Composition containing expandable microspheres and ionic compound, and use and production methods thereof

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound which is cationic. The composition also contains a certain set of cellulose fibres. The ionic compound is selected from a group comprising a polyamine, polyethyleneimine, colloid and sol. The colloid or sol contains at least one member from a group comprising silica, alumina, tin oxide, zirconium dioxide, antimony oxide, iron oxide and rare-earth metal oxides. The outer surface of the expandable microsphere, which is anionic, is not covalently bonded with an ionic compound. The composition has electrokinetic potential greater than or equal to 0 mV at pH of approximately 9.0 or less with ionic strength between 10-6 mol and 0.1 mol. The composition is prepared by bringing into contact at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound to form a mixture. The mixture is centrifuged to form a first phase containing at least one ionic compound and a second phase containing a particle. A solution containing a certain amount of cellulose fibre is also added. A low-density paper or cardboard base and article which is a cardboard container with good operational characteristics is obtained. The weight of the article is equal or less than 1 oz. The paper or cardboard base has Sheffield smoothness less than 250 units measured using a TARR1 T 538 om-1 technique, and colour speckling 2nd cyan not greater than 6. The base has Parker Print surface roughness from approximately 1.0 to 0.5, measured using a TARRI T 555 om-99 technique.

EFFECT: improved properties of the composition.

28 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

 

This application claims the priority of provisional patent application U.S. serial number 60/660,703, filed March 11, 2005, entitled "COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING EXPANDABLE MICROSPHERES AND an IONIC COMPOUND, AND METHODS for THEIR production AND USE," which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

The technical field

The present invention relates to compositions containing expandable microspheres and at least one ionic compound and having the electrokinetic potential is greater than or equal to zero mV at a pH of approximately of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol, and also to methods for obtaining and using the composition.

The level of technology

The number of expensive cellulose fibers present in a paper basis, partially determines the density of the basics. Therefore, large quantities of expensive cellulose fibers present in a paper basis, create a more solid basis, having a high value, whereas low amounts of cellulose fibres present in a paper basis, creating a less dense basis at a lower cost. The decrease of the density paper products coated and/or uncoated and/or the basis inevitably leads to the reduction of production costs. This applies to all products boom is the author of fundamentals and their use. This is especially true, for example, to the paper bases used in the manufacture of envelopes, cartons, and other packaging materials. Basics used in the manufacture of envelopes and packaging, have a certain thickness.

Decreasing the density of the paper base at a target thickness requires less cellulose fibers to obtain a target thickness. In addition to reducing production costs, is the value of production efficiency, which is estimated and implemented by decreasing the density of the paper base. This efficiency is partly caused by reduced requirements for drying (i.e. time, effort, money etc) in the production of paper.

Examples of decrease of the density of the base paper include the use of:

1) multilayer machines with volumetric fibers, such as fiber STMR (bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp) and other mechanical fibers in the Central layer of cardboard;

2) extended sections of the contact areas to reduce seal when removing water; and

3) alternative technologies calendering, such as hot soft calendering calendering, hot calendering steel calenders, hydrating steam, calendering machines with curved shoes and so on

However, this potential is real solutions require high capital and operating costs. Thus, they may be economically infeasible.

In addition, even if the above-mentioned expensive ways to reduce the density will be implemented, giving the paper the basis of the target thickness, this framework will be used only if this methodology will be able to obtain an acceptable smooth and compressible surface of the paper base. Currently, there is very little potential cheap solution to reducing the density of the paper base with acceptable smoothness and compressibility to achieve a significant reduction in spot print with acceptable smoothness.

Paper products coated or uncoated cardboard and/or low density highly desirable from an aesthetic and economic points of view. However, existing methods provide the basis having poor quality for printing. In addition, acceptable levels of smoothness is difficult to achieve using known methods.

One way to solve the above-mentioned tasks at a low cost is the use of expandable microspheres in a paper basis. These methods can partly be found in the following U.S. patents: 6,846,529, 6,802,938, 5,856,389, and 5,342,649 and published patent applications: 20040065424, 20040052989 and 20010038893, which are incorporated herein in full by reference.

However, it was found that the micro is very when applying for paper production is relatively poorly retained in the resulting paper. As a result, the expandable microspheres are not entered in the white paper, and the effectiveness of the introduction of expandable microspheres in the paper base is low, which creates another expensive solution in addition to the above a huge number of expensive solutions.

