Procedure for fabrication of cutting elements on base of powders of super-hard materials

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: there are used powders of super-hard materials of at least two granularities. Also, porous base of the element is made of powders of super-hard materials of higher granularity. Porous base is placed in a bath with suspension containing powders of small granularity and these powders are settled in pores of porous base with electric current transmitted through suspension, where upon all grains of super-hard material are bound with binding.

EFFECT: utilisation of powders of super-hard materials of small granularity including nano dimensions for fabrication of cutting elements with uniform distribution of grains in volume; reduced time of process.

4 cl

 

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a cutting element, including bonding and powders superhard materials, volumetric content of which can vary widely. In particular, the method can be applied for the manufacture of cutting elements with high volume amounts of superhard materials used in crowns for drilling in the governing instrument, the cutters, the cutters and the like, as well as wear-resistant parts of various devices, machines, devices,

Increased volumetric content of powders superhard materials is typically accomplished by use of a mixture of grains of superhard materials of different grain sizes, while small grains are arranged in the gaps between the coarse grains, increasing the total concentration of powders of superhard materials in the cutting element.

From U.S. patent No. 5096465, CL 51-295, 1989, a known method of manufacturing a diamond sintered metal cutting element, when in the form of layers sequentially placed superhard abrasive particles of two or three different sizes, the layers are subjected to vibration for compaction of larger particles and the penetration of smaller particles in the space between larger, then the packing is impregnated with an impregnating material. In the known method superhard abrasive particles take time the leader of 3.0-2000,0 μm, thus, the cutting elements will have a small thickness, because the introduction with the use of vibration smaller powders superhard materials and to a greater depth is difficult.

A known method of manufacturing a composite material, which is prepared suspensions of powders, including powders for superhard materials of different grain size and liquid phases, in which each of the suspensions contains powders of one grain, pour the suspension portions in the form with a porous bottom with forced removal from each portion of the slurry liquid phase through the porous bottom of the form. Suspensions with powders of different grain by pouring alternate. After that precipitated powders fix a bunch by any known method (patent RU № 2364496, CL B24D 18/00, 2007). The method allows to obtain a uniform distribution of powder in the whole volume of the material. The disadvantages of the method are as follows. For uniform distribution of the volume of powders with different grain sizes of suspension shall contain the powders in such quantity that their deposition was one or two layers of powders, so for the manufacture of the material to the desired height it is necessary to prepare a large number of portions of the suspensions and to carry out their multiple fill in the form. As a result, the process yields a time-consuming and laborious. In addition, the manufacturer for the material in this way really use powders with grain sizes of from 10.0 to 2000,0 μm. Such material can be used for obtaining cutting elements of which make tools for drilling, ruling the tools, i.e. tools that work in the conditions of abrasive wear. At the same time for tools such as cutters, it cannot be applied due to the inability to form on the thin cutter cutting edge, as the basis for this material powders are sufficiently large fraction. For the manufacture of such cutters are usually used elements, made of a material containing a composition of smaller powders superhard materials. This material is usually made with the use of high pressures.

The technical challenge is to create a simple method of manufacturing cutting elements, allowing the use for the manufacture of powders of superhard materials fine grits, down to the nano range, with uniform distribution in volume and produce items in a shorter time.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a cutting element, comprising powders of superhard materials, at least two grits, and a bunch of in which of powders superhard materials more grit to form a porous base element, is introduced into the pores of the framework element powders swerte the amounts of materials finer granularity using suspension including the liquid phase, and fasten with a bunch of powders according to the invention for introducing powders finer grain size of the porous base is placed in a tub with a suspension containing fine powders of grain size in the quantity required to fill the pores of the substrate, and deposition of particles in the pores is performed during the transmission through the suspension of the electric current.

The porous base powder superhard materials more grit form a seal powders using vibrations. Another option for forming porous basics of preparing a suspension containing a liquid phase and powders more graininess in the quantity necessary to obtain the basics of the desired height, and precipitated powders by passing through the suspension of the electric current.

Passing current through the suspension with the introduction of powders superhard materials into the porous base allows besiege small, down to the nano range, the particles of the powders superhard materials with uniform penetration into pores of the framework at a sufficiently great depth and with a high degree of pore filling, eliminating the need to prepare small portions of suspensions and multiple fill in the form with the compulsory removal of the liquid phase.

The method is as follows.

