Vacuum drying method

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. Milled food product (in a 5-70 mm thick layer) is put into a vacuum chamber. A residual pressure (2-3) kPa is built in the vacuum chamber. The product is heated until a temperature is 70-80癈 with thermal capacity 9.0-9.5 kW/m2. Vaporised moisture condensation is performed by the evaporator of a refrigerating machine, temperature on the surface minus 25-30癈.

EFFECT: method allows to produce dry food products having high quality properties and reduced drying time along with reduced energy costs.

4 ex

 

The invention relates to food industry, namely the production of a variety of dry food products.

A method of obtaining dry cheese in the form of granules, providing: freezing cheese at a temperature of minus (18-28)癈 for (12-24) hours; pre-shredded cheese on pellet size (3-5) mm; drying is carried out in the fluidized bed at a temperature of coolant (130-140癈)with the simultaneous grinding of cheese to powder [1].

The disadvantages of this method are: low quality of the process due to the large amount of energy to freeze cheese; high temperature drying leads to degradation of the protein and reduce the organoleptic and rheological parameters.

A method of obtaining dry cheese, comprising: forming cheese in pieces up to 50 mm, the mixing with dry flavoring ingredients, a microwave vacuum drying method with mechanical turning. Drying lead in several stages - the first stage when the product temperature (40-45癈)pressure (100-4000) PA, then at a temperature (40-45癈)and pressure (4000-5000) PA, at the final stage at a temperature (25-30癈)and pressure (90-100) PA, after the end of the drying process, the product is stabilized in an inert gas environment [2].

This method is characterized by high energy intensity, duration of the process of Dry cheese has reduced organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators due to the drying of the cheese is larger than 50 mm When drying slices of cheese of relatively large sizes over 50 mm, uneven drying, the surface layers dry out, and the thickness remains nedosushennye.

The closest implementation and the obtained result is a method of vacuum drying food at a residual pressure of (4-8) kPa by heating food in a sealed chamber pulses of infrared radiation to (30-50癈)under stirring, followed by condensation of the water vapor with the water cooling system [3].

The disadvantage of the prototype is relatively large energy costs due to the time consuming process of drying and low quality dried products due to not considering the magnitude of the heat load and the States in which the product is fed to drying.

The basis of the invention is the creation of technology vacuum drying of food products with high quality performance at reduced drying process and low energy consumption.

This object is achieved in that the product is crushed into the following forms and sizes: cubes(5󬊅), (101010) and (151515) mm; rectangles(30󬊅), (401010) and (701010) mm pellets with a diameter of 2, 5 and 8 mm Grinding is made directly in the pan with a layer thickness of from 5 to 70 mm, Then the product is subjected to wakuu the Noah drying at a residual pressure of (2-3) kPa, the drying temperature is in the range (70 to 80)癈. the Heat for drying the product fail when the value of the heat load (9,0-9,5) kW/m2.

For removal of water vapor from the drying chamber is applied to the evaporator of the refrigeration machine, the surface temperature of which is maintained in the range of minus 25 to 30)癈.

The duration of the drying process depending on the type of food product, the thickness of the layer drying, shapes and sizes of grinding, the temperature in the drying chamber, heat load and the residual pressure is (3-5) hours, the mass fraction of moisture in dry product (3-5)%.

The method was implemented in the following way, took one food product was ground to the desired shape and size. Grinding produced in the pallet, achieving the required layer thickness. Then the pallet with the product was installed in a vacuum chamber, where they were dried at the required temperature, heat load and residual pressure.

An important characteristic of the drying process is the heat load, analogues, and prototype it is not taken into account, which is one of their disadvantages.

The thickness of the layer drying, the shape and size of the crushed product, the residual pressure in the drying chamber, and the surface temperature of the evaporator of the refrigeration machine can significantly affect the duration of the process of vacuum drying, which is up to 5 hours.

Examples of the method.