Accordingly, there is still a need for less expensive and more effective solution to reduce density, increase and maintain good performance characteristics, such as smoothness of the paper base and the lack of spot print.

Brief description of the invention

In one aspect the present invention relates to compositions containing at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound. In one embodiment, the composition has the electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of organic and inorganic ionic compounds. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one Polygonaceae connection. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one connected the e polyamine, in one embodiment, the ionic compound crosslinked, branched or represents a combination of both. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one compound of polyethylenimine. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound has an average molecular weight which is at least 600 average molecular weight. Other embodiments of relate to methods of making and using the composition.

In another aspect the present invention relates to compositions containing at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound. In one embodiment, the composition has the electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. In another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of organic and inorganic ionic compounds. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is cationic. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one member of the group consisting of alumina and silica. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is what I colloid and/or Sol, containing at least one member of the group consisting of silica, alumina, tin oxide, zirconium dioxide, antimony oxide, iron oxide and oxides of rare earth metals. Other embodiments of relate to methods of making and using the composition.

In another aspect the present invention relates to a particle containing at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound. In one embodiment, the composition has the electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at a pH of about 9.0 to or less than the ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. In another embodiment, the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres associated with an ionic compound. In yet another embodiment, the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres ecovalence associated with an ionic compound. In yet another embodiment, the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres is anionic. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is cationic. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of organic and inorganic ionic compounds. In yet another variant domestic the ionic compound is at least one Polygonaceae connection. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one connection polyamine. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound crosslinked, branched or represents a combination of both. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one compound of polyethylenimine. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound has an average molecular weight which is at least 600 average molecular weight. Other embodiments of relate to methods of making and using the composition.

In another aspect the present invention relates to a particle containing at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound. In one embodiment, the composition has the electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at a pH of about 9.0 to or less than the ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. In another embodiment, the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres associated with an ionic compound. In yet another embodiment, the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres ecovalence associated with an ionic compound. In yet another embodiment, the outer surface of at least about the Noah expandable microspheres is anionic. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is cationic. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of organic and inorganic ionic compounds. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is at least one member of the group consisting of alumina and silica. In yet another embodiment, the ionic compound is a colloid and/or a Sol containing at least one member of the group consisting of silica, alumina, tin oxide, zirconium dioxide, antimony oxide, iron oxide and oxides of rare earth metals. Other embodiments of relate to methods of making and using the composition.

In another aspect the present invention relates to a method of manufacturing compositions by contact of at least one expandable microspheres with at least one ionic compound for the formation of the mixture. In yet another embodiment, the mixture may be further centrifuged for education the first phase, containing at least one ionic compound, and the second phase containing the particle of the present invention.

In another aspect the present invention relates to a method of making a composition by the adsorption is carried is about at least one ionic compound in at least one extensible microsphere.

In another aspect the present invention relates to paper and/or cardboard bases coated and/or uncoated, containing and manufactured according to any of the above and the following aspects of the present invention. Therefore, in one embodiment, the composition of the present invention may contain a lot of cellulose fibers.

In another aspect the present invention relates to products and packaging containers made of paper and/or cardboard bases coated and/or uncoated described in this document.

In another aspect the present invention relates to basics, products and/or packaging containers, containing from 0.1 to 5 wt.% many expandable microspheres, and the base product and/or packaging the packaging has a Sheffield smoothness less than 250 units, measured by TAPPI method T 538 om-1 and the scanned spot print 2nd Cyan no more than 6. In one embodiment of the present invention, the base product and/or packaging containers can be Kalankatuatsi. In yet another embodiment of the present invention the outer surface of the expandable microspheres is associated with an ionic compound. In yet another embodiment, the base product and/or packaging packaging contains from 0.1 to 3 wt.% many of the expandable microspheres. In yet another variant done by the compliance framework product and/or packaging packaging contains from 0.1 to 2 wt.% many of the expandable microspheres. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the base product and/or packing containers contains at least one coating layer. In yet another embodiment of the present invention the coating layer comprises at least one of the upper surface and at least one base coating. In yet another embodiment, the base product and/or packaging the packaging has a Sheffield smoothness less than 250 units, measured by TAPPI method T 538 om-1 and the scanned spot print less than 6 after calendering. In yet another embodiment, the base product and/+, or packing has a surface smoothness Parker Print approximately from 1.0 to 0.5, as measured by TAPPI method T 555 om-99.

