Procedure for fabrication of cutting elements on base of powders of super-hard materials
SUBSTANCE: there are used powders of super-hard materials of at least two granularities. Also, porous base of the element is made of powders of super-hard materials of higher granularity. Porous base is placed in a bath with suspension containing powders of small granularity and these powders are settled in pores of porous base with electric current transmitted through suspension, where upon all grains of super-hard material are bound with binding.
EFFECT: utilisation of powders of super-hard materials of small granularity including nano dimensions for fabrication of cutting elements with uniform distribution of grains in volume; reduced time of process.
The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a cutting element, including bonding and powders superhard materials, volumetric content of which can vary widely. In particular, the method can be applied for the manufacture of cutting elements with high volume amounts of superhard materials used in crowns for drilling in the governing instrument, the cutters, the cutters and the like, as well as wear-resistant parts of various devices, machines, devices,
Increased volumetric content of powders superhard materials is typically accomplished by use of a mixture of grains of superhard materials of different grain sizes, while small grains are arranged in the gaps between the coarse grains, increasing the total concentration of powders of superhard materials in the cutting element.
From U.S. patent No. 5096465, CL 51-295, 1989, a known method of manufacturing a diamond sintered metal cutting element, when in the form of layers sequentially placed superhard abrasive particles of two or three different sizes, the layers are subjected to vibration for compaction of larger particles and the penetration of smaller particles in the space between larger, then the packing is impregnated with an impregnating material. In the known method superhard abrasive particles take time the leader of 3.0-2000,0 μm, thus, the cutting elements will have a small thickness, because the introduction with the use of vibration smaller powders superhard materials and to a greater depth is difficult.
A known method of manufacturing a composite material, which is prepared suspensions of powders, including powders for superhard materials of different grain size and liquid phases, in which each of the suspensions contains powders of one grain, pour the suspension portions in the form with a porous bottom with forced removal from each portion of the slurry liquid phase through the porous bottom of the form. Suspensions with powders of different grain by pouring alternate. After that precipitated powders fix a bunch by any known method (patent RU № 2364496, CL B24D 18/00, 2007). The method allows to obtain a uniform distribution of powder in the whole volume of the material. The disadvantages of the method are as follows. For uniform distribution of the volume of powders with different grain sizes of suspension shall contain the powders in such quantity that their deposition was one or two layers of powders, so for the manufacture of the material to the desired height it is necessary to prepare a large number of portions of the suspensions and to carry out their multiple fill in the form. As a result, the process yields a time-consuming and laborious. In addition, the manufacturer for the material in this way really use powders with grain sizes of from 10.0 to 2000,0 μm. Such material can be used for obtaining cutting elements of which make tools for drilling, ruling the tools, i.e. tools that work in the conditions of abrasive wear. At the same time for tools such as cutters, it cannot be applied due to the inability to form on the thin cutter cutting edge, as the basis for this material powders are sufficiently large fraction. For the manufacture of such cutters are usually used elements, made of a material containing a composition of smaller powders superhard materials. This material is usually made with the use of high pressures.
The technical challenge is to create a simple method of manufacturing cutting elements, allowing the use for the manufacture of powders of superhard materials fine grits, down to the nano range, with uniform distribution in volume and produce items in a shorter time.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a cutting element, comprising powders of superhard materials, at least two grits, and a bunch of in which of powders superhard materials more grit to form a porous base element, is introduced into the pores of the framework element powders swerte the amounts of materials finer granularity using suspension including the liquid phase, and fasten with a bunch of powders according to the invention for introducing powders finer grain size of the porous base is placed in a tub with a suspension containing fine powders of grain size in the quantity required to fill the pores of the substrate, and deposition of particles in the pores is performed during the transmission through the suspension of the electric current.
The porous base powder superhard materials more grit form a seal powders using vibrations. Another option for forming porous basics of preparing a suspension containing a liquid phase and powders more graininess in the quantity necessary to obtain the basics of the desired height, and precipitated powders by passing through the suspension of the electric current.
Passing current through the suspension with the introduction of powders superhard materials into the porous base allows besiege small, down to the nano range, the particles of the powders superhard materials with uniform penetration into pores of the framework at a sufficiently great depth and with a high degree of pore filling, eliminating the need to prepare small portions of suspensions and multiple fill in the form with the compulsory removal of the liquid phase.
The method is as follows.
