt.% the weight of the specified copolymer. All individual values in weight percent and potentialy from 20 to 50 wt.% included here are outlined here.

In another embodiment, the invention is a copolymer based on olefin, suitable as layer film or as a component of the film layer has a content of co monomer, which is not more than 20, preferably less than 10, preferably less than 7, most preferably less than 5 wt.% the weight of the specified copolymer. All individual values in weight percent and potentialy from 5 to 20 wt.% included here are outlined here.

The content of the co monomer in the copolymer according to the invention can be more than 50 wt.% or may be less than 2 wt.%.

In a number of useful copolymers based on what Efimov includes, but not limited to, copolymers based on ethylene and copolymers based on propylene.

The terms "homogeneous" and "homogeneity-branched" are used in respect of copolymers of ethylene and α-olefin, in which comonomer α-olefin randomly distributed within a given polymer molecule, and essentially all of the polymer molecules have the same ratio of ethylene to co monomer.

Among homogeneous distributed copolymers based on ethylene, which can be used in the practical implementation of the invention are homogeneous-branched linear copolymers based on ethylene and homogeneity-branched, substantially linear copolymers based on ethylene.

In a number of homogeneous-branched linear copolymers based on ethylene include polyethylene, which does not have the long-chain branching, but are short-chained branch, which is formed from the co monomer, polymerized in the copolymer, and which is homogeneous distributed in the same polymer chain and between different polymer chains. More precisely, homogeneous-branched linear copolymers based on ethylene does not have long chain branching, as in the case of a linear polyethylene polymers low density or linear polyethylene polymers, high density, and are manufactured using methods p is liberizatsii with homogeneous distribution of branching, described, for example, Alsthom in U.S. patent 3645992. Examples of homogeneous-branched linear copolymers of ethylene and α-olefin, available on the market are polymers TAFMER (trademark)supplied by the Mitsui Chemical Company, polymers EXACT (trademark)supplied by Exxon Chemical Company.

Homogeneity-branched, substantially linear copolymers based on ethylene is described in U.S. patent No. 5272236, 5278272, 6054544, 6335410 and 6723810, the full contents of which are incorporated here by reference.

In addition, a substantially linear copolymers based on ethylene are homogeneous branched polyethylene having long chain branching. Long-chain branches have the same distribution of co monomer as the main polymer chain, and may have a length almost equal to the length of the main polymer chain. The term "essentially linear" usually means that the polymer block polymerization has an override on average from 0.01 long chain branches per 1000 carbon atoms (including carbon atoms as a main chain and branches up to 3 long chain branches per 1000 carbon atoms. Preferred polymers have a substitution of from 0.01 long chain branches per 1000 carbons to 1 long chain branch per 1000 carbon atoms, preferably from 0.05 long chain branches per 1000 carbons to 1 long chain wet and per 1000 carbon atoms and particularly from 0.3 long chain branches per 1000 carbons to 1 long chain branch per 1000 carbon atoms.

Examples of essentially linear polymers available on the market, are polymers ENGAGE (trademark) and the polymer AFFINITY (trademark) (both are available on the market from DOW Chemical Company).

A substantially linear copolymers based on ethylene form a unique class of homogeneous-branched polyethylenes. They differ significantly from the well-known class in the usual homogeneous-branched linear copolymers based on ethylene, described by Alsthom in U.S. patent 3645992, and, in addition, they do not belong to the class of ordinary heterogeneous linear polyethylene obtained by polymerization using a catalyst of Ziegler-Natta (for example, polyethylene of low density (PESRP), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) or high density polyethylene (HDPE)produced, for example, using the method described by Anderson and others in the U.S. patent 4076698); and they also do not belong to the class of highly branched polyethylenes produced free radical polymerization under high pressure, as for example, low density polyethylene (LDPE), copolymers of ethylene and acrylic acid (SEAC) and copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate (CMEA).

Homogeneity-branched, substantially linear copolymers based on ethylene, suitable for this invention have excellent machinability, even if they are they which have relatively narrow molecular weight distribution. The ratio of the melt index according to ASTM D-1238 (I10/I2) in a substantially linear copolymers based on ethylene, as unexpectedly, can vary widely and essentially independently of the molecular weight distribution, Mw/Mn, or MMD. This unexpected behavior is contrary to the normal behavior of homogeneous-branched linear copolymers based on ethylene, such as those described, for example, Alsthom in U.S. patent 3645992, and conventional heterogeneously branched linear polyethylene produced by polymerization using a catalyst of Ziegler-Natta, such as those described, for example, Anderson and others in the U.S. patent 4076698. In contrast to the homogeneous-branched, substantially linear copolymers based on ethylene, linear copolymers based on ethylene (homogeneous or heterogeneous branched) have rheological properties that have a greater impact molecular mass distribution.

Homogeneity-branched linear or substantially linear polyethylene is distinguished by the fact that they have a narrow molecular weight distribution, Mw/Mn. For linear and essentially linear polyethylenes this molecular weight distribution is equal, for example, 5 or less, preferably 4 or less, preferably from 2.5 to 3.5, even more preferably from 1.5 to 3, and most the e preferably from 2.5 to 3.5. All individual values and potentialy from 1 to 5 are included here and are outlined here.

The distribution of branches of the co monomer in a homogeneous linear and substantially linear polyethylene is characterized by its index distribution of short-chained branches (PCCW) or a measure of the distribution chains in the structure (PRCS) and is defined as the percentage by weight of polymer molecules having a content of co monomer within 50 percent of the average total molar content of co monomer. PRCS polymer is calculated according to the data obtained by methods known from the prior art, as for example, by fractionation by elution with increasing temperature (here abbreviated "FAPT"), described, for example, Wild et al., Journal of Polymer Science, Poly. Phys. Ed., Vol.20, p.441 (1982) or in U.S. patent No. 4798081 and 5008204. PCCW or PRCS for essentially linear polymers suitable in composite materials according to the present invention, preferably more than 50%, especially more than 70% and preferably greater than 90%.

Homogeneity-branched, substantially linear polyethylene is used in film composite material, known, and they and the retrieval method is described, for example, in U.S. patent No. 5272236, 5278272 and 5703187, each of which is incorporated here fully by reference.

The homogeneous linear or substantially linear polyethylene mo is but fitting to produce, using single point catalyst. Some examples of some of these catalysts, in particular catalysts limited form described in EP-A-416815, U.S. patents 5703187, 5872201, EP-A-514828, U.S. patents 6118013, 5470993, 5374696, 5231106, 5055438, 5057475, 5096867, 5064802 and 5132380. In the patent application U.S. serial No. 720041 filed June 24, 1991 (EP-A-514828), describes certain borhydride derivatives in the above-mentioned catalysts limited form, as also described and claimed a method of production thereof. In U.S. patent 5453410 describes the combination of cationic catalysts limited form with alumoxanes as suitable catalysts for the polymerization of olefins.

When the present invention can also be used heterogeneous linear polyethylene. Among the heterogeneous linear polyethylenes are copolymers of ethylene and one or more3-C8α-olefins. The homopolymers of ethylene can be obtained using the same catalysts, which are used to obtain heterogeneous systems, such as, for example, catalysts of the Ziegler-Natta. As molecular weight distribution, and the distribution of short-chained branches caused by the copolymerization of α-olefin, are relatively wide compared to these distributions in a homogeneous linear polyethylene. Heterogeneous linear poly is teleny can be obtained by polymerization in solution, suspension or gas phase using a catalyst of Ziegler-Natta, and they are well known to specialists in this field of technology. For example, see U.S. patent No. 4339507, the full content of which is incorporated here by reference.

For film compositions according to the present invention can also use a mixture of heterogeneous and homogeneous polyethylenes ("composite polyethylene"), such as those described by Cathemeral and others in the U.S. patent No. 5844045, 5869575 and 6448341; full content of each of them are included here by reference.

The inner layer

The material of the inner layer should have a relatively low softening point or softening point by Vika and/or relatively low melting temperature compared with the temperature of the outer layers. The material of the inner layer is usually more elastic than the material of the outer layers. Examples of suitable polymers for this layer include, but are not limited to, polymers based on polyethylene, such as, for example, AFFINITY (trademark) and FLEXOMER (trademark) and polymers on the basis of polypropylene, such as VERSIFY (trademark) (all from The DOW Chemical Company). Polymeric systems in addition to systems on the basis of polyolefins may also be used for the inner layer. The inner layer may contain one polymer or two or more Chi is lo polymers, as for example, a mixture of polymers.

Specific properties of the inner layer will depend on the used polymer or mixture of polymers. The following properties are characteristic of polyolefins and other polymers, which possess marked qualities. As expected, the following properties do not limit the scope of this invention in terms of the range of polyolefins and other polymers and mixtures suitable for use in the invention.

In one embodiment of the invention each of the following polymers is used in the inner layer as the sole polymer component. In another embodiment of the invention each of the following polymers is used in the inner layer as a component of a mixture of polymers. Such polymers can be characterized in two or more of these embodiments of the invention.

In one embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be characterized by a softening temperature by Vic from 20°C to 150°C, preferably from 30°C to 120°C, preferably from 40°C to 110°C and most preferably from 45°C. to 100°C. All individual values and potentialy from 20°C to 150°C fluctuates and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be characterized by a melting temperature or a temperature interval of fusion measured by differential scanning calorimetry, from 30°C to 150°C, preferably from 40°C to 120°C, preferably from 50°C to 110°C and most preferably from 60°C. to 100°C. All individual values and potentialy from 30°C to 150°C are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be characterized by a melt index (I2) at 190°C and a load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of from 1 to 1000 g/10 min, preferably from 1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 1 to 50 g/10 min, even more preferably from 1 to 30 g/10 min and most preferably from 1 to 10 g/10 minutes All individual values and potentialy from 1 to 1000 g/10 minutes are included here and are outlined here. In another embodiment of the invention, the mixture will typically be characterized by a melt index (I2) at 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of from 1 to 1000 g/10 min, preferably from 1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 1 to 50 g/10 min, even more preferably from 1 to 30 g/10 min and Naib is more preferably from 1 to 10 g/10 minutes

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be characterized by the velocity of the melt (SRC) at 230°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of from 1 to 1000 g/10 min, preferably from 1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 1 to 50 g/10 min, even more preferably from 1 to 30 g/10 min and most preferably from 1 to 10 g/10 minutes All individual values and potentialy from 1 to 1000 g/10 minutes are included here and are outlined here. In another embodiment of the invention, the mixture typically will be characterized by the velocity of the melt (SRC) at 230°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of from 1 to 1000 g/min, preferably from 1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 1 to 50 g/10 min, even more preferably from 1 to 30 g/10 min and most preferably from 1 to 10 g/10 minutes All individual values and potentialy from 1 to 1000 g/10 minutes are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be essentially amorphous and have a total crystallinity percentage less than 50% and preferably less than 30% when measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

In another embodiment, the invention polymer clay is, used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically have a density from 0,840 g/cm3to 0,940 g/cm3preferably from 0,860 g/cm3to 0,920 g/cm3and preferably from 0,860 g/cm3to 0.910 g/cm3. All individual values and potentialy from 0,840 g/cm3to 0,940 g/cm3included here are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically have srednevekovoy molecular weight (Mw) from 10,000 to 200,000 g/mol, with all individual values and potentially between them are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the inner layer as a single component OR as a blend component, will typically have a molecular weight distribution, Mw/Mn from 1 to 20, preferably from 1 to 10, preferably from 1 to 5 and even more preferably from 1.5 to 3.5. All individual values and potentialy from 1 to 20 are included here and are outlined here.

The polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be present in an amount of from 50 wt.% to 100 wt.%, on the basis of total weight to the components of the inner layer. All individual values and potentialy from 50 wt.% to 100 wt.% included here are outlined here.

The polymer used in the inner layer as a single component or as a blend component, may have a combination of two or more of the properties described in the above-described embodiments of the invention.

The outer layer

The material of the outer layer should keep structural integrity of the film composition, when exposed to elevated temperatures and pressures. In a number of suitable materials include homopolymers and copolymers of polyethylene. The material of the outer layer typically will have a higher rigidity than the rigidity of the material of the inner layer. Examples of such polymers include, but are not limited to, polymers based on polyethylene, such as DOWLEX (trademark) and ELITE (trademark) and polymers on the basis of polypropylene, such as INSPIRE (trademark) (all from DOW Chemical Company). Each outer layer may contain one polymer or two or more polymers, as for example, a mixture of polymers.

Specific properties of the outer layer will depend on the used polymer or mixture of polymers. The following properties are characteristic of polyolefins and other polymers, which possess marked qualities. As expected, nigersan the properties do not limit the scope of this invention in terms of the range of polyolefins and other polymers and mixtures suitable for use in the invention.

In one embodiment of the invention each of the following polymers used in the outer layer as the sole polymer component. In another embodiment of the invention each of the following polymers used in the outer layer as a component of a mixture of polymers. Such polymers can be characterized in two or more embodiments described herein for practicing the invention.

In one embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be characterized by a softening temperature by Vic from 50°C to 230°C, preferably from 70°C to 200°C and preferably from 100°C. to 150°C. All individual values and potentialy from 50°C to 230°C are included here and are outlined here. In another embodiment of the invention, the mixture typically will be characterized by a softening temperature by Vic from 50°C to 230°C, preferably from 70°C to 200°C and preferably from 100°C. to 150°C. All individual values and potentialy from 50°C to 230°C are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, which commonly will be characterized by melting point, measured by differential scanning calorimetry, of from 50°C to 250°C, preferably from 70°C to 200°C, preferably from 100°C. to 180°C. and even more preferably from 120°C. to 170°C. All individual values and potentialy from 50°C to 250°C are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be characterized by a melt index (I2) at 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min and even more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and potentialy from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included here and are outlined here. In another embodiment of the invention, the mixture will typically be characterized by a melt index (I2) at 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min and even more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and potentialy from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be characterized by the flow rate of the melt is at 230°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min and even more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and potentialy from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included here and are outlined here. In another embodiment of the invention, the mixture typically will be characterized by the velocity of the melt at 230°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238) of 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min and even more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and potentialy from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or a blend component, will be characterized srednevekovoi molecular weight (Mw) of 20,000 to 1,000,000, with all individual values and potentially between them are included here and are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically have a total crystallinity of less than 60% and preferably less than 50% when measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a researcher is as a component of the mixture, you will usually have a density of from 0,880 g/cm3to 0,960 g/cm3and preferably from 0.90 g/cm3to 0,940 g/cm3or to 0.900 g/cm3to 0,950 g/cm3.