In another aspect the present invention relates to a product or package that contains at least one paper or cardboard base, where at least one base contains the leaf pulp fibers and a filler. In one embodiment, the mass of the product is equal to or less than one ounce. In yet another embodiment, the product has mass, the difference of which from 1 oz is an absolute value that is greater than the value of the known packaging container having the same number of layers.

All of videocase the aspects and embodiments of, including methods for their manufacture and use are described in detail below.

Detailed description of drawings

Figure 1: Graph of spot print paper base coated against the amount of expandable microspheres in the basis.

Figure 2: Graph of the distributions of particle sizes of microspheres before and after adsorption of ionic compounds (for example, polyethylenimine) on them.

Figure 3: Graph of the electrokinetic potential of the particles formed from low-molecular and high-molecular ionic compounds (for example, polyethylenimine)associated with the expandable microsphere (e.g., X-100) at different mixing time and at various public relations ionic compounds and expandable microspheres.

Figure 4: Graph of test results Britt Jar and measurement results of the foaming agent (e.g., isobutane) as a function of ionic compounds (low molecular weight and high molecular weight ionic compounds) (e.g., polyethylenimine) from the mass content of expandable microspheres and mixing time.

Figure 5: Graph of the decrease of the density of the paper bases containing composition and/or particle of the present invention, as a function of ionic compounds (low molecular weight and high molecular weight ionic compounds) (e.g., polyethylenimine) from the mass content of expandable microspheres and time paramasivan is.

Detailed description of the invention

The authors of the present invention have found less expensive and more effective solution to reduce density, increase and maintain good performance characteristics, such as smoothness and the absence of spots print on paper.

The present invention can be implemented in any known method of manufacturing paper or cardboard bases. Examples of such bases can be found in textbooks such as those listed in the "Handbook for pulp and paper technologists" (Handbook for engineers pulp and paper industry), G.A.Smook (1992), Angus Wilde Publications, which are incorporated herein in full by reference.

Therefore, one embodiment of the present invention is the paper or cardboard base, containing expandable microspheres.

The amount of expandable microspheres may vary and will depend on the total mass basis or from the final product in the form of paper or cardboard. The paper base may contain more than about 0.001 wt.%, more preferably more than 0.02 wt.%, most preferably more than 0.1 wt.% expandable microspheres of the total mass basis. In addition, the paper base may contain less than 20 wt.%, more preferably less than 10 wt.%, most preferably less than 5 wt.% expandable microspheres collectively from the mass basis. The amount of expandable microspheres may be 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,01, 0,02, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0, 3,5, 4,0, 4,5, 5,0, 6,0, 7,0, 8,0, 9,0, 10,0, 11,0, 12,0, 13,0, 14,0, 15,0, 16,0, 17,0, 18,0, 19,0 and 20.0 wt.% from the total mass basis, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Expandable microspheres may contain an extensible shell, forming a void within the microspheres. Expandable sheath may contain a compound containing carbon and/or heteroatom. Example of compounds containing carbon and/or heteroatom may be an organic polymer and/or copolymer. The polymer and/or copolymer may be branched and/or crosslinked.

Expandable microspheres are preferably thermally expandable hollow spheres of a thermoplastic polymer containing a thermally activated expanding agent. Examples of compositions of expandable microspheres, their contents, methods of manufacture and use can be found in U.S. patent No. 3,615,972, 3,864,181, 4,006,273, 4,044,176 and 6,617,364, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. You can also make reference to a published patent application U.S. 20010044477, 20030008931, 20030008932 and 20040157057, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. Such expandable microspheres, for example, can be made of polyvinylidenefluoride, polyacrylonitrile, polyalkylated Ilatov, polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride.