In shape, the dimensions of which correspond to what the sizes of the manufactured item, put the powders superhard materials of the highest grit. The form of powders is subjected to vibration, in which a layer of densely Packed particles forming the porous base of the cutting element. The form with a porous base is placed in the pot, fill it with a slurry containing a liquid phase and powders superhard materials fine grits. The amount of fine powders in suspension take in order to provide the necessary volumetric content of these powders in the finished product. The form is connected to the positive pole of the current source and the cell to the negative pole of the current source and passed through a suspension of direct electric current. Under the action of a current of small particles uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the suspension, move to the anode and, penetrating into the pores of the base, fill them in with a fairly high degree of filling. Once finished the process of deposition of particles, the form is removed from the electrolyzer, dried it, and shall bond the particles to each other by any known method. Depending on the height of the basics, residual porosity, the characteristics of the fine particles of superhard material, mainly their heat resistance, the particles can be bonded by pumping electrolyte through the residual pores formed briquettes. It is also possible with replace particles with each other impregnated briquette molten impregnating material. In this case, on top of the briquette is placed impregnating material, the shape is heated to a temperature that ensures the melting of the impregnating material, and can form when the pressure at which the impregnating material penetrates into your pores. As an impregnating material you can use various plastics, ceramics, metals or metal alloys. When the impregnation of metals or alloys to improve conditions propitiatory powders superhard materials may be previously provided with a coating of material well-wettable impregnating material.
To bind the particles to each other by sintering the briquette. To do this, in the pores of the framework should be introduced along with particles of superhard material powders ligaments. Powders chords can be entered simultaneously with powdered superhard materials fine grits; powders ligament to enter as one of the stages of the introduction of powders fine grits. Grain powders ligament should be such that the powders could penetrate into the pores impregnated briquette. It can be calculated or determined experimentally. After the powders bundles will be introduced in the briquette, it is sintered at a temperature corresponding to the temperature of sintering ligaments.
Depending on the purpose of the cutting element and, accordingly, the grain size of the powder is ka superhard material choose a method of manufacturing a porous framework. The vibration process is the most simple styling powders to achieve their high volume content. However, the application of this process of installation is limited by the grain size of the powders. Using vibration can be laid powders of a size not less than 10-14 microns.
Using the composition of the smaller porous powders based form as well as with the introduction of fine powders into porous, suspension, through which electric current is passed. To do this, prepare a suspension containing liquid phase and a powder whose size is largest for the selected song. The number of powders in suspension is to provide a porous framework necessary height. The suspension is poured into a form and pass through it of an electric current. At the bottom of the form under the action of electric current are precipitated powders superhard materials in the form of a layer, performing the role of the porous substrate. After that, the porous base can consistently introduce more fine powders of superhard materials of the respective suspensions.
The suspension is made by any known method: using a mechanical dispersion, mixing ultrasound, vibrating mill, etc. depending on the grain size of the powders superhard materials of the liquid phase may be different. For krupnikas liquid phase can serve water, the alcohol and the like; for small and very small particles of liquid phase must contain a stabilizer, preventing the coagulation of particles.
Depending on the requirements of the cutting element, choose the grain powders of superhard materials, fractional composition of the powders and their quantitative content. Higher volumetric content can be achieved by the introduction of powders three, four grits. Powders of each of the following grain type as the previous grits, using the appropriate suspensions and overlaid with a constant electric current.
As powders superhard materials can be used diamond powders, powders of cubic boron nitride, tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, etc.
Thus, the proposed method allows to produce in a shorter time cutting elements for tools such as drilling, ruling, etc., incisors to receive the sharp cutting edges, machine parts, to obtain the necessary hardness in which the porous base you can enter supermarche powders until nanosized powders.
1. A method of manufacturing a cutting element, comprising powders of superhard materials, at least two grits, and a bunch of in which of powders superhard the x materials more grit to form a porous base element, enter into the pores of the framework element powders superhard materials finer granularity by using a slurry comprising a liquid phase, and fasten with a bunch of powders, characterized in that the introduction of powders finer grain size of the porous base is placed in a tub with a suspension containing fine powders of grain size in the quantity required to fill the pores of the substrate, and the deposition of powder in the pores is conducted by passing through the liquid phase of the electric current.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous base powder superhard materials more grit form a seal powders using vibrations.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for obtaining the porous framework of the powders superhard materials greater granularity of preparing a suspension containing a liquid phase and powders more graininess in the quantity necessary to obtain a porous framework desired height, and precipitated powders by passing through the suspension of the electric current.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the porous base is additionally injected powders ligaments.