In shape, the dimensions of which correspond to what the sizes of the manufactured item, put the powders superhard materials of the highest grit. The form of powders is subjected to vibration, in which a layer of densely Packed particles forming the porous base of the cutting element. The form with a porous base is placed in the pot, fill it with a slurry containing a liquid phase and powders superhard materials fine grits. The amount of fine powders in suspension take in order to provide the necessary volumetric content of these powders in the finished product. The form is connected to the positive pole of the current source and the cell to the negative pole of the current source and passed through a suspension of direct electric current. Under the action of a current of small particles uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the suspension, move to the anode and, penetrating into the pores of the base, fill them in with a fairly high degree of filling. Once finished the process of deposition of particles, the form is removed from the electrolyzer, dried it, and shall bond the particles to each other by any known method. Depending on the height of the basics, residual porosity, the characteristics of the fine particles of superhard material, mainly their heat resistance, the particles can be bonded by pumping electrolyte through the residual pores formed briquettes. It is also possible with replace particles with each other impregnated briquette molten impregnating material. In this case, on top of the briquette is placed impregnating material, the shape is heated to a temperature that ensures the melting of the impregnating material, and can form when the pressure at which the impregnating material penetrates into your pores. As an impregnating material you can use various plastics, ceramics, metals or metal alloys. When the impregnation of metals or alloys to improve conditions propitiatory powders superhard materials may be previously provided with a coating of material well-wettable impregnating material.

To bind the particles to each other by sintering the briquette. To do this, in the pores of the framework should be introduced along with particles of superhard material powders ligaments. Powders chords can be entered simultaneously with powdered superhard materials fine grits; powders ligament to enter as one of the stages of the introduction of powders fine grits. Grain powders ligament should be such that the powders could penetrate into the pores impregnated briquette. It can be calculated or determined experimentally. After the powders bundles will be introduced in the briquette, it is sintered at a temperature corresponding to the temperature of sintering ligaments.

Depending on the purpose of the cutting element and, accordingly, the grain size of the powder is ka superhard material choose a method of manufacturing a porous framework. The vibration process is the most simple styling powders to achieve their high volume content. However, the application of this process of installation is limited by the grain size of the powders. Using vibration can be laid powders of a size not less than 10-14 microns.

Using the composition of the smaller porous powders based form as well as with the introduction of fine powders into porous, suspension, through which electric current is passed. To do this, prepare a suspension containing liquid phase and a powder whose size is largest for the selected song. The number of powders in suspension is to provide a porous framework necessary height. The suspension is poured into a form and pass through it of an electric current. At the bottom of the form under the action of electric current are precipitated powders superhard materials in the form of a layer, performing the role of the porous substrate. After that, the porous base can consistently introduce more fine powders of superhard materials of the respective suspensions.

The suspension is made by any known method: using a mechanical dispersion, mixing ultrasound, vibrating mill, etc. depending on the grain size of the powders superhard materials of the liquid phase may be different. For krupnikas liquid phase can serve water, the alcohol and the like; for small and very small particles of liquid phase must contain a stabilizer, preventing the coagulation of particles.

Depending on the requirements of the cutting element, choose the grain powders of superhard materials, fractional composition of the powders and their quantitative content. Higher volumetric content can be achieved by the introduction of powders three, four grits. Powders of each of the following grain type as the previous grits, using the appropriate suspensions and overlaid with a constant electric current.

As powders superhard materials can be used diamond powders, powders of cubic boron nitride, tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, etc.

Thus, the proposed method allows to produce in a shorter time cutting elements for tools such as drilling, ruling, etc., incisors to receive the sharp cutting edges, machine parts, to obtain the necessary hardness in which the porous base you can enter supermarche powders until nanosized powders.

1. A method of manufacturing a cutting element, comprising powders of superhard materials, at least two grits, and a bunch of in which of powders superhard the x materials more grit to form a porous base element, enter into the pores of the framework element powders superhard materials finer granularity by using a slurry comprising a liquid phase, and fasten with a bunch of powders, characterized in that the introduction of powders finer grain size of the porous base is placed in a tub with a suspension containing fine powders of grain size in the quantity required to fill the pores of the substrate, and the deposition of powder in the pores is conducted by passing through the liquid phase of the electric current.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous base powder superhard materials more grit form a seal powders using vibrations.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for obtaining the porous framework of the powders superhard materials greater granularity of preparing a suspension containing a liquid phase and powders more graininess in the quantity necessary to obtain a porous framework desired height, and precipitated powders by passing through the suspension of the electric current.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous base is additionally injected powders ligaments.



 

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