Although the expandable microsphere of the present invention may contain any polymer and/or copolymer, the polymer preferably has a Tg, or glass transition temperature in the range from -150 to +180°C, preferably from 50 to 150°C., most preferably from 75 to 125°C. Tg can be -150, -140, -130, -120, -110, -100, -90, -80, -70, -60, -50, -40, -30, -20, -10, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170 and 180°C., including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Microspheres can also contain at least one foaming agent who, after reporting him a certain amount of heat develops internal pressure on the inner wall of the microspheres so that the pressure causes the microsphere to expand. Foaming agents can be liquid and/or gases. In addition, examples of the foaming agents can be selected from molecules with a low boiling point and their compositions. These foaming agents can be chosen from lower alkanes, such as neopentane, neohexane, hexane, propane, butane, pentane and mixtures thereof, and isomers. Isobutane is the best foam for microspheres from polyvinylidenechloride. Suitable unexpanded and expanded microspheres coated disclosed in U.S. patent No. 4,722,943 and 4,829,094, which are incorporated herein in full by with Alki.

Expandable microspheres of the present invention can have an average diameter in the range from 0.5 to 200 μm, preferably from 2 to 100 μm, most preferably from 5 to 40 microns in unexpanded condition. The average diameter can be 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190 and 200 microns, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In addition, the expandable microspheres of the present invention can have a maximum extension of 1 to 15 medium diameters, preferably from 1.5 to 10 medium diameters, most preferably from 2 to 5 medium diameters. The maximum extension can be 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5, 3, 3,5, 4, 4,5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Expandable microspheres can have a negative or positive charge. In addition, the expandable microspheres may have a neutral charge. In addition, the expandable microspheres can be included in the composition and/or particle of the present invention, which has the net electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol.

One embodiment of the present invention is a composition or particle containing expandable microsphere.

In the composition and/or particle of the present image is the shadow expandable microspheres can have a neutral, negative or positive charge, preferably a negative charge.

In addition, the composition and/or particle of the present invention may contain expandable microspheres with the same physical characteristics, which are described above and below, and can be included in the base paper according to the present invention in the same manner and in the same quantities as above and below for expandable microspheres.

Another embodiment of the present invention is a composition and/or particle containing at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound. Expandable microsphere can have positive, neutral and/or negative charge. In addition, the ionic compound can have positive and/or negative charge. Preferably, the ionic compound has a net charge that is opposite to the net charge of the expandable microspheres. For example, if the net charge of the expandable microspheres is negative, then the net charge of the ionic compound may be any net charge, but preferably a net positive charge.

In one best mode of implementation, when the composition and/or particle of the present invention contains expandable microspheres and at least one ionic compound, composition and/or particle of the present image is the shadow has a net electrokinetic potential, greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. Preferably, the net electrokinetic potential is from zero to 500, preferably greater than or equal to zero and up to +200, more preferably greater than or equal to zero to +150, most preferably from +20 to +130 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol, measured by standard methods of measuring the electrokinetic potential, known in the field of analysis and physics, preferably methods that use micro-electrophoresis at room temperature.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention has a net electrokinetic potential 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85,90,95,100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 225, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mV, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

When measuring the net electrokinetic potential of the particles of the present invention, preferably such potentials measured by standard methods of measuring the electrokinetic potential, known in the field of analysis and physics, preferably methods that use micro-electrophoresis at room temperature at any pH value, preferably approximately 9,0 or less, more preferably priblizitel the but of 8.0 or less, most preferably approximately 7,0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. The pH value may be approximately 9,0, 8,5, 8,0, 7,5, 7,0, 6,5, 6,0, 5,5, 5,0, 4,5, 4,0, 3,5, 3,0, 2,5, 2,0, 1,5, 1,0 and 0.5, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

When measuring the net electrokinetic potential of the composition and/or particle of the present invention, preferably such potentials measured by standard methods of measuring the electrokinetic potential, known in the field of analysis and physics, preferably methods that use micro-electrophoresis at room temperature at any pH value, preferably at a pH value of approximately 9,0 or less, preferably about 8.0 or less, most preferably approximately of 7.0 or less, at any ionic strength, preferably from 10-6mol to 10-1mol. Ionic strength can be 10-6, 10-5, 10-4, 10-3, 10-2and 10-1mol, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The ionic compound may be anionic and/or cationic, preferably cationic, if expandable microspheres are anionic. In addition, the ionic compound may be organic, inorganic and/or mixtures thereof. In addition, the ionic compound may be in the form of suspension and/or to the people. In addition, the ionic compound may have a particle size in the range from 1 nm to 1 μm, preferably from 2 nm to 400 nm. The ionic compound may have a particle size of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325, 350, 375, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 nm, where 1000 nm is equal to 1 microns, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The ionic compound may be any of the excipients and known additives mentioned below and/or known in the manufacture of paper. More preferably, the ionic compound may be any one of or a combination of retention referred to below.

