Electrical method of geological monitoring

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: potentially dangerous area is selected on territory to be analysed. At least three measuring modules are arranged on said area. Every said module consists of radiating electrode, main electrode pair with its one electrode making zero electrode, and at least one additional electrode pair. Said electrode pairs of measuring electrode are arranged at 180°/n to each other where n stands for number of electrode pair. All electrodes are located on one equipotentional line of radiating electrode. Electrodes of one pair are arranged on one line with radiating electrode. Directional diagrams of electrode pairs are plotted. Potential difference is measured between zero electrode and main electrode pair, and other electrodes of appropriate measuring module. Abnormal potential difference and direction diagram are used to determine direction for each measuring module to zone of rocks irregularities. Zone location is defined at intersection of said directions.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to geophysical research, registration, internal changes in the structure of the rock mass, in particular the formation of closed cavities, fractured zones, tectonic crushing, and can be used responsible for the design and construction of structures in areas with complex engineering-geological conditions and monitoring of dangerous geological processes that are hidden from direct observation.

Known geoelectroprospecting, including installation on the surface in the nodes of a rectangular grid of electrodes in increments commensurate with the alleged a priori minimum linear size of the smallest object search range of the minimum linear dimensions of the various classes of objects, measurement of the apparent resistivity plots in increments not exceeding half the minimum linear size of the largest object search range of the minimum linear dimensions, location of adjacent rows of the grid at a distance of H1, conduct additional measurements of apparent resistivity between electrodes placed in the nodes of the grid electrodes, forming a square, and the determination based on the measurement results of the adjusted boundaries of the object of search (patent RU №2097793, G01V 3/02, 1997).

The disadvantage of this JV is soba is the low accuracy and reliability of Geoelectromagnetic due to the influence of climatic conditions and level of electrical noise.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is geoelectroprospecting, including identification in the study area potentially hazardous area, the installation in this area of the measuring electrodes, measurement of potential difference and positioning education discontinuities in the rock mass. Each of the three grounding in the survey area are used successively as supply voltage, then measure the three voltages, determine the ratio of the voltage measured at the Central position of the second feeding ground, to the sum of the absolute values of the voltages measured at the extreme positions of the second feeding ground, and on the distribution of this ratio over the investigated area is judged on the presence and position of inhomogeneities (patent RU №2098847, G01V 3/08, 1997).

The disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy and reliability of geoelectricity, because when the measurement is not ensured optimal ratio of signal to noise due to the large initial potential difference between the measuring electrodes and the impact meteopole.

The technical result is to increase the accuracy and reliability of Geoelectromagnetic by increasing the ratio of signal to noise at the expense of reducing the effects of common-mode electrical noise and impact of the ISM is in the resistivity of rocks under the influence of weather conditions due to the unchanged shape of the equipotential lines.

The technical result is achieved in geoelectroprospecting, including identification in the study area potentially hazardous area installation on this site at least three measuring modules, consisting of the radiating electrode, the main measuring electrode pair, one electrode of which is zero, and at least one additional electrode pair, the location of electrode pairs each measurement unit relative to each other at an angle of 180°/n, where n is the number of electrode pairs, the arrangement of the electrodes of each sensor module on the same equipotential line of the radiating electrode, member of the measuring module, the arrangement of the electrodes of each pair on one direct radiating electrode, the construction of the pattern electrode pairs, the measurement of the potential difference between the zero electrode main electrode pair and the other electrodes of the respective measurement module definition for anomalous values of potential difference and the pattern electrode pairs directions for each measuring module on the area of discontinuities in rocks, determination of the location of the area by crossing these areas.

Distinctive features of the proposed method geoelectric is svedka are installing a potentially hazardous site at least three measuring modules, consisting of the radiating electrode, the main measuring electrode pair, one electrode of which is zero, and at least one additional electrode pair, the location of electrode pairs each measurement unit relative to each other at an angle of 180°/n, where n is the number of electrode pairs, the arrangement of the electrodes of each sensor module on the same equipotential line of the radiating electrode, member of the measuring module, the arrangement of the electrodes of each pair on the same line with the radiating electrode, the construction of the pattern electrode pairs, measuring the potential difference between the zero electrode main electrode pair and the other electrodes of the respective measuring module the definition for anomalous values of potential difference and the pattern electrode pairs directions for each measuring module on the area of discontinuities in rocks, determination of the location of the area by crossing these areas. Installing a potentially hazardous site at least three measuring modules, consisting of the radiating electrode, the main measuring electrode pair, one electrode of which is zero, and at least one additional electrode pair and allows the measuring signals, coming from different directions, i.e. to carry out spatial location signals and to reduce the potential difference between the measuring electrodes. The arrangement of the electrodes of each sensor module on the same equipotential line of the radiating electrode, member of the measuring module, allows to increase the signal/noise ratio by reducing electrical interference and the influence of weather factors, because the form of the equipotential lines remain unchanged, only change the absolute values of their potentials. The arrangement of the electrodes of each pair on the same line with radiant electrode makes it possible to obtain the same branch of the directional diagrams for all electrode pairs each measuring module, which improves the accuracy of detecting the direction. Building pattern of the electrode pairs is necessary to determine the direction to the area of the heterogeneity of the rock mass. The measuring potential difference between the zero electrode main electrode pair and the other electrodes of the respective measuring module allows you to increase the measurement accuracy by providing a high level of noise immunity. The definition for anomalous values of potential difference and the pattern of the electrode pairs, the direction of each and the measuring module in the area of discontinuities in rock mass can pinpoint the direction. Positioning zone by crossing these areas allows to localize the resulting heterogeneity.