SUBSTANCE: there is disclosed melt of following composition, wt %: aluminium 26.0-32.0, carbon 0.86-1.30, iron - the rest. Melt is poured with thickness 1-2 mm on surface of iron sheet, cooled to room temperature and crushed to lumps. Lumps are placed into a steam chamber with temperature over 100°C and humidity 15-20 % and conditioned during 1-2 hours. Further, they are cooled to room temperature producing powder in form of super-dispersed particles of 102-103 nm size.
EFFECT: simplified process of production of composite nano dimension powder of high adhesion property to gases in metal melts with modifying capacity for cast iron and silumin and increased mechanical strength.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: production of metal-matrix composite is performed with mechanical alloying matrix material, hardening particles and 0.05 10 vol. % nano particles of hardness exceeding matrix of metal-matrix composite and with maximal dimension as high, as 50 nm. Ratio of average dimension of added nano particles to source average dimension of hardening particles does nor exceed 0.1.
EFFECT: upgraded quality of composite due to uniform distribution of hardening particles in matrix and increased output of acceptable product due to reduced or complete elimination of treated materials balling and sticking on process equipment.
5 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in treatment of iron with solid modifier and in charging covering material on iron surface. As covering material, there is used flux-pearlite "Barrier-200". Solid modifier used in form of crushed cerium additive and magnesium containing additional alloy are introduced into melt between ladle lining and covering material. Rejects of casting for non-metallic inclusions is reduced 10 times, while strength of alloyed iron with spherical graphite in a cast condition is increased from 730 to 940 MPa.
EFFECT: production of milling elements with high operational characteristics in cast state.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: according to procedure there is used source charge containing sodium fluoride, potassium chloride, scandium oxide or fluoride, aluminium fluoride, hydro-fluoride of potassium and oxy-fluoride of zirconium and/or hafnium. Charge is mixed with metal aluminium to maintain weight ratio of components of charge to aluminium, as 1:0.8-1.1. Produced mixture is loaded into a crucible and is heated to temperature 800-900°C. Further, there is carried out alumino-thermal reduction at melt mixing. Melt is conditioned during 15-30 min and salt melt and liquid metal are poured separately into moulds. Source charge contains components at the following ratio, wt %: oxide or fluoride of scandium 4.3÷12.0, aluminium fluoride 5.0÷8.0, sodium fluoride 14.5÷18, potassium hydro-fluoride 1÷3, zirconium and/or hafnium oxy-fluoride 8÷15.4, potassium chloride - the rest.
EFFECT: improved modifying effect of alloying components, simplified process and reduced rotation of salts.
2 cl, 6 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composite material on base of titanium carbosilicide includes oxides of aluminium and zirconium introduced in form of powders with average dimension of particles 10-300 nm at amount of 3-7 wt % and 1-30 wt % of admixture of titanium carbide. Material is produced by mechanical synthesis of powders of titanium, silicon, graphite or their compounds with successive compression.
EFFECT: production of material with reduced contents of undesirable admixtures and high hardness, wear resistance and fracture strength.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement in tight chamber of ammunition of reagents participating in SHS (self-spreading high-temperature synthesis), initiation of combustion reaction for synthesis of high-melting non-organic compounds and explosion load on chamber and its contents destructing the chamber and dispersing its contents to the environment. At that, for combustion in the chamber volume from the moment of initiation and after destruction of chamber during dispersion of the contents to the environment, the mixture mainly of two reagents chosen from group of boron, carbon, titanium, nitrogen is used as reagents participating in SHS as per the following ratio: 2.0 ≤ Me 10-6 ≤ 9.1; Me = Tad · Q, where Me - power of thermo-light energy of SHS, K cal/g; Q - heat effect of SHS reaction, cal/g; Tad - adiabatic combustion temperature of reagents participating in SHS, K. Combustion reaction initiation is performed in presence of hypergol high-activity chemical reagents of nitrogen-producing compounds or mixture of zinc with metal oxides.
EFFECT: improving use efficiency of SHS energy.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: information technologies.
SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of a radio electronic information device inside a combustible charge located in a perforated jacket of a reactor, and reservoirs with fluorine oxidiser (FO) are arranged inside this charge in a reactor. In case of unauthorised opening of a reactor, simultaneously at least one reservoir with (FO) is unsealed, and (FO) is fed to the charge to initiate a process of high-temperature synthesis in combustion mode in a reactor. Total quantity of (FO) in all reservoir is equal to the following: m ≥ n · 0,01 M, where: m - total amount of (FO) in all reservoirs, g; n - number of reservoirs with (FO), pcs.; M - mass of a combustible charge, g. Reservoirs with (FO) are fixed to each other and to internal walls of the perforated reactor jacket.
EFFECT: reliable protection of information contained in radio electronic units with microchip boards.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: alloy on base of gold contains 99.9 of wt % of gold and 1-1000 parts per million, in particular, 10-100 parts per million of calcium, 1-1000 of part per million, in particular, 10-100 parts per million of ytterbium and/or europium, 1-100 parts per million of misch metal of cerium and 1-10 parts per million of beryllium. Also, alloy is crystallised in form of solid solution. The procedure for production of alloy on base of gold consists in melting uniform addition alloy in vacuum. This addition alloy contains calcium, ytterbium and/or europium. Addition alloy is introduced into gold with addition of calcium, europium and/or ytterbium, if necessary, till there is produced additional alloy with gold as a basic component, which is further introduced to gold melt together with another additional alloy containing gold as a basic component and alloying additives of beryllium Be and misch metal of cerium Ce.
EFFECT: production of alloy of high strength at maintaining properties of gold - inertness and high conductivity.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure for production of sintered material on base of zinc consists in preparing charge containing zinc and tin, or aluminium, in pressing and in sintering. Also, for charge containing zinc and 5.0-15.0 wt % of tin temperature of sintering is 200-350 °C, while for charge containing zinc and 0.5-2.0 wt % of aluminium temperature of sintering is 390-410°C.
EFFECT: expanded assortment of materials of structural and friction assignment; maintaining required level of porosity, hardness and antifriction properties.
10 cl, 4 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in introducing calculated amount of crystal silicon into aluminium melt in electrolyser through prepared "windows" in crust of electrolysis bath. Crystallised silicon is introduced in form of fine and dust-like fractions of up to 20 mm dimension placed into iron containers for additional alloying melt with iron. As fine and dust-like fractions there are used wastes of crystallised silicon production. Containers with silicon are introduced in the zone of electrolyser at highest intensity of melt circulation.
EFFECT: raised physical-mechanical properties of aluminium melt due to complete dissolution and uniform distribution of alloying additives in melt.
4 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to grinding and may be used for production of abrasive tools, for example, grinding wheels. Abrasive compact is processed by bringing its working surface or area adjoining it in contact with halogen-containing gas or gas medium that comprises halogenide ion source. Catalysing and any foreign substance of abrasive compact metal matrix is removed from area adjoining aforesaid working surface.
EFFECT: higher wear resistance and strength.
11 cl, 3 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to block tool intended for surface finishing. Proposed block tool comprises at least one tool to be jointed to machine tool and at least one abrasive brick retained by clamp. Injection mould receives at least one support element with wall or diaphragm. Said injection mould is filled with at least one granulated abrasive material fed toward the wall or diaphragm. Besides at least one thermoplastic resin is forced toward the wall or diaphragm on the side opposite abrasive material. Support element wall or diaphragm is dissolved or broken. Note here that at least one abrasive material is dissolved in at least one thermoplastic resin.
EFFECT: higher strength and efficiency of material removal in working.
10 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to abrasive processing and can be used in production of abrasive tools with diamond powder grains, cubic boron nitride and other super hard materials and binder based on metal powders representing submicron and nanopowders. Mix material comprising super hard material powders and metal binder are placed into mould. Mix material cold briquetting is performed and, then elevated-temperature compaction till preset porosity is made by appropriate tools. Said tools represent a rod with end face bearing surface. Rod is revolved and brought in contact with briquetting shaft at force that allows penetration into said shaft. Rod is transferred over the surface of said mix material. Depth of rod penetration, revolution and transfer speeds are selected to provide friction heat generation for producing plasticated zone in contact area.
EFFECT: reduced time of holding grains of super hard material at increased temperatures, efficient use of small grain size powders and reduced power consumption.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be used for producing abrasive-polymer composition for porous abrasive tools. Composition components are taken in the following ratio, wt %: Silicon carbide or alundum - 55.6- 67.8; finely-dispersed chalk - 13.8-16.9; hydroxyl-containing oligomer polyoxypropylene polyether 10.2-20.4; diethylene glycol - 0.15-0.30; pentaerythritol - 0.23-0.45; 3,3-dichlor-4,4-diaminodiphenyl methane (diamet "x") - 1.05-2.10; toluene diisocyanate (T-65) - 3.37-6.75; crystallohydrate of calcium sulphate - 0.10-0.20; block polymer of poly-organosilicon hydride and poly-oxyalkylene ("КЭП"-2) - 0.20-0.40.