The mass ratio of ionic compounds and expandable microspheres in the composition and/or particle of the present invention may range from 1:500 to 500:1, preferably from 1:50 to 50:1, more preferably from 1:10 to 10:1, unless and until the composition and/or particle has a net electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. The mass ratio of the ionic compound/expandable microsphere can be 1:500, 1:400, 1:300, 1:200, 1:100, 1:50, 1:40, 1:30, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5, 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, 100:1, 200:1, 300:1, 400:1 and 500:1 including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The ionic compound may be inorganic. Examples of the inorganic ion is about connections can be, without limitation silica, alumina, tin oxide, zirconium dioxide, antimony oxide, iron oxide and oxides of rare earth metals. Inorganic compound may preferably be in the form of suspension and/or colloid and/or Zola in contact with the expandable microsphere and have a particle size in the range from 1 nm to 1 μm, preferably from 2 nm to 400 μm, if the inorganic ionic compound is in the form of colloid and/or Zola, preferred ionic compound contains silica and/or alumina.

The ionic compound may be organic. Examples of ionic organic compounds can be compounds containing carbon. In addition, the ionic organic compound may contain heteroatoms, such as nitrogen, oxygen and/or halogen. In addition, the ionic organic compound may contain a functional group containing a heteroatom, such as hydroxyl group, amino group, aminogroup, carbonyl group, carboxyl group, etc. in Addition, the ionic organic compound may contain more than one positive charge, negative charge, or mixtures thereof. Ionic organic compound may be a polymer and/or copolymer, which may also be cyclic, branched and/or crosslinked. If the ionic organic compound is a polymer and/or copolymer, the connection preference is sustained fashion has a weighted average molecular weight of from 600 to 5 000 000, more preferably from 1000 to 2 000 000, most preferably from 20 000 to 800 000. The weighted average molecular weight ionic compounds can be 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 7500, 10 000, 15 000, 20 000, 25 000, 30 000, 40 000, 50 000, 60 000, 70 000, 80 000, 90 000, 100 000, 200 000, 300 000, 400 000, 500 000, 600 000, 700 000, 800 000, 900 000, 1 000 000, 1 250 000, 1 500 000, 1 750 000, 2 000 000, 3 000 000, 4 000 000 and 5 000 000, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Preferably, the ionic organic compound may be a compound containing the amino group. More preferably, the ionic organic compound can be polyamino. Examples include, without limitation, polydiallyldimethyl (DADMAC), polyvinyliden and/or polyethylenimine.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention may contain at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound. Expandable microsphere and the ionic compound can be in contact with each other. For example, the ionic compound is in contact with the outer and/or inner surface of the expandable microspheres. Preferably, the ionic compound is in contact with the outer surface of the expandable microspheres. Such contact may include, without limitation situation, when the expandable microsphere is coated and/or impregnated with an ionic compound. Without being bound to any theory, ionic joint is connected with the outer surface of the expandable microspheres covalent and/or non-covalent forces, preferably non-covalent forces for the formation of particles having an inner expandable microsphere and a layer of ionic compounds on the outer surface. However, the areas of the outer surface of the expandable microspheres may be partially covered with a layer of ionic compounds, although other parts of the outer surface of the expandable microspheres may in fact be completely covered with a layer of ionic compounds. This can cause some areas of the outer surface of the expandable microspheres are exposed. In addition, the outer surface of the expandable microspheres may be completely covered with a layer containing at least one ionic compound.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention can be produced by contact, mixing, absorption, adsorption, etc. expandable microspheres with an ionic compound. The relative amount of expandable microspheres and an ionic compound can be determined by known means. Preferably, the relative amount of expandable microspheres and an ionic compound can be determined so that the resulting composition and/or particle of the present invention had a net electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. Preferably, by weight of the TV the ratio of ionic compounds, in contact with the expandable microsphere in the composition and/or particle of the present invention, may range from 1:100 to 100:1, preferably from 1:80 to 80:1, more preferably from 1:1 to 1:60, most preferably from 1:2 to 1: 50, unless and until the composition and/or particle has a net electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. The mass ratio of ionic compounds in contact with the expandable microsphere in the composition and/or particle of the present invention, may be 1:100, 1:90, 1:80, 1:70, 1:60, 1:50, 1:40, 1:30, 1:20, 1:10, 1:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, 60:1, 70:1, 80:1, 90:1 and 100:1, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The contact time between an ionic compound and an expandable microsphere can vary from milliseconds to years, while the ionic compound and/or expandable microsphere has a net electrokinetic potential of greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6mol to 0.1 mol. Preferably, the contact time of 0.01 second to 1 year, preferably from 0.1 second to 6 months, more preferably from 0.2 seconds to 3 weeks, most preferably from 0.5 seconds to 1 week.