All individual values and potentialy from 0,880 g/cm3to 0,960 g/cm3included here are outlined here.

In another embodiment of the invention the polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically have a molecular weight distribution Mw/Mn of from 1 to 20, preferably from 1 to 10, preferably from 1 to 5 and even more preferably from 1.5 to 3.5. All individual values and potentialy from 1 to 20 are included here and are outlined here.

The polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, will typically be present in an amount of from 50 wt.% to 100 wt.%, based on the total weight of the components of the outer layer. All individual values and potentialy from 50 wt.% to 100 wt.% included here are outlined here.

The polymer used in the outer layer as a single component or as a blend component, may have a combination of two or more of the properties described in the above-described embodiments of the invention.

A method of obtaining a film compositions according to the invention

The film composition is according to the invention can be obtained, choosing thermoplastic polymers suitable for the manufacture of such a layer; forming a film of each layer; and connecting the layers together ekstradira or molding one or more layers. The final film composition perforined for education breathable film. It is desirable that the layers of film are continuously connected by the interface between the films. Among the devices for punching include, but are not limited to, roller, needle, tapered needle and laser device.

For the formation of each layer is generally suitable extrusion blending the components and any additional additives, such as additives, reducing friction, antiadhesive and substances to improve the processing properties of the polymer. Extrusion mixing should be done in order to achieve the appropriate degree of dispersion. The parameters of the extrusion mixing of course will vary depending on components. However important the total deformation of the polymer, i.e. the degree of mixing, which govern, for example, through the design of the worm and the melt temperature. The temperature of the melt during formation of the film will depend on the components of the film.

After extrusion mixing to form a film structure. The film structure can be obtained by the usual methods of manufacture, for example by extrusion to form a sleeve of film, ways to biaxial orientation of the film (such as, by way of orientation of the film in frames or orientation of the dual sleeve film), molding and sheet extrusion, co-extrusion and layering. Conventional methods of extrusion education sleeve film (also known as a method of blowing hot film) is described, for example, inThe Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Kirk-Othmer, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981, Vol.16, pp.416-417 and Vol.18, pp.191-192. For making a new film structure according to the invention can be used in the methods of manufacture biaxially-oriented film, such as the way the orientation of a double sleeve film"described in U.S. patent No. 3456044 (Pahlke), and the methods described in U.S. patent No. 4352849 (Mueller), U.S. patent No. 4820557 and 4837084 (both in the name of Warren), U.S. patent No. 4865902 (Golike and others), U.S. patent No. 4927708 (Herran and others), U.S. patent No. 4952451 (Mueller) and U.S. patent No. 4953419 and 5059481 (both in the name of Lustig and others). All of these patents are incorporated here by reference.

In a number of ways of making structures according to the invention includes methods of forming, filling and sealing in a vertical direction, such as the one described in Packaging Machinery Operation, Chapter 8: Form-Fill-Sealing,by C.Glenn Davis (Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Institute, 2000 K Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006); The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, Marilyn Bakker, Editor-in-chief, pp. 364-369 (John Wiey & Sons); U.S. patent 5288531 (Falla and others), U.S. patent 5721025 (Falla and others), U.S. patent 5360648 (Falla and others) and U.S. patent 6117465 (Falla and others); other ways of making films, such as the one that is discussed in " Plastic Films, Technology and Packaging Applications (Technomic Publishing Co., Inc. (1992), by Kenton R. Osborn and Wilmer A Jenkens, pp. 39-105. All of these patents and publications are included here by reference.

Another way of making films is described in U.S. patent 6723398 (Chum and others). Additional treatment, such as radiation treatment and processing in the corona discharge, especially in cases of application for printing can also be carried out with the materials according to the invention. In addition, the film made according to the invention, can be light-cured silane, or the polymers used in the products according to the invention, can be subjected to additional vaccination (such as polymers, grafted maleic anhydride) by the methods described in U.S. patent 4927888 (Strait and others), U.S. patent 4950541 (Tabor and others), 4762890 (Strait and others), U.S. patent 5346953 (Hughes and others), U.S. patent 4684576 (Tabor and others). All of these patents are incorporated here by reference.

Once formed film composition, it can be stretched. Stretching can be done by any method commonly used in the art. Film composition, it is possible to punch, and the sheets can be sent to the device for manufacture of the population of bags. The sheets can be perforated by methods known from the prior art. The shape and size of the perforations, and the number of perforations will depend on the final use of the film composition.

The sheets of film composition, it is possible to connect the sealing or gluing. The sealing can be performed by conventional means, including, but not limited to, welding rod, pulse heating, side welding, ultrasonic welding or other alternative means of heating, as discussed above.

The above methods it is possible to make a film of the composition of any thickness depending on their application. Film compositions typically have an overall thickness of from 5 to 300 microns, preferably from 50 to 250 microns, preferably from 75 to 200 microns. Permeability can also be adjusted depending on the application.

Execution of perforations

The implementation of the perforations in the film composition will vary and will depend on the final use of the film composition. The sheets of film composition may have a perforation in certain areas of the sheet. Certain parts may be of any size and shape. On these designated sites of perforation can be in different executions, including, but not limited to, the gradients of the perforations in size along a particular axis in Ustka, the gradient density of perforations along each axis of the plot and the gradients of the location of the perforations of different shapes and/or sizes.

In a preferred variant of the invention, the film composition is perforated in certain places. In another preferred variant of the invention, the film composition is perforated so that the packaging is formed from such a composition contains perforations only within one or more horizontal flat surfaces. Such packaging typically contains two or more seams. With this design of the perforations can be located in certain areas of packaging, for example, as shown in figure 3 (see package 1a, 1b and 1C). As shown in figa, perforation (3A) can be evenly placed on the targeted area (2A) or, as shown in figv, perforation (3b) can have a higher density locations along the longitudinal middle axis of the targeted area (2) surface. In another embodiment of the invention the perforation (3C) are aligned on a narrower section (2C), located along the longitudinal medial line of the surface of the package, as shown in figs. In this embodiment of the invention the width of the intended area substantially less than the width (w) of the container, and presupposes the equipment is less than half the width of the container. In each of these embodiments of the invention the size and shape of the perforations can vary. Usually the size of the perforations will increase with the decrease of their number.

In versions of the perforations shown in figure 3, the number of perforations exposed to the maximum lifting force applied by the device, such as a vertically-arranged rollers, shown in figure 4. As shown in figure 4, the perforation located on the top surface of the filled package, will be more to experience the action of compressive forces.

Definitions

Any numerical range shown here, includes all values from the lower value to the upper value in increments of one unit provided that there is a separation of at least 2 units between any lower value and any higher value. For example, if you stated that the number of the component or the value of the properties of the composition or physical properties, such as the number of components of the mixture, the softening temperature, the melt index, etc. is in the range between 1 and 10, it is assumed that all individual values, such as 1, 2, 3, etc. and all putinterval, such as 1-20, 55-70, 197-100 etc. accurately listed in the description of the invention. When the values to the e of less than one, one unit is respectively equal to 0.0001 to 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1. These values are specifically given only as examples, and it is believed that this application accurately identifies all possible combinations of numerical values between these lowest value and highest value. Discussed here numerical intervals specified in relation to the softening temperature according to Vic, the melting temperature, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, the size of the pores or perforations of the film thickness, index, melt flow rate melt srednevekovoi molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, percent crystallinity, density, content of the component in weight percent, pressure and other properties.