Geoelectroprospecting illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 - scheme of arrangement of the measuring modules on a dangerous stretch, figure 2 - definition of the area of the heterogeneity of the rock mass, figure 3 - graph of potential difference in time.

Geoelectroprospecting as follows.

Identified in the study area potentially dangerous area. At this section sets at least three measuring module, consisting of the radiating electrode, the main measuring electrode pair, one electrode of which is zero, and at least one additional electrode pair. Electrode pairs each measuring module are located relative to each other at an angle of 180°/n, where n is the number of electrode pairs. All the electrodes of each of the measuring module are located on the same equipotential line of the radiating electrode, member of the measuring module, and the electrodes of each pair are located on the same straight line with the radiating electrode. Build a pattern of electrode pairs. The measurement of the difference of potentials is carried out between zero electrode main electrode pair and the other uh what ectrode appropriate measuring module. After that anomalous values of potential difference and the pattern electrode pairs determine the direction for each of the measurement module to the zone discontinuities of the rock mass. The location of the zone is determined by the intersection of these areas.

A specific example of geoelectroprospecting.

In the study area 10000 m2identify potentially dangerous area from the point of view of internal changes in the structure and heterogeneity of the rock mass, such as plot possible provaloopasnye due to the formation of closed suffusion cavities, fractured and razuplotneniya zones. At this section sets at least three measuring module 1, 2, 3, consisting of the radiating electrode 4, the main measuring electrode pair 5, one electrode 6 which is zero, and at least one additional electrode pair 7. Electrode pairs 5 and 7 each measuring module 1, 2, 3 are located relative to each other at an angle of 180°/n, where n is the number of electrode pairs. All the electrodes of each of the measuring module are located on the same equipotential line of the radiating electrode 4, member of the measuring module. The electrodes of each pair are located on the same straight line with the radiating electrode 4. Measure the global electrodes of each electrode pair is located at a distance of 10-15 m from the radiating electrode 4. Additional radiating electrode 8 establish abroad this dangerous area. He is conventionally considered to be attributed to infinity. A radiating electrode 4 is connected to one pole of the current source 9, and the additional radiating electrode 8 to the second pole of the current source 9. Then build a pattern of electrode pairs. Then from the center 0 of the pattern at different angles are few rays 101, 102...10n. Each ray intersects the pattern primary and secondary electrode pairs. For example, consider the rays 101and 102.The beam 101crosses the beam at points a and b, the beam 102- at points C and D. Then measure the distance from the center 0 of the graph to these points, i.e. the distance 0A and 0V and OS and OD, calculate the ratio 0V/0A equal to 3.3V, and the ratio of OD/OC, 1.8, and from the center 0 of the chart by the beam 101lay TH segment whose length is equal to the value of 3.3, and by the beam 102lay a segment OF length equal to 1.8. A similar operation is done for each beam, connecting the resulting points and receive line 11. Just build eight such lines. Then carry out the measurement of the potential difference between the zero electrode main electrode pair and the other electrodes of the respective sensor module. The introduction of the attachment abrupt change of the difference of potentials on their polarity, i.e. positive and negative values of the differences of potentials, determine the quadrant in which one gets the obtained values of potential difference. Next, the measured values of step changes in voltage ΔU for all electrode pairs. On the polarity of the steps, i.e. positive and negative values of the differences of potentials, determine the quadrant in which one gets the obtained values of potential difference. Figure 3 shows the experimental results for the measurement module 2. ΔU1the potential difference between the electrodes of the main couple. ΔU2the potential difference between the electrodes of another pair. Assuming the X-axis direction, which is the main electrode pair, the Y-axis direction of the additional electrode pairs, determine the quadrant. This is the fourth quadrant (IV), as the abrupt change in the potential difference ΔU1on the X-axis is positive and equal to 300 mV, and the abrupt change in the potential difference ΔU2Y-axis is negative and is equal to 37 mV. Module relationships ΔU1/ΔU2equal to 8. From the center of the diagram spend circumference 12 a radius equal to 8, and through the point of intersection of the circumference L with line 9 hold the line indicating the direction of the resulting heterogeneity. Similarly, determine the direction of the heterogeneity of the d the I the measuring modules 1 and 3. The location of the zone is determined by the intersection of these areas. Since the establishment of this heterogeneity is determined by the moment of occurrence of abrupt changes in the potential difference.

The proposed geoelectroprospecting improves the accuracy and reliability exploration of potentially dangerous sites from the point of view of internal changes in the structure and heterogeneity of the rock mass, such as plot possible provaloopasnye due to the formation of closed suffusion cavities, fractured and razuplotneniya zones during construction land development areas with complex engineering-geological conditions.

Geoelectroprospecting, including identification in the study area potentially hazardous area, the installation in this area of the measuring electrodes, measurement of potential difference and determining the time and location of the formation of discontinuities in the rock mass, characterized in that at this section sets at least three measuring module, consisting of the radiating electrode, the main measuring electrode pair, one electrode of which is zero, and at least one additional electrode pair, all of the electrode pairs each measuring module are located relative to each other at an angle of 80°/n, where n is the number of electrode pairs, all the electrodes of each of the measuring module are located on the same equipotential line of the radiating electrode, member of the measuring module, and the electrodes of each pair is on the same line with the radiating electrode, and then build the pattern electrode pairs, and measuring the potential difference spend between zero electrode main electrode pair and the other electrodes of the respective measuring module, then by anomalous values of potential difference and the pattern electrode pairs determine the direction for each of the measurement module to the zone discontinuities of the rock mass and the location of the zone is determined by the intersection of these areas.



 

Same patents:

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