Before you contact an expandable microspheres with an ionic compound and an expandable micro is Fehr, and the ionic compound can be dry and/or in the form of a slurry, wet compacted sludge, solid, liquid, in the form of a dispersion, colloid, gel, respectively. In addition, and expandable microsphere and/or the ionic compound may be diluted and/or in the form of a concentrate.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention may have an average diameter in the range from approximately 0.5 to 200 μm, preferably from 2 to 100 μm, most preferably from 5 to 40 microns in unexpanded condition. The average diameter of the composition and/or particles may be 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190 and 200 microns, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In addition, the composition and/or particle of the present invention can have a maximum extension of 1 to 15 medium diameters, preferably from 1.5 to 10 medium diameters, most preferably from 2 to 5 medium diameters. The maximum extension can be 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5, 3, 3,5, 4, 4,5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention can be manufactured through the above-mentioned means of contact before and/or during the paper manufacturing process. Preferably, expandable microsphere and ionic contact to obtain com is osili and/or particles of the present invention, and then the resulting composition and/or particle of the present invention sequentially and/or simultaneously in contact with the fibers, as described below.

If the paper base of the present invention contains the composition and/or particle of the present invention, the number of compositions and/or particle of the present invention may vary and will depend on the total mass basis or a final paper or cardboard product. The paper base may contain more than about 0.001 wt.%, more preferably more than 0.02 wt.%, most preferably more than 0.1 wt.% the composition and/or particle of the present invention from the total mass basis. In addition, the paper base may contain less than 20 wt.%, more preferably less than 10 wt.%, most preferably less than 5 wt.% the composition and/or particle of the present invention from the total mass basis. The number of compositions and/or particle of the present invention may be 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,01, 0,02, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0, 3,5, 4,0, 4,5, 5,0, 6,0, 7,0, 8,0, 9,0, 10,0, 11,0, 12,0, 13,0, 14,0, 15,0, 16,0, 17,0, 18,0, 19,0 and 20.0 wt.% from the total mass basis, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base contains a fabric of cellulose fibers. The paper base of the present invention may contain recycled fiber and/or primary fiber. Secondary fibers are different from the primary what's the fibers, they were drying process at least once. In some embodiments, the implementation of at least part of the fibers of the cellulose/wood pulp can be obtained from non-woody herbaceous plants, including, without limitation, kenaf, hemp, jute, flax, sisal or abaku, although legal restrictions and other considerations may make the use of cannabis and other sources of fibers impractical or impossible. In the method of the present invention can be used fiber bleached or unbleached pulp.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 1 to 99 wt.%, preferably from 5 to 95 wt.% cellulose fibers from the total mass basis, including 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 99 wt.% and including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Preferably, the sources of the pulp fibers are softwood and/or hardwood.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 1 to 100 wt.%, preferably from 10 to 60 wt.%, cellulose fibers from coniferous species of wood from the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis. This range includes 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.%, including all ranges and subranges within these limits, the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis.

BU the most important basis may alternatively or predominantly contain from 0.01 to 100 wt.% fibers coniferous species of wood, most preferably from 10 to 60 wt.%, of the total weight of the paper base. The paper base contains not more than 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.% fibers of coniferous wood from the total weight of the paper base, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may contain fiber coniferous species of wood that have a canadian standard degree of grinding (csf) from 300 to 750, more preferably from 450 to 750. This range includes 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 410, 420, 430, 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490, 500, 510, 520, 530, 540, 550, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600, 610, 620, 630, 640, 650, 660, 670, 680, 690, 700, 710, 720, 730, 740 and 750 csf, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. Standard canadian degree of grinding is measured by TAPPI standard method T-227.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 1 to 99 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 90 wt.%, cellulose fibers of hardwood from the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis. This range includes 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.%, including all ranges and subranges within these limits, the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis.