Used herein, the term "film song" refers to a layered film structure. The term "film song" is equivalent to the term "film", when the term "film" refers to a layered film structure.

Used herein, the term "composition" includes a mixture of materials that make up the composition, and reaction products and decomposition products formed from the materials of the composition.

Used herein, the term "perforation" refers to the holes made in the film composition, using a percussion mechanism of the laser and the device. The perforations can be of different sizes and different shapes.

Used herein, the expression "perforations with a common center" refers to the total center of perforations formed in the film composition, using the same shock mechanism, laser or other device, which form holes through all layers of the film, and also covers minor displacement of the center of the perforations in the film layer. It should be noted that the perforations in the layers of film composition, usually remain in place relative to the other layers of the film; however, there may be a small shift in the location of one or more perforations in the film layer, which shift the centers of these perforations from their original positions and disturb the alignment of the perforations in the film layers. Such offset centers are also covered by the expression "perforations with a common center.

Used herein, the term "polymer" refers to a polymer compound obtained by polymerization of monomers of the same or different type. Thus, the generic term "polymer" encompasses the term "homopolymer", which is commonly used for polymers derived from a monomer of only one type, and the term "copolymer"is defined next.

Used herein, the term "copolymer" refers to polymers obtained by polymerization of monomers, IU the greater extent, two different types. Thus, the generic term "copolymer" includes the term "copolymers", which is normally used in relation to polymers obtained from monomers of two different types, and the term "polymer"used in relation to polymers obtained from monomers of more than two different types.

The term "thermoplastic polymer" or "thermoplastic composition" and similar terms mean a polymer or polymer composition which is essentially thermally extrudable or deformable, although may require relatively harsh conditions.

Used herein, the term "mixture" or "blend of polymers" refers to a mixture of two or more polymers. This mixture may be miscible or not. This mixture can be separated into phases or not. This mixture may contain or not contain a domain that is determined by transmission electron microscopy.

The terms "sealant", "sealed" or "sealing"as used here in relation to the perforations in the inner layer, refer to the complete or partial blockage of a sufficient number of perforations in the inner layer for providing a film of a composite material reinforced barrier to moisture compared with the moisture barrier in the same film composite material, Kateryna has such clogging.

Research methods

Each specific study, the analyzed parameters can depend on a polymer or mixture of polymers. In some of the following studies describe the studied parameters, which are shown as typical for polyolefin resins. As expected, the specific parameters of the study do not limit the scope of the invention. Specialists in the art will understand the limitations of a specific set of parameters and they will be able to determine the appropriate parameters for polymers and mixtures of other types.

The softening temperature for Vika measured by the method according to ASTM D1525.

Density homopolymers and copolymers based on ethylene and other polyolefins measured by the method ASTM D-792. Prior to the measurement some samples annealed at ambient conditions for 24 hours. Method ASTM D-792 can also be used to measure the density of other polymers, were observed during this study.

The flow velocity of the melt (MFR) or melt indexes (I2) homopolymers or copolymers based on ethylene was measured by the method of ASTM D-1238 at a temperature of 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg it Should be noted that for some resins with a high flow velocity of the melt seemingly melt indexes can be op is edeleny the viscosity of the melt, as described in U.S. patent No. 6335410, 6723810 and 6054544. Method according to ASTM D-1238 can also be used to measure the melt index of other polymers, were observed during this study. The flow velocity of the melt of homopolymers and copolymers based on propylene was measured by the method of ASTM D-1238 at a temperature of 230°C. and load of 2.16 kg

Molecular mass distribution of the resins on the basis of polyethylene can be determined by chromatographic system consisting of either Polymer Laboratories Model PL-210 or from Polymer Laboratories Model PL-220. Column and partition work at 140°C. the Column is three columns Polymer Laboratories 10-micron Mixed-b In the solvent used 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. Samples are prepared at a concentration of 0.1 gram of polymer in 50 milliliters of solvent. The solvent used for sample preparation, contains 200 ppm of butylated of hydroxytoluene (BTG). Samples were made, slightly stirring for 2 hours at 160°C. the Volume of injection - 100 microlitres and a flow rate of 1.0 ml/minute.

Polynomial fitting of the fifth order with the packing group columns for gel chromatography (GPC) performed with 21 polystyrene standard substance having a narrow molecular weight distribution with molecular weights ranging from 580 to 8400000 the distribution is built in 6 "kotelevich" mixtures, when at least ten divisions between individual molecular weights. Standard substances purchased from Polymer Laboratories (UK). Polystyrene standard substance prepared with a concentration of 0.025 grams in 50 milliliters of solvent for molecular mass equal to 1,000,000 or more, and 0.05 grams in 50 milliliters of solvent for molecular weights less than 1000000. Polystyrene standard substances with weak stirring dissolved at 80°C for 30 minutes. To minimize the decomposition of the initially treated with a mixture of standard substances with a narrow molecular weight distribution in order of decreasing component with the highest molecular weight. The maximum molecular weight polystyrene standard substance is transferred to the molecular weight polyethylene, using the following equation (described in Williams and Ward, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Let., 6, 621 (1968)):

MPE= A × (MPOLYSTYRENE)In,

where M is the molecular mass, And has a value 0,4315 and is 1.0.

Calculating the equivalent molecular mass polyethylene carried out using version 3.0 program Viscotek TriSEC. The molecular weight of the polymer based on polypropylene can be estimated using the coefficients Brand-Houwink method according to ASTM D6474.9714-1, where a = 0,702 and log K = -3,9 for polystyrene and a = 0,725 and log K= 3,721 for polypropylene. For samples based on polypropylene column and section operated at 160°C.

Srednekislye molecular weight, Mn, of the polymer is defined as the first moment graph of the dependence between the number of molecules in each interval of the molecular mass and molecular mass. In fact, it is the total molecular weight divided by the number of molecules, and is calculated in the usual way according to the following formula:

where

ni = number of molecules with molecular weight Mi,

w = total weight of material, and

Σni = total number of molecules.

Srednevekovoy molecular weight, Mw, is calculated in the usual way according to the following formula: Mw=Σwi*Mi, where wi* and Mi are respectively the weight fractions and the molecular weight of the i-th share, elyuirovaniya from the column for the gel chromatography.

The ratio of these two average molecular masses (Mw and Mn) and molecular mass distribution (MMD or Mw/Mn) is used here to define the width of the molecular mass distribution.

The degree of crystallinity of the polymer based on polyethylene and polypropylene-based can be determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)using a differential scanning calorimeter (TA Instruments model Q1000. The sample size is about 5-6 mg cut out from the investigated material and placed directly is in the Cup for analysis by the method of differential scanning calorimetry. In the case of materials with higher molecular weight sample is usually pressed into a thin film, but some samples of materials of lower molecular weight may be too sticky or too easy flowing during pressing. However, test samples can be cut from the plates, which are prepared and used to study the density. The sample is initially heated at a rate of about 10°/min to 180°C in the case of polymers based on polyethylene (230°C in the case of polymer based on polypropylene) and kept isothermal at this temperature for three minutes to ensure complete melting (first heating). The sample was then cooled at a rate of 10°C/min to -60°C in the case of polymers based on polyethylene (-40°C in the case of polymer based on polypropylene) and kept isothermal at this temperature for three minutes, and then heated (second heating) at a rate of 10°C/min until complete melting. thermogram of this second heating is called "the curve of the second heating". thermograms build graphs of the relationship between watts/gram and temperature.