EFFECT: higher strength and elasticity of grinding tool, higher operating rotational speed.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to abrasive machining and can be used in production of grinding wheel dressing tolls. Mixture comprising diamond grains and binder is placed on the base. Said mixture is compacted, then it is sintered or impregnated with impregnating material. Diamond grains are arranged in said mixture in two layers, said grains being shifted relative to each other. Mixture is compacted by compacting element to produce contact of major grains on the first and second layers with the base and compacting element.
EFFECT: simple production of one-layer dressing toll with accurate layer thickness.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to abrasive treatment and can be used during manufacture of rubber wheels, and namely cutter wheels. Wheel workpiece is heated up to maximum heating temperature during 1.5÷2.0 hours, exposed at this temperature during 4.0÷4.5 hours, and then cooled to 120÷125°C and exposed at this temperature for 1.0÷1.5 hours.
EFFECT: improving wheel hardness and decreasing allowance for mechanical treatment with a view to increase of steadiness of workpiece geometrical shape during its vulcanisation.
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to abrasive treatment and can be used when manufacturing abrasive items. There used is system of accelerated reception of production tooling and cassette having housing with the first bonding material and the first abrasive particles. Cassette is introduced to system of accelerated reception of production tooling with possibility of depositing the first bonding material and the first abrasive particles in subsequent shaped layers so that abrasive structure is formed.
EFFECT: increasing manufacturing efficiency of abrasive items of various configuration and reducing its manufacturing cost.
29 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of machine building and may be used in shaping of diamond-abrasive wheels with combined granularity under conditions of separate supply of liquid binder and polishing material. Mandrel with hub and easily destroyed disks are installed in drying chamber, imparting continuous rotation to it. A layer of binder is applied onto hub by means of nozzle with regulation of its amount by measurement of gap between nozzle and gap. Polishing material is supplied under pressure with the help of air-abrasive jet through nozzle with channels or separate nozzles provided it penetrates and fixes in applied binder layer. Density of polishing material application is regulated with amount of supplied polishing material and speed of mandrel rotation, which is assigned provided that each layer is previously dried. Number of channels in nozzle or separate nozzles for supply of polishing material is equal to quantity of abrasive granularity numbers, used in making of diamond-abrasive wheel.
EFFECT: technological resources are expanded due to provision of possibility to produce both simple and complex polishing wheels, and their manufacturing cost is reduced.
17 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in preparing abrasive mix, grinding grains are mixed with moisteners, binders and fillers, thus produced mix is triturated on sieve. Vertical electrodes representing thin-wall are placed directly in the mold to set required orientation of grains and to electric field between electrodes. Abrasive mix is laid into aforesaid mould through vibrating sieve to produce abrasive mix layer of necessary thickness. Then electrodes are removed from the mould by uplifting them strictly upward and abrasive mix layer outer surface is leveled to remove surplus material. After moulding mix is withdrawn from the mould and subjected to thermal treatment.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, better orientation of grains.
2 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: abrasive wheel side is recovered in separate feed of liquid binder and grinding material. Worn-out wheel hub with side disks is fitted on revolving mandrel. The said side disks served to define wheel sixes to be recovered. The said mandrel is located inside drying chamber. Liquid binder layer is applied onto the said hub and smoothed by knife. Binder amount is adjusted by varying the gal between the knife and mandrel. Grinding material is air-sprayed onto the binder. Abrasive material density is adjusted by varying mandrel r.p.m. that is selected proceeding from the necessity of preliminary drying of every layer. Loose diamond-abrasive grains are removed by turnback device.
EFFECT: expanded performances, lower costs.
11 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: it is prepared mixture of abrasive dust of coarse grain and, at least, of one fine grain, mixture of powders is compacted and impregnated by metals or alloys. In the capacity of powders, at least, of one fine grain there are used powders, surface of which fulfil wettability conditions by impregnating metals or alloys.
EFFECT: method provides increasing of working layer height of elements, and also receiving in the element defined content of abrasive grains for optimal external environment.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex