Detergent for removing organic contaminants from surfaces

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: detergent for removing organic contaminants from surfaces contains the following, wt %: sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) 15-20, sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10) 10-15, caustic soda (NaOH) 10-15, calcined soda (Na2CO3) 25-30, Na-carboxymethylcellulose 2, neonol AF9-12 2-5, catamin 2, sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) up to 100.

EFFECT: detergent with a complex of physical and chemical properties with low content of phosphates and low risk of environmental pollution while preserving detergent power.

2 tbl


The invention relates to the technical detergents for cleaning and degreasing of surfaces and can find application in all industries and at home, where surface contamination by the products of organic origin: oil, grease, oil, emulsion, asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits. The technical composition of detergents in the form of aqueous solutions applicable in the manufacture, repair equipment in virtually all sectors of industry, transport, food industry, service stations, agricultural.

Known technical detergent to clean the metal surfaces of oil and oil spills on the patent of Russian Federation №2194748 (publ. 2002.12.20). This tool contains as surface-active substances (surfactants) neonol AF9-12in the amount of 2.4-3.6 wt.%, neonol AF6-9- 2.4 to 3.6 wt.%, of 0.4-0.6 wt.% sodium salts of alkylbenzene-sulfonic acids (sulfonic acid). Additionally, the specified detergent contains, wt%: soda ash 51,0-64,0; sodium tripolyphosphate 13,0-28,0; trisodium phosphate 13,0-17,0.

The disadvantages of this tool include the high foaming and foam stability of aqueous solutions, which complicates its use in cleaning tanks. High content of phosphorus-containing components tricatel the effect on the environment, given the difficulty of removal of residual phosphates of alkaline effluents when discharged into water bodies.

The prior art also known a number of detergents for cleaning metal surfaces by RF patents №2079550 (publ. 20.05.95) and No. 2132368 (publ. 27.06.99)containing nonionic surfactants - neonol AF9-12and neonol AF9-6, sodium tripolyphosphate, or trisodium phosphate and soda ash. These funds are modifications of the above analogue patent No. 2194748.

The main disadvantage of these funds should be attributed not high enough ability to organic pollution, high phosphate content and the inability to reuse the solutions of detergents.

Known detergent for cleaning smoke chambers and pipe ducts for RF patent No. 2010844 (publ. 15.04.94)containing, wt.%: sodium carbonate 19-29; trisodium phosphate 14-16; sodium hydroxide 12-14; metasilicate sodium 39-42; nonionic surfactants 2-5; water to 100 further comprises a cationic surfactant of the type alkylammonium or alkylpyridinium in the amount of 0.2 to 0.8 wt.%.

The disadvantage of this structure is the high content of sodium metasilicate, giving in alkaline residue in the form of a gel SiO2complicating the process of washing the cleaned surface, and forming a weighted, tradehistory sediment, Thu is difficult to clean the used solutions from impurities:

Trisodium phosphate has no high complexing ability, resulting in reduced cleaning ability of the solution of the above composition.

The closest to the achieved result and the composition of the cleaning composition is a detergent "PAN", patent of Russian Federation №2309979 (publ. 31.07.2006). The basis of the detergent composition is, wt.%: metasilicate sodium 8-15; sodium tripolyphosphate 2-10; trisodium phosphate 10-15; sodium polyphosphate 2-10; caustic soda 1-5 and soda 15-23; neonol 0,5-4,0; sintimid-5 1-5; sodium sulfate to 100. The mass ratio of neonols to sintimid is 1:(0.25 to 10). Additionally included in the antifoam to 0.3 wt.% and complexing agents - Trilon B - in the amount of 1.0 to 3.0 wt.%.

The main disadvantage of this composition is the high content of phosphorus, which is equivalent to P2O5up to 20 wt.%. The introduction of additional quantities of complexing agents is impractical because the sodium polyphosphates, a typical representative of which is sodium tripolyphosphate, are complexing agents and the best water softeners different origin used to prepare working solutions of detergent compositions.

At the same time phosphates are one of the hard components when cleaning alkaline wastewater enterprises and the introduction of excessive amounts of FOSFA is found in the composition is impractical.

Of these sodium polyphosphates of General formula Nan+2PnO3n+1on an industrial scale is available only sodium tripolyphosphate. The use of other polyphosphates difficult, because they are present in the market at best in the form of expensive chemical reagents in small quantities.

Joint use of large quantities of surfactants (up to 10 wt.%) and defoamer reduces the effect of surfactants on the stage of preparation of working solutions, inhibiting their ability to education vodomaslyanyh emulsions, increasing the degree of purification of the treated surface.