The percentage of crystallinity of polymers based on polyethylene can be calculated using data on the heat of fusion along the curve of the second heating (heat of melting is usually calculated automatically by t the typical industrial equipment for differential scanning calorimetry, integrating the corresponding area under the curve of heating). The equation for samples on the basis of ethylene:

% Crist. = (Hf+ 292 j/g) × 100; and the equation for samples on the basis of propylene:

% Crist. = (Hf+ 165 j/g) × 100. "% Crist." indicates the percentage of crystallinity and Hf" indicates the heat pavlenov polymer in joules per gram (j/g).

Temperature (temperature) melting (Tm) polymers can be determined by a curve of the second heating, obtained by the above-described differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization temperature (Twith) can be determined from the curve of the first cooling.

In the following examples more fully describe the film and methods according to this invention and their use. The following examples are offered to illustrate the invention and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.

Experiments

General questions

Prepare a three-layer film composites using polymer low density for the inner layer of another polymer for the outer (surface) layer. In a number of suitable polymers for the inner layer include, but are not limited to, polymers AFFINITY (trademark) or VERSIFY (trademark). In a number of suitable polymers for the outer layer include, but are not limited to, alimera INSPIRE (trademark), DOWIEX (trademark) and ELITE (trademark). These film composite materials produced by means of blowing or casting. The film was performable with the formation of small holes to make the films breathability, and then the film was heated in an oven for various periods of time at specified temperatures. Certain films were subjected to the action of the compressive force using a metal roller or rollers. Such a force exerted directly after heating each film. Using hydraulic test, investigated the resistance of each film pressure, and then subjected to film the action of the above forces.

Film composite material, the residence time in the furnace and the furnace temperature and the pressure of the rolls were chosen to simulate those parameters that are used in the process of packing powder materials. Accordingly, would determine the appropriate settings in another packaging process.

Materials

Table 1 shows the polymer resin used in this study. All of these resins contain one or more additives that improve the technological properties, and one or more stabilizers. Resin A18, in addition, contain additives that improve the slide, and antiadhesive.

td align="justify"> Ethylene
Table 1
Polymer resin
ResinThe main
the monomer
Density
(g/cm3)
MFR Speed
flow
melt (g/10 min)
The temp-temperature of the melt-ing, °CThe softening temperature for Vika,
°C
Way
polymer clay-polarization
ComonomerCatalysis-tor*
D20Ethylene0,921122°C107°CIn solutionOcteneC-H
E51Ethylene0,920,85122°C107°CIn solutionOcteneKOF
I11Propylene0,90,4164°C148°C/td> Gas-phaseEthyleneKOF
D50Ethylene0,9341,1-124°CIn solutionOcteneKOF
A82Ethylene0,87560°C45°CIn solutionOcteneKOF
A18Ethylene0,9041100°C89°CIn solutionOcteneKOF
A13Ethylene0,9023098°C79°CIn solutionOcteneKOF
A140,9027,595-100°C84-90°CIn solutionOcteneKOF
*KOF - catalyst limited form,
*C-H - a catalyst of Ziegler-Natta.

Film manufacturer

Typical film composition obtained by extrusion injection blow and casting from solution, produced using the processing conditions of the resins listed respectively in tables 2 and 3.

Table 2
The film obtained by extrusion injection blow -
Joint extrusion
A film with a
structure (a/b/A),
obtained by extrusion injection blow
The extruder AndExtruderThe extruderThe final film
Hopper 1 (main)60%60%
A mixture of 140%40% 40%
The thickness of the layer40 micron40 micron40 micron
The temperature of the melt236°C228°C239°C
The pressure of the melt324 bar201 bar303 bar
Rpm735349
The total thickness120 microns
Total production-productivity120 kg/h
The speed of the calender11.4 m/min
The degree of razuki2,5
Crack head2.5 mm

Table 3
The film obtained by casting from solution
A film with a
structure (a/b/A),
obtained by casting from solution
The extruder AndThe extruderThe extruder DThe final film
The percentage of layer40%20%40%
Rpm323865
Amps3,10.7 a2.1 a
The temperature of the melt231°C232°C234°C
The pressure of the melt128 bar47 bar137 bar
The total thickness100 microns
Overall performance6,8 kg/h
The speed of the receiving device4.6 m/min
Crack head0.7 mm

Table 4 shows the composition of the films obtained by extrusion injection blow and casting from solution. The percentage of the components shown in weight percent of the total weight of the composition in each layer.

B
Table 4
Three-layer film with a total thickness of between 100 and 200 microns
AA
The film obtained by extrusion injection blow
Film No. 5.b40%a+60%D20
40 microns
64%D20+36%A82
40 microns
40%a+60%D20
40 microns
Film No. 10.b40%a+60%D20
40 microns
100%A18
40 microns
40%a+60%D20
40 microns
Film No. 11.b40%a+60%D20
45 microns
100%A18
30 µm
40%a+60%D20
45 microns
The film obtained by extrusion injection blow: Alpine
A.b40%a+60%D20
40 microns
60%D20+40%A82
40 microns
40%a+60%D20
40 microns
B.b40%a+60%D20
40 microns
100%A18
40 microns
40%a+60%D20
40 microns
C.b40%a+60%D20
45 microns
100%A18
30 µm
40%a+60%D20
45 microns
D.b100%I11
43 mcm
100%A82
15-mm
100%I11
42 microns
E.b100%D50
40 microns
100%A82
20 mm
100%D50
40 microns
The film cast from solution
Film No. 1.100%I11
35 microns
100%A82
30 µm
100%I11
35 microns
Film No. 2.100%I11
40 microns
100%A82
20 mm
100%I11
40 microns
Film No. 3100%I11
42,5 mcm
100%A82
15-mm
100%I11
42,5 mcm
Film No. 4.100%I11
45 microns
100%A82
10 µm
100%I11
45 microns
Film No. 5.100%I11
35 microns
100%A14
30 µm
100%I11
35 microns
Film No. 6.100%I11
40 microns
100%A14
20 mm
100%I11
40 microns
100%I11
45 microns
100%A13
10 µm
100%I11
45 microns
Film No. 8. with100%I11
40 microns
100%A13
20 mm
100%I11
40 microns
A film cast from a solution: Collin
B.c100%I11
40 microns
100%A13
20 mm
100%I11
40 microns

Typical manufacturer

In the manufacture of films (Alpine), obtained by extrusion injection blow, the resin was extrudible laboratory line through Alpine group extruders And/As/With worms diameter 40/60/40 mm Head had a diameter of 200 mm with the size of the gap is 1.5 mm Degree razuki usually was 2.5.

The mode of operation of extruders will vary and depend on the final film composite material.

Perforation of the film

A sample of each film in the size of 20 cm × 20 cm was performable education 100 holes, using a wooden plate with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm, with an interval of 2 cm were made lines with 10 punctures for the needles in each line.