Example 1. Took "Adyghe" cheese, crumbled up in the form of cubes of size (5󬊅) mm Grinding was carried out in the tray, the thickness of the layer was set equal to 30 mm, Then a pallet of "Adyghe" cheese was installed in a vacuum chamber, where it was dried at 70癈, heat load 9,0 kW/m2and a pressure of 2 kPa. The surface temperature of the evaporator is equal to minus 25癈. the drying time was 3.2 hours, the mass fraction of moisture in a dry cheese 4,0%.

Dry cheese has the form of cubes of the same shape, easily scattered when compressed. Characteristics of dry cheese: color - light yellow; taste and smell of cheese; the structure is porous.

Example 2. Take boiled beef, crushed in the form of rectangles of size (701010) mm Grinding was carried out in the tray, the thickness of the layer was set equal to 50 mm, Then the pan with cooked beef was installed in a vacuum chamber, where it was dried at 70癈, heat load 9,0 kW/m2and a pressure of 3 kPa. The surface temperature of the evaporator is equal to minus 30癈. the drying time was 3.5 hours, the mass fraction of moisture in the dry beef 4,1%.

Dry beef has the form rectangles of the same shape, easily scattered when compressed. Characteristics of dry beef: color - light brown; taste and smell of beef; the structure on the East.

Example 3. Took the apples were crushed in the form of granules with a diameter of 2 mm, the Grinding was carried out in the tray, the thickness of the layer was set equal to 30 mm, Then the pan with the apples were placed in the vacuum chamber was dried at a temperature of 75癈, heat load 9,0 kW/m2and a pressure of 2 kPa. The surface temperature of the evaporator is equal to minus 28癈. the drying time was 4.2 hours, the mass fraction of moisture in dry apples of 3.5%.

Dried apples were in the form of granules of the same shape, easily scattered when compressed. Characteristics of dry apples: color - light yellow; taste and smell - apples; the structure is porous.

Example 4. Take cucumbers, crumbled up in the form of granules with a diameter of 8 mm Grinding was carried out in the tray, the thickness of the layer was set equal to 70 mm, Then the pallet with cucumbers were placed in a vacuum chamber, where it was dried at a temperature of 80癈, heat load 9,5 kW/m2and a pressure of 3 kPa. The surface temperature of the evaporator is equal to minus 30癈. the drying time was 4.8 hours, the mass fraction of moisture in dry cucumbers 4,5%.

Dry the cucumbers were in the form of granules of the same shape, easily scattered when compressed. Characteristics of dry cucumbers: color - light green; taste and smell of cucumbers; the structure is porous.

The proposed method of vacuum drying allows to obtain dry products of high quality for which no rational value of temperature, heat load and residual pressure, reduce the duration of the process to (3-5) hours and significantly reduce the unit cost of heat.

Dry foods obtained by this method, have a long shelf life, because the moisture content is (3-5) %.

Sources of information

1. Patent No. 2039447 Russian Federation, AS 19/086. The method of obtaining dry cheese. / Kozakova V.E., hutieva Y.S. - St. Petersburg technological Institute of refrigeration industry. No. 5060299/13; Appl. 26.08.1992; publ. 20.07.1995 (similar).

2. Patent No. 2218797 Russian Federation, AS 19/086. The method of obtaining dry foam cheese Thruster"./Penzin, V.V., Muzalevskaya A.N. No. 2002102736/13; Appl. 28.01.2002; publ. 20.12.2003 (similar).

3. Patent No. 2279020 Russian Federation, IPC7F26B 5/04. Method of vacuum drying of food products. / Popov A.M., Belokurov A.G., A.A. Popov - Cemtop. No. 2004133432/13; Appl. 16.11.2004; publ. 27.06.2006 (prototype).

Method of vacuum drying, including grinding and drying at positive temperature and residual pressure, characterized in that the food is ground directly into the pallet layer thickness of from 5 to 70 mm, placed in a vacuum chamber, creating a residual pressure of 2-3 kPa is heated to a temperature of 70-80癈 when the value of the heat load 9,0-9,5 kW/m2and dried for 3-5 h until the product mass is stake moisture 3-5%, the condensation of the evaporated moisture is carried evaporator of the refrigeration machine with a surface temperature of minus 25-30癈.



 

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