The paper base may alternatively or predominantly contain from 0.01 to 100 wt.% fibers of hardwood, predpochtitelno from 60 to 90 wt.%, of the total weight of the paper base. The paper base contains not more 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 99 and 100 wt.% small particles of the aggregate weight of the paper base, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may contain fibers of hardwood that have a canadian standard degree of grinding (csf) from 300 to 750, more preferably from 450 to 750 csf. This range includes 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 410, 420, 430, 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490, 500, 510, 520, 530, 540, 550, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600, 610, 620, 630, 640, 650, 660, 670, 680, 690, 700, 710, 720, 730, 740 and 750 csf, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. Standard canadian degree of grinding is measured by TAPPI standard method T-227.

If the paper base contains fiber deciduous and coniferous wood, it is preferable that the ratio of deciduous/coniferous wood ranged from 0.001 to 1000, preferably from 90/10 to 30/60. This range may include 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,01, 0,02, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000, including all ranges and subranges within these limits, and any and all ranges and subranges, reverse this relationship.

In addition, softwood and/or hardwood fibers contained in a paper substrate of the present invention, can be modified by physical and/or chemical means. Examples of physical means include, without limitation electromagnetic and mechanical means. Tools electrical modification include, without limitation means providing contact of the fibers with the source of electromagnetic energy such as light and/or electric current. Means of mechanical modification include, without limitation means providing contact inanimate object with the fibers. Examples of such inanimate objects include objects with sharp and/or blunt edges. Such tools include, for example, means for cutting, mixing, grinding, tapping, etc.

Examples of chemical agents include, without limitation known means modification of chemical fibers, including the binding and precipitation of complexes on the fibers. Examples of such modification fibers can be found without limitation patents 6,592,717, 6,592,712, 6,582,557, 6,579,415, 6,579,414, 6,506,282, 6,471,824, 6,361,651, 6,146,494, H1,704, 5,731,080, 5,698,688, 5,698,074, 5,667,637, 5,662,773, 5,531,728, 5,443,899, 5,360,420, 5,266,250, 5,209,953, 5,160,789, 5,049,235, 4,986,882, 4,496,427, 4,431,481,4,174,417, 4,166,894, 4,075,136 and 4,022,965, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. Furthermore, the method of the modification of the fibers contained in the patent application U.S. No. 60/654,712, filed February 19, 2005, which may include the addition of optical brighteners, and this application is included in n the standing document in full by reference.

Sources of fine particles can be fiber SaveAll, streams of secondary fibers, threads, waste fiber, waste streams fibers. The number of "small particles" in a paper substrate can be altered by flow regulation adding such threads in the paper manufacturing process.

The paper base preferably contains a combination of hardwood fibers, softwood fibers and small particles". "Small particles", as mentioned above, are negotiable and usually have an average length of not more than 100 μm, preferably not more than 90 μm, more preferably not more than 80 μm and most preferably not more than 75 μm. Length of small particles of fibers is preferably not more 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 microns, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base contains from 0.01 to 100 wt.% small particles, preferably from 0.01 to 50 wt.%, most preferably from 0.01 to 15 wt.% from the total mass basis. The paper base contains not more than 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.% small particles of total mass of paper, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may alternatively or predominantly contain from 0.01 to 100 wt.% small particles, preferably from 0.01 to 50 wt.%, most preferably from 001 to 15 wt.% from the total mass of fibers, contained in a paper basis. The paper base contains not more 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.% small particles of total mass of fibers contained in a paper basis, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In one of the best options for implementing any of the above fibers can be processed to produce high brightness ISO. Examples of such fibers treated with such procedures include, without limitation fiber described in patent application U.S. No. 11/358,543, filed February 21, 2006, entitled "FIBROUS MASS AND PAPER WITH HIGH BRIGHTNESS, which is incorporated herein in full by reference, and in the patent application PCT no PCT/US06/06011, filed February 21, 2006, entitled "FIBROUS MASS AND PAPER WITH HIGH BRIGHTNESS, which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

Although fibrous mass, fiber and/or the paper base may have any brightness and/or whiteness CIE, in this preferred embodiment, the following values of brightness and/or whiteness CIE.