The technical object of the present invention to provide a detergent for cleaning the surfaces from contamination of organic nature, which would have a complex physico-chemical properties: wetting, solvent, degreaser, emulsifier and anti-corrosion ability, with simultaneous reduction of phosphate and reduced risk of environmental pollution while maintaining detergency.

The technical problem is solved by the fact that the composition of the detergent composition is introduced, sodium tripolyphosphate, in the amount of 10-15 wt.%, in terms of P2O5is 5-8 wt.%, cationic surfactant - ketamin in the amount of 2 wt.% when the mass ratio of ketamine and neonols 1:1-2,5), and sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose, component 2 wt.%.

The detergent composition has the following ratio of components, wt.%:

metasilicate sodium (Na2SiO3)15-20
sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10)10-15
caustic soda (NaOH)10-15
soda ash (Na2CO3)25-30
Na - carboxymethylcellulose2
neonol AF9-122-5
sodium sulphate (Na2SO4)100

In the recipe specified active ingredient - sodium silicate - Na2SiO3when cooking cleaning composition must be taken into account crystallization water, which is included in a commercial product (Na2SiO3·5H2O or Na2SiO3·9H2O)used as the source component. The amount of sodium sulfate calculated crystal is izational water source of raw materials.

The amount of sodium tripolyphosphate in the detergent composition, the composition is determined by the necessity of complexing with particles of dirt, increase detergency and softening of water used for preparation of working solution of detergent due to the formation of insoluble compounds with the ions of hardness. Sodium tripolyphosphate shows the inhibitory effect due to the absorption on the surface being cleaned and protective films.

The required amount of sodium tripolyphosphate is caused from an economic point of view, the price difference between the cost of caustic soda and soda ash and sodium tripolyphosphate. Optimal to create a stable pH of the working solution of detergent and complexing properties found in the quantitative ratio between the amount of caustic soda and soda ash and sodium tripolyphosphate equal to (2-4):1. Introduction less than 10 wt.% of sodium tripolyphosphate reduces complexing ability of detergent compositions, more than 15 wt.% - is economically disadvantageous.

The introduction of the detergent compositions of ionic surfactant - ketamine, which is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium, increases the wetting ability of solutions of detergents while ensuring a disinfecting action. Mass ratio is s, ketamine and neonols 1:(1-2,5) is sufficient for optimum foaming while maintaining the inhibitory properties of the detergent composition.

Sodium silicate in alkaline solutions hydrolyzed emitting colloidal polysilicon acids, which under optimal content in the composition enhances the ability of solutions of dispersing the dirt and keep them in solution. The best option is to use sodium metasilicate module 0,97 (Na2O:SiO2). Sodium silicate exhibits inhibiting properties, which reduces corrosion damage of the metal surface and allows the process when the pH level of 11.5 to 12.8. The content of Na2SiO3less than 15 wt.% affects the detergent properties of the composition, more than 20 wt.% - reduces the degree of purification due to the release of SiO2on the surface of the product.

To increase the degree of destruction of oil-water emulsions and reduce sedimentation of waste solutions with a view to their subsequent use as adsorbent of the demulsifier in the composition of the detergent is injected sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose. In the sediment moving complex compounds containing phosphorus, enlarged gels of silicic acid (SiO2and reached the most complete clarification of the spent solution.

Ovet the military solutions are used for primary treatment and soaking surfaces or after neutralization is discharged to the treatment plant.

The invention can be used both for direct flashing of pollution, and for pre-soaking contaminated items in the washing solution for 2-12 hours, followed by purification swollen and loose dirt.

To determine the quality of the detergent compositions prepared with the composition, the mass ratio of the components presented in table 1. Composition No. 6 repeats the part of the prototype.

A composition, as claimed in the claims, is carried out in the mixer, which represents a horizontal cylindrical apparatus with a stirrer, download site, loose components, fittings for loading liquid components and the discharge unit. In the manufacture of the mixture must comply with the terms of boot, in which the first load and stirred in a closed reactor, the calculated amount of sodium sulfate, sodium tripolyphosphate, metasilicate sodium, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose. Then in the prepared dry mixture is injected pre-mixed liquid neonol and ketamin. The mixer is closed and again stirred for 10-15 minutes. Then the mixer open and enter the calculated amount of caustic soda and soda ash. Close the download site, include drive stirrer and stirred the contents of the mixer for 4-5 minutes. The rotational speed of the agitator 30 Rev/mi is. The nominal volume of the device 1.0 m3, the working volume of 0.5 m3. The finished product is analyzed for compliance with technical specifications package.

To clean dirt from the surface, apply an aqueous solution proposed tools with concentration, depending on the object of cleaning and type of contamination. Dissolution of detergent is carried out at a temperature of 50-60°C. To prepare test 0.5% aqueous solution.