In the experiment, And the diameter of each hole was 0.6 mm, and the experiment was 0.8 mm

Heat about the job and applied force (compression).

Experiment A: furnace + 4.3 kg metal roller.

Samples (20 cm × 20 cm) films obtained by extrusion injection blow and casting from solution, thermally treated in an oven at 120°C for different periods of time: 5, 10, 15 minutes. At the end of each time period the film is squeezed heavy metal roller with a weight of 4.3 kg of Each sample was primitively rollers 10 times. Samples that were subjected to heat treatment, but not to squeeze roller, served as standards. The calculated pressure exerted by the platen to the sample, was about 43 kPa.

Experiment: rolls

In order to simulate the compressive action of the packing line, used rollers, subjecting samples of the film corresponding to the temperature and compressive strength. Samples of the films obtained by extrusion injection blow and casting from solution, cut in two pieces, and these pieces were laid on each other adjacent surfaces and placed in the drums. Rollers could not fully close on samples with thickness less than 100 microns. Rolls had a gap of about 110 microns (average). The temperature of the rollers was from 90°C to 120°C and was increased in increments of 5°C. Rollers used for heat treatment while applying a compressive force used to close the perforations in the film composition. The calculated pressure rolls, 50 KP is.

Experiment With: hydraulic pressure test.

For each study, the samples of the film (the test surface: 100 cm2experienced in hydraulic equipment according to ISO 1420 A1 (increase pressure 60 mbar/min; area 100 cm2; measurement at 23°C). In this test, the maximum increase in water pressure 60 mbar/min at 23°C. Each film was subjected to a uniform pressure of water at this register pressure after opening three perforations in the film.

Pressure treatment of the metal roller.

The perforated film, which were obtained by extrusion injection blow and which are thermally treated, but not subjected to the action of compressive forces were able to withstand a maximum pressure of 7 mbar. Such films, which were thermally treated for 10 minutes and then subjected to the action of compressive forces from 4.3 kg roller, were capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of 18 to 20 mbar (for example, film No. 5.b - 20 mbar; film No. 10.b - 18 mbar; film No. 11.b - 19 mbar). Thus, the bag formed from the film of the compositions according to the invention, obtained by extrusion injection blow, and resistant to internal pressures within 18 to 20 mbar, must be strong enough to prevent re-disclosure of closed perforations during normal cases the application is. Thus, such a bag would preserve its original moisture barrier and prevent moisture penetration into the materials inside the bag.

In the following table 5 sets out the results of processing rolls, and table 6 shows the calculated melting temperature of the film layers and the softening temperature by Vika inner layer.

Table 5
The results of the processing rollers and hydraulic test
The film obtained by extrusion injection blowTemperature (rollers)The average recorded pressure when hydraulic pressure test (tested 2 samples)
Film No. A.b90°C
95°C
100°C
13 mbar
15.5 mbar
12 mbar
Film No. B.b90°C
95°C
of 10.25 mbar
11,75 mbar
Film No. C.b90°C
120°C
11 mbar
The film could not be separated, stuck one to another
Film No. D.b120°C23,8 mbar
Film No. E.b90°C
120°C
19.5 mbar
of 15.75 mbar

Table 6
The calculated melting point and softening
The film structureThe melting point of the layer AndThe melting temperature of layerThe softening temperature for the Vic layer
A.b120°C95°C82°C
B.b120°C100°C90°C
C.b120°C100°C90°C
D.b160°C60°C45°C
E.b140°C60°C45°C

Experiment D: hydraulic pressure test of a film cast from a solution

Eight film songs, cast, solution heat treated at 120 the C (in an oven) for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. These samples were not subjected to the action of compressive forces. After each heat treatment the samples of the films were tested for maximum resistance to water pressure, using videomagazine hydraulic test.

The results of the test pressure shown in table 7, show that the perforation in the samples re-revealed at lower pressures - 7-9 mbar in the absence of processing of the compressive force.

Table 7
The results of the pressure test films treated at 120°C (in an oven)
The film cast from solutionTime (min)Registered pressure
Film No. 1.5
10
15
8.5 mbar
9 mbar
8.5 mbar
Film No. 2.5
10
15
7,5 mbar
8 mbar
8 mbar
Film No. 35
10
15
7,5 mbar
8.5 mbar
8 mbar
Film No. 4.5
10
15
7 mbar
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
Film No. 5.5
10
15
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
Film No. 6.5
10
15
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
Film No. 7.5
10
15
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
Film No. 8. with5
10
15
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar
7,5 mbar

Experiment E: hydraulic pressure test of a film cast from a solution

A film cast from a solution, film No. V.S. (the melting point of the layer A = 160°C; melting point layer = 100°C; softening temperature by Vika layer = 80°C) is subjected to the action of compressive strength and high temperature (90°C and 120°C), using rollers. The results of the pressure test, shown in table 8, indicate that the perforation in the samples re-revealed at higher pressures, when the film is subjected to the action of higher temperatures.

Table 8
The results of the test pressure of films processed in rolls
The film cast from solution Temperature (rollers)The average recorded pressure (tested 2 samples)
Film № Vs90°C
120°C
18 mbar
21,5 mbar

1. Perforated film composition for the manufacture of packages containing at least three layers, with at least one layer is an inner layer with a lower melting point and/or softening compared with the respective softening temperatures and/or melting at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer, and when the film composition is exposed to elevated temperature, at least one inner layer is softened or melted to such an extent that when exposed to a compressive sealing force is a sufficient number of perforations in inner layer to provide a film composition enhanced moisture barrier, and the layers of film composition have perforations with a common center, and each of the outer layers is formed from a film containing at least one thermoplastic polymer, or formed of foamed thermoplastic material, while the inner layer is formed from a film, sod is Rasa, at least one thermoplastic polymer, or formed from a foamed thermoplastic polymer, where at least one inner layer contains a thermoplastic resin having a softening temperature by Vic from 20 to 150°C.

2. Film composition according to claim 1, containing three layers.

3. Film composition according to claim 1, where each of the outer layers adjacent to the surface of the inner layer.

4. Film composition according to claim 1, where at least one inner layer has a softening temperature in Vic at least 20°C below their softening temperature, at least two outer layers.

5. Film composition according to claim 1, where the perforations have a size which individually is equal to 100 microns or more.

6. Film composition according to claim 5, where a moisture barrier is maintained at a pressure of from 10 mbar to 21.5 mbar, as defined by the hydraulic pressure test (ISO A).

7. Film composition according to claim 1, where thermoplastic resin is selected from the group consisting of copolymers of propylene and α-olefin, copolymers of ethylene and α-olefin and mixtures thereof.

8. Film composition according to claim 7, where thermoplastic resin used is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or a mixture.

9. Film composition of claim 8, where the copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture is a copolymer formed is p of the monomers, selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, ethylene and 1-butene, ethylene and 1-hexene, ethylene and 1-pentene, ethylene and 1-Heptene, ethylene and propylene, ethylene and 4-methylpentene-1 and mixtures thereof.

10. Film composition according to claim 9, where the copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture has a melt index (I2from 1 g/10 min to 100 g/10 minutes

11. Film composition of claim 8, where the copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin has a melt index from 1 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.86 to 0,920 g/cm3and molecular weight distribution, Mw/Mn, from 2 to 10.