Preferably, the fibers and/or fibrous mass and/or the paper base of the present invention can have any whiteness CIE, but preferably have a CIE whiteness more than 70, more preferably greater than 100, most the e more preferably 125 or even 150. The CIE whiteness can be in the range from 125 to 200, preferably from 130 to 200, most preferably from 150 to 200. The range of CIE whiteness may be greater than or equal 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 155, 160, 65, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195 and 200 points, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. Examples of measurement of CIE whiteness and the receipt of such white in fiber and made of them the paper can be found, for example, in U.S. patent No. 6,893,473, which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

Fiber, fibrous mass and/or the paper base of the present invention can have any brightness ISO, but preferably more than 80, more preferably greater than 90, most preferably more than 95 points. White ISO may be preferably from 80 to 100, more preferably from 90 to 100, most preferably from 95 to 100 points. This range includes values greater than or equal to 80, 85, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, and 100 points brightness ISO, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. Examples of measuring the brightness ISO and obtain a brightness in the fiber for making paper and made of him the paper can be found, for example, in U.S. patent No. 6,893,473, which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

The paper base of the present invention may have a pH from 1.0 to 14.0, preferably from 4.0 is about 9,0, measured by any known method, for example a marker/pen for pH measurement and methods TAPPI 252 and 529 (check hot extraction and/or checking the pH of the surface). This range includes pH 4,0, 4,5, 5,0, 5,5, 6,0, 6,5, 7,0, 7,5, 8,0, 8,5 and 9.0, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base according to the present invention can be manufactured on a paper machine with any underlying mass. The paper base may have a high or low base weight, including a base weight of at least 10 pounds/3000 square feet, preferably from at least 20 to 500 pounds/3000 square feet, more preferably from at least 40 to 325 pounds/3000 square feet. Basic weight can be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 425, 450, 475 and 500 pounds/3000 square feet, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. Of course, these mass values can be easily converted into values on 1300 sq. ft.

The paper base according to the present invention may have an apparent density of from 1 to 20, preferably 4 to 14, most preferably from 5 to 10 pounds/3000 square feet per 0.001 inch thickness. The paper base may have an apparent density 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 pounds/3000 square feet per 0.001 inch thickness, including all dia is asony and subranges within these limits. Of course, these values can easily be converted into values on 1300 sq. ft.

The paper base according to the present invention can have a thickness of from 2 to 35 mils (1 mil=0.001 inch=25.4 microns), preferably from 5 to 30 mils, more preferably from 10 to 28 mils, and most preferably from 12 to 24 mil. The paper base may have a thickness of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 mils, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. Any of the above thickness can be the thickness of the paper substrate of the present invention either before or after calendering, as discussed below.

The paper base according to the present invention may have a Sheffield smoothness less than 400 units (SU). However, the preferred Sheffield smoothness will be determined by the purpose of the final product, which is used for paper basis. Preferably, the paper base according to the present invention may have a Sheffield smoothness of less 350 SU, more preferably less than 250 SU, most preferably less than 200 SU, measured by TAPPI method T 538 om-1, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. The paper base may have a Sheffield smoothness 400, 350, 300, 275, 250, 225, 200, 190, 180, 170, 160, 150, 140, 130, 120, 110, 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Sheffield paper substrate of the present invention is improved by at least 1%, preferably at least 20%, more preferably at least 30% and most preferably at least 50% compared to the smoothness of the famous paper basics, not containing expandable microspheres and/or composition and/or particle of the present invention. The Sheffield smoothness of the paper base, the present invention improves on 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000% compared to the smoothness of the famous paper basics, not containing expandable microspheres and/or composition and/or particle of the present invention.

The paper base of the present invention may also contain additional substances, including the retention, sizing agents, binders, fillers, thickeners and preservatives. Examples of fillers include, without limitation, clay, calcium carbonate, sulfate hemihydrate and calcium sulfate dihydrate calcium. The preferred filler is calcium carbonate, and the preferred form is precipitated calcium carbonate. Examples of binders include, without limitation polyvinyl alcohol, Amres