Ability is determined by a known method by the gravimetric method, which is based on the determination of the percentage of slavemaster surface details.

To test take the plate with a surface roughness of 0.32-0,61 size of 100×50×1.5 mm, degreased with ether and incubated for 5-10 minutes until complete evaporation of the ether and they make constant temperature. The plate is weighed on an analytical balance accurate to 0.0001 grams, then a glass rod is applied evenly pollution. The number of deposited contamination should be approximately the same on all records and make 0,08-of 0.085 grams. Then soiled plates are placed in the cleaning solution and washed for two minutes. After washing, the plate was washed with distilled water and dried by blowing air from the fan at room temperature. Dried plates weighed. The percentage of remote the surface contamination is determined by the formula


where R0- initial weight of sample (net), g

P1- the weight of the contaminated sample, g,

P2- weight of sample after washing, ,

When determining the wetting ability of the samples (metal plate with a size of 100×50×1.5 mm) is first immersed in the prepared solution of detergent and then in demineralized water for 10 seconds. Next, the samples are removed from the water and record the violation of a continuous water film visually. Wetting ability is characterized by the time in seconds from start of test to break the water film.

Foaming capacity was determined by shaking in a standard cylinder, 250 cm3the detergent solution concentration of 1.0 wt.% in the amount of 100 cm3at 60°C, followed by measuring the height of a column of foam.

The speed of separation of the spent detergent solution was estimated by the time the clarification of turbid solution with the formation of the solid and liquid phases. The solid phase is a suspension of solid in liquid. For testing in a standard cylinder with a volume of 250 cm3poured a pre-mixed solution of 200 cm3, recorded the start time of the test and measured the height of the suspension of the solid phase in cm after 30 minutes. The spent solution from imensa height suspension of the solid phase has the best dissecting ability that is favorable for re-use working solution of the detergent composition.

Residual phosphate content in the clarified portion of the spent wash solution was determined by the method of PND f 14.1:2.112-97 "Method of measurement of mass concentration of phosphate ions in samples of natural and treated wastewater photometric method for the recovery of ascorbic acid". The result of the analysis was recalculated on the content of P2O5in mg/DM3.

The results obtained are presented in table 2. When the selected ratio of the components of the wash ability and wettability on all samples is at the level of a prototype. The highest foaming capacity observed in the sample corresponding to the washing ability of the prototype that could negatively affect the treatment of the inner surfaces of the closed volume.

The time separation of the spent cleaning solution and the phosphate content in the clarified part is the best of the solutions on the basis of the claimed composition that is convenient for the discharge of waste solutions to clean or reuse.

At the present time on the territory of the enterprise production technical detergent, the composition of which corresponds to the claimed patent formula, with an annual issue is taken up to 1000 tonnes of product. Washing composition is implemented and used in all industries, including consumer needs and service.

Table 1
№ p/pComponentsThe composition, wt.%
1Soda ash (Na2CO3)253025302720
2Metasilicate sodium pytevodniy Na2SiO3×5H2O (or metasilicate Na2SiO3)26 (15)30 (20)35 (20)26 (15)30 (17)26 (15)
3Sodium tripolyphosphate, Na2P3O1010 1510151228
4Caustic soda (NaOH)101515101212
5Nonionic surfactants - neonol AF9-122,05,05,02,03,52,5
6Cationic surfactant - ketamin2,02,02,02,02,0-
7Na - Carboxymethylcellulose2,02,02,0 2,02,0-
8Sodium sulphate (Na2SO4)23,01,06,013,011,58,2

When calculating the number of Na2SO4in the composition takes into account the sodium silicate in the form of hydrated Na2SiO3·5H2O, phosphates in the form of sodium tripolyphosphate, Na5P3O10.

Table 2
The detergent composition p/pWashing capacityWettability for 30 secFoaming ability, mmThe height of the suspension, mmContents leave P2O5in the clarified solution, mg/DM3
Industrial oilThe contamination of the body. origin
498,0of 97.8Chorus.22100315
* the prototype.

Detergent to clean the surface from organic contamination, including surface-active substances (surfactants), phosphate-containing reagent, metasilicate sodium, sodium sulphate, caustic and soda ash, characterized in that as the ionic surfactant is used katamin, and the adsorbent-demulsifier is introduced sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in the following ratio, wt.%:

metasilicate sodium (Na2SiO3)15-20
sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10)10-15
caustic soda (NaOH)10-15
soda ash (Na2CO3)25-30
neonol AF9-122-5
sodium sulphate (Na2SO4)100


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9 cl, 2 tbl

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