12. Film composition according to claim 9, where at least one outer layer is made of a thermoplastic resin selected from the group consisting of homopolymers based on propylene, copolymers based on propylene, homopolymers based on ethylene, copolymers of ethylene and mixtures thereof.

13. Film composition according to item 12, where thermoplastic resin used is a copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or a mixture.

14. Film composition according to item 13, where the copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin or mixture is a copolymer formed from monomers selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, ethylene and 1-butene, ethylene and 1-hexene, ethylene and 1-pentene, ethylene and 1-Heptene, ethylene and propylene, ethylene and 4-methyl-pentene and mixtures thereof.

15. Film composition according to 14, where copolyme the ethylene and α-olefin or mixture has a melt index (I 2) from 0.1 g/10 min to 100 g/10 minutes

16. Film composition according to 14, where the copolymer of ethylene and α-olefin has a melt index from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.900 for up to 0,940 g/cm3and molecular weight distribution, Mw/Mn, of from 1.5 to 5.

17. Film composition according to claim 1, additionally containing layer comprising a General purpose polystyrene, high impact polystyrene, a copolymer of Acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene, a copolymer of styrene and Acrylonitrile, nylon, styrene block copolymers and mixtures thereof.

18. Film composition according to claim 1, where the inner layer contains a heat-transfer agent.

19. The package formed from the film of the composition according to claim 1.

20. Packaging according to claim 19, in which the film composition has a permeability of at least 20 m3/PM

21. Packaging according to claim 19, in which the film composition has a thickness of from 50 to 250 microns.

22. Packaging according to claim 19, which has a capacity from 1 kg to 100 kg

23. Packaging according to claim 19, which contains two or more joints, and the packaging contains perforations in one or more specific areas of the surface of the package.

24. The method of obtaining a perforated film composition for the manufacture of packages containing at least three layers, with the specified method comprises a) selecting a thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers that are suitable for each of the CSOs layer; b) receiving from thermoplastic polymers or mixtures film composition obtained by extrusion injection blow or by casting from solution, and the film obtained by extrusion injection blow or by casting from a solution that contains at least three layers; (C) perforation of the specified film obtained by extrusion injection blow or by casting from solution, with the formation of a perforated film composition; and at least one layer in the film composition is an inner layer with a lower softening temperature and/or melting point than the corresponding temperatures of softening and/or melting, at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer, and the layers of film composition, performed with perforations with a common center, and when the film composition is subjected to the action of elevated temperature, at least one inner layer is softened or melted to such an extent that when exposed to a compressive sealing force is a sufficient number of perforations in the inner layer for providing a film of a composite material reinforced barrier to moisture.

25. A method of filling the filling powder material, comprising: a) introducing powdered material into the packaging according to stuudy capacity for the formation of packaging, the packaging is formed from a perforated film composition containing at least three layers, where at least one layer is an inner layer with a lower softening temperature and/or melting point than the corresponding temperatures of softening and/or melting at least two outer layers located on opposite surfaces of the inner layer; and the layers of film composition have perforations with a common center; (b) heating the package to a temperature sufficient to soften or partially melt at least one inner layer; (C) the effect on filled with packing compressive force; and (d) sealing the filled package.

26. The method according A.25, where exposure to a temperature sufficient to soften or partially melt at least one inner layer, and the influence of the compressive force simultaneously.

27. The method according A.25, in which the perforations have one or more certain areas of the package and one or more designated areas have the maximum compressive force that is perceived from the device, which exerts a compressive force to the surface of the package.

28. Film composition according to claim 1, where the perforations have a size which individually equal to 1000 microns eliminee.

29. Packaging according to item 23, in which one or more specific areas are arranged on one or more horizontal flat surfaces of the package.

30. Pack of clause 29, in which the perforations evenly spaced intervals on one or more among certain sections.

31. Pack of clause 29, in which the perforations are arranged with a higher density along the longitudinal middle line of each of the one or more specific areas.

32. Pack of clause 29, in which one or more specific areas are arranged along the longitudinal medial line of the surface of the package, and each section has a width which is less than half the width of the package.



 

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15 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: ventilation panel made of multilayer material comprises a layer having the first hole and adjacent layer having the second hole. Besides the first and second holes do not match with each other and are not substantially overlapping, forming ventilation channel. At the same time this channel mutually joins the first and second holes, thus providing for passage of fluid medium both from hole to hole and through ventilation panel outside. Device also comprises insulating channel connected to one of holes, thus providing for insulation as a result of fluid medium passage along and inside of insulating channel. Invention also relates to ventilation system, method of ventilation panel manufacturing, and also to method of box manufacturing and to insulating panel made of multilayer material. Besides application of this panel is also possible in other areas of equipment, where it may be useful.

EFFECT: creation of ventilation panel, which preserves heat of hot products and prevents formation of undesirable moisture inside package.

46 cl, 49 dwg

FIELD: paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: cardboard contains at least two layers: the first layer made of raw materials having high density and high module of elasticity; and the second layer to provide voluminousness for cardboard, in which the second layer contains chemical-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) of broadleaf wood, cellulose and/or CTMP of coniferous wood at the specified ratio of components. At the same time coherence by Scott is achieved, making at least 80 J/m2; index of bending resistance making at least 5 Nm6/kg3 and strength in direction z, making at least 200 kPa. Invention also relates to products made of cardboard.

EFFECT: expansion of multilayer cardboard range and improvement of its quality.

15 cl, 8 tbl

FIELD: transport, package.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to system of producing laminar plastic, packing device to produce laminar plastic and method to produce packages made from packing laminar plastic. Laminar plastic comprises layer of particles that can be magnetised. System comprises at least one magnetisation appliance to apply magnetic field to magnetise certain amount of magnetic particles in forming magnetic mark in packing laminar plastic indicating damage location, for example joint or single local defect. System comprises scanner to detect damages and activate first magnetisation appliance on revealing damage for forming magnetic mark indicating damage location. Packing device comprises magnetic pickup to perceive magnetic marks indicating damage location of package or packing laminar plastic. Method consists in applying magnetic field for forming at least one magnetic mark in packing laminar plastic to mark location of damage and perceive the presence of at least one magnetic mark indicating damage.

EFFECT: efficient detection of damages in packing material.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multi-component structure, for example multi-layer film that comprises at least first and second components with jointing layer arranged directly there between. Note here that jointing layer comprises at least one copolymer of olefine and unsaturated ether of carbonate acid and at least one photoinitiator wherein at least first component comprises vinylidene chloride polymer or combination of vinylidene chloride polymers that make prevailing ingredient with structure that features increased interlayer adhesion as measured in compliance with ASTM F904-98 at 93 °C after irradiation by UV-radiation and as compared with interlayer adhesion prior to irradiating by UV radiation. Invention relates to method of preparing food that comprises enveloping food in multi-layer packing structure to be subjected to increased temperature sufficient for food preparation, and to method of gluing first layer to second layer in multi-layer film that comprises extruding first and second layer together. Note here that first layer comprises at least 80% of vinylidene chloride polymer and third layer arranged between said first and second layers. Third layer comprises basic polymer including olefine copolymer and that of unsaturated carbonate acid ether and at least one photoinitiator. Said method comprises also forming film and UV irradiation of the latter.

