Energy-saving operating equipment of excavator with articulated digging arm

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: energy-saving operating equipment includes digging arm base, digging arm head, handle, bucket, the main hydraulic cylinders for lifting the digging arm, control hydraulic cylinder of the digging arm length, additional balancing pneumatic cylinder connected to portal and to the digging arm base. Piston cavity of balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to gas bottle charged with pressure of more than 10 MPa and having the volume equal at least to five operating volumes of balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder. At that, to piston cavity at least of one main hydraulic cylinder for lifting the digging arm there connected is hydropneumatic accumulator the gas cavity of which is charged with initial pressure of more than 10 MPa and divided at least into two gas chambers separated with a partition in which an adjustable orifice is installed.

EFFECT: higher operating efficiency of machine, lower energy losses and higher efficiency of operating equipment.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to shovel universal excavators with articulated boom.

Known working equipment excavator with telescopic boom, for example [AC No. 384988, 29.05.1973, BI No. 25], containing the wheel base of the tractor, a shaft containing the base of the boom and the main boom tip, and the base of the boom is made in the form of a pipe, in which is located the tip of the boom and the hydraulic cylinder to adjust the length of the boom.

A disadvantage of this device are the large size of the arrows, due to the sequential arrangement of the hydraulic cylinder to adjust the length of the boom, main boom tip and the base of the boom.

The closest in technical essence of the known technical solutions to the proposed device is working equipment shovel excavator with articulated boom [Avenne. Shovel construction excavators. Moscow, Higher school", 1991. - 304 S. P.35], containing the tracked base machine, the base of the arrow, the tip of the boom, arm, bucket, key cylinders boom cylinder control the length of the boom.

The disadvantage of this device is the large load of the cylinders of the boom due to increased consolidatio working equipment, a large radius digging and deep digging.

Other deficiencies the MD device are large dynamic loads in the hydraulic boom at the beginning of its acceleration when lifting and breaking when lowering, due to the high design pressure in the hydraulic actuator (32 MPA) and a large consolidatio the location of the gravity of the items of work equipment relative to the hinge mounting of the boom on the portal.

Working equipment shovel excavator on AU No. 384988 and prototype [Avenne. Shovel construction excavators. Moscow, Higher school", 1991. - 304 S. P.20, p.35], is energy intensive, as when lifting a payload in the bucket useless expended considerable energy to overcome the forces of gravity of the boom, stick, bucket. To overcome these forces of gravity of the engine consumes fuel.

Object of the invention is the improvement of the design of work equipment excavator by balancing the gravity of the boom, dipper and bucket and providing damping arrows under dynamic loading.

The task of the invention is solved by the fact that in the known device, comprising an articulated boom, containing the base of the arrow, the tip of the boom, arm, bucket, key cylinders boom cylinder control the length of the boom, is additionally used balancing pneumohydraulic connected pivotally with the portal and the base of the boom piston chamber which is connected to the gas cylinder, the charged pressure of more than 10 MPa, the volume of which Rawa is, at least five working volume balancing pneumohydraulic, while in the piston cavity, at least one main lift cylinder boom connected to a hydropneumatic accumulator, a gas chamber which is charged initial pressures greater than 10 MPa and divided at least into two gas chambers separated by a partition that has an adjustable choke.

The proposed invention has allowed to create energy-saving production equipment and to carry out the oscillation of the boom in dynamic modes.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a General view of energy-saving work equipment excavator on which the main lifting cylinders boom close balancing pneumohydraulic inside. Figure 2 shows the energy saving of the working equipment, which is conventionally cut off the main cylinders of the arrows and shows the balancing pneumohydraulic in the lower digging position and the upper position upon unloading of the bucket.

The invention includes a lower frame with tracked undercarriage mechanism 1, the turntable 2 with portal 3, which is pivotally mounted to the base of the boom 4, the hinge is attached to the tip of the boom 5, a handle 6, the bucket 7, the main hydraulic cylinders 8 of the lifting boom, ur evasively pneumohydraulic 9, piston chamber which is connected to the gas cylinder 10 (see figure 2) highway 11. In the piston cavity of the main cylinder 8 of the lifting boom connected hydroline 12 hydropneumatic accumulator 13 (see figure 1), in which the piston 14 divides the hydraulic and gas cavity.

The gas passage 15 of the hydropneumatic accumulator is divided into two gas cavity by a partition 16, which is adjustable choke 17. The base of the boom 4 and the tip of the boom 5 are connected by a hydraulic cylinder 18 of the regulation of the length of the boom.

The energy saving work of the working equipment is carried out as follows. Operation rotation of the bucket and the handle are made in the usual manner and the description are not permitted.

For lifting working equipment with the filled bucket rods of the main hydraulic cylinders 8 are pulled out of the cylinders and turn the base of the boom 4 counterclockwise about portal 3. At the same time (see figure 2) balancing pneumohydraulic 9, piston chamber which are connected by hydrologically 11 with a gas cylinder 10, carries out the balancing of the gravity of the base of the boom 4, the tip of the boom 5, the arm 6 and the bucket 7. Consequently, during the rise of the working equipment of the main cylinder 8 when lifting perceive only the payload of the weight of the payload in the bucket. In achiev is Tate this reduces the load on the engine, hydraulic pumps, hydraulic cylinders and increases the durability of the considered elements. At the same time significantly reduced the fuel consumption of the engine and increases efficiency of work equipment.

When lowering work equipment is retraction of the piston rods in hydraulic cylinders 8, the rotation takes place of work equipment clockwise relative to the portal 3, and the gas from the piston cavity balancing pneumohydraulic 9 is returned into the gas cylinder 10 almost without resistance. The volume of the gas cylinder 10 is equal to at least five working volume balancing pneumohydraulic, resulting in the raising and lowering of the boom pressure in the gas container 10 remains approximately constant.

At the beginning of the rise of a working equipment with the load in the bucket and when braking during lifting experience significant inertial forces from the mass of the load, bucket, stick, tip boom and the boom foot. For damping the boom in the piston cavity of the main hydraulic cylinders 8 hydroline 12 connected to a hydropneumatic accumulator 13 (see figure 1). The gas passage 15 of the hydropneumatic accumulator 13 is divided into two chambers by a partition 16 which is provided with an adjustable throttle 17.

When the pressure in the piston cavities of the main hydraulic cylinders 8 less than 10 MPa system de is Pyromania not working as the piston 14 of the hydropneumatic accumulator 13 is in the lower limit position.

When a dynamic load on the working equipment can be significant (>10 MPa) piston 14 begins to move upward, compressing the gas in the working chamber 15. As a result, the gas pressure above the piston 14 is much greater than over the baffle 16. Therefore, the gas in the hydropneumatic accumulator is exposed elastic compression, but is subjected to throttling using the throttle 17. Thanks to the emergence of additional damping force decreases the stiffness of the hydraulic system main hydraulic cylinders 8 and is limited to the dynamic pressure in the hydraulic pump.

Energy-saving production equipment excavators with articulated boom including a base boom top boom, arm, bucket, key cylinders boom cylinder control the length of the boom, wherein using the optional balancing pneumohydraulic connected with the portal and the base of the boom piston chamber which is connected to the gas cylinder, the charged pressure of more than 10 MPa and having a volume equal to at least five working volume balancing pneumohydraulic, while in the piston cavity, at least one of the main hydrocil the echoes of the lifting boom is connected to the hydropneumatic accumulator, a gas chamber which is charged initial pressures greater than 10 MPa and divided at least into two gas chambers separated by a partition in which you installed the adjustable choke.



 

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1 dwg

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