EFFECT: increased adhesion between first and second layer.

18 cl, 5 tbl, 21 ex

FIELD: packing industry.

SUBSTANCE: standing pack, according to invention, has body and bottom, first of all, stable bottom, at the same time, at least material of packet body comprises at least one uniaxially oriented film, besides uniaxially oriented film is part of layer material and has high thickness compared to other layers of material. Thickness of uniaxially oriented film may be more than thickness of all other layers of layer material.

EFFECT: packet may be opened in a simple manner without complete damage or uncontrolled rupture of the whole pack and may be used further after opening.

11 cl

FIELD: packing industry.

SUBSTANCE: inventions are related to packages for food products. Multilayer film consists of the first layer made of plastic material and at least one second layer made of material selected from number of plastic material, metal material, material that is similar to paper, or equivalent materials. Each layer is connected to adjacent layer by means of intermediate layer of adhesive material. Multilayer film at least on one surface of more rigid layer of plastic material has multiple continuous parallel cuts arranged in rows next to each other for reduction of breaking load at the right angles to direction of cuts. Cuts are produced by means of material removal and partially reduce thickness of more rigid layer.

EFFECT: invention provides for easy rectilinear rupture in specified direction of weakened package section.

15 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: packing industry.

SUBSTANCE: package of synthetic film comprises packaging wall, covering loose material and having multilayer section of inner layer and outer layer. Multilayer section of wall passes in longitudinal direction of package, and each layer has air permeable section of surface. Between inner layer and outer layer there is at least one conducting element for air flow passing through air permeable sections of surface. Inner layer of multilayer section of wall is formed by means of strip of material arranged in inner space of package. Conducting element to divert air flow is formed by at least one section of air permeable intermediate layer, streamlined at least at one side, by means of which at least air permeable sections of inner layer surface are closed.

EFFECT: package has simple design, provides for optimal removal of air and prevents ejection of material particles to outside.

8 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: personal demand items.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of powdery materials storage. Method for manufacturing and filling of plastic bag consists in use of plastic film, in which multiple microholes are created, bag is formed from film, including wall and bottom. Bag is filled with content, including air and finely ground powder having average particle size up to 150 mcm, and bag is fixed. At least part of captured air is removed from bag through microholes, and microholes are sealed by means of film-producing resin, which provides for sufficient strength of film, making it possible to cover microholes and preserve integrity of film until it hardens.

EFFECT: invention provides for reliable storage of powdery materials without moisture access to them.

18 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: packaging industry.

SUBSTANCE: multilayer sack consists of at least on external and at least one internal paper layer, from one synthetic intermediate layer between external and internal layer. In paper sack from one side it is provided overlap of external paper linen and partially overlap of synthetic linen. External paper linen at section of overlap is partially glued together to itself.

EFFECT: ensured by interrupted longitudinal glue it is provided total yield of air at charging already.

5 cl, 3 dwg

Flexible container // 2284954

FIELD: material handling facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of transportation and storage of loose, especially, powder, granulated and grain materials, namely, to flexible containers with outer load-bearing envelope and insert of flexible plastic material placed inside. Container has outer envelope and insert with charging hole and suspension devices, air discharge devices are made in form of branch pipes arranged in upper part of insert close to its side seams. Inner volume of suspension devices is separated from inner volume of insert by weld.

EFFECT: possibility of discharge of air from inner volume of charged insert at pinching of suspension devices, prevention of moisture getting inside container through suspension devices, if they have been damaged in process of charging container.

5 cl, 1 dwg

Flexible container // 2065389

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of polypropylene films. Proposed film comprises surface layer, center layer and functional layer arranged in this order, co-extruded and biaxially oriented. Functional layer may be laminated by hot pressing directly on paper or other film. Top subsurface layer is located between surface and center layer while underlaying subsurface layer is located between center and functional layers. Proposed method comprises: feeding raw stock into extruder for it to be plasticised to melt, passing said melt via channel, filtration, distribution of melt into extrusion head and co-extrusion. Film is produced with the help of flat-slot extrusion head or by forming the sleeve. Film is processed by corona discharge or fire to produce machine winding roll, aged and cut longitudinally.

EFFECT: power savings, higher safety.

7 cl, 3 dwg, 12 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pre-stretched multilayer films, fixers, webs, etc. Proposed article comprises at least two layers, one low-crystalline and one high-crystalline layers. Low-crystalline layer comprises low-crystalline olefin (co)polymer while high-crystalline layer comprises high-crystalline olefin (co)polymer with melting point below that of low-crystalline olefin (co)polymer. Difference between crystallinity of both (co)polymers makes at least 1 wt%. Article allows elongation at temperature below low-crystalline polymer melting point in at least one direction to elongation degree making at least 50% of its initial length or width. Preferably, high-crystalline layer should be subjected to plastic deformation after elongation.

EFFECT: pre-stretched multilayer articles.

49 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multilayer laminated film and its use for food packing to be subjected to thermal treatment. Proposed film consists of, at least, two layers 11, 12 13. First layer 11 is made from plastic material and is intended for thermal sealing. Second outer layer is made 12 from material selected from plastic, metal or paper-like material, or equivalents thereof. Each layer is jointed to adjacent layer by means of interlayer made from adhesive material 14, 15. Thermal thermally sealed layer 11 relates to foamed-structure low-density material.

EFFECT: light and easily detachable packages.

23 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to production of producing multilayer microporous polyolefin membrane comprises microporous polypropylene layer and that of polyethylene resin. Proposed method comprises simultaneous extrusion of melt including mix of polypropylene resin and membrane-forming agent and melt including mix of polyethylene resin and membrane-forming solvent via spinneret to produce laminated extrudate. Obtained laminated extrudate is cooled to produce gel laminated sheet to be stretched at -20°C or higher to below +90°C. Re-stretching is performed at 90-135°C and membrane-forming solvent is removed from stretched gel laminated sheet. Note here that polyethylene resin is used to produce said membrane containing polyethylene with super high molecular weight and mean weighed molecular weight distribution of 5×105 to 15×106. Note also that stretching of laminated sheet is carried out at ot -20 to +70°C. Proposed method may be carried out by extrusion of melt including mix of polypropylene resin and membrane-forming agent and melt including mix of polyethylene resin and membrane-forming solvent via separate spinnerets. Note also that membrane-forming solvent is removed from each stretched sheet and, thereafter, lamination of produced microporous polypropylene and polyethylene membranes is carried out. Note that stretching of both polypropylene and gel sheet from polyethylene resin may be effected at ot -20 to +70°C.

EFFECT: balance permeability, mechanical strength and resistance to thermosetting.

4 cl, 6 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of producing laminate and panel to be used for antiballistic protection. Laminate represents unidirectional polymer tapes with inner part-shell structure wherein inner part substance features higher fusion temperature than that of shell substance. Proposed method comprises pre-extrusion of polymer tapes, positioning said tapes and combining them to produce laminate. Positioning is performed in two, three, four or more planes so that polymer tapes are arranged in each plane in parallel and side-by-side. Polymer tapes of each layer are shifted with respect to each other. Proposed panel is made up of stacked laminates in certain arrangement, pressed together at pressure and high temperature.

EFFECT: laminate and laminate panel with high strength and acceptable weight.

12 cl, 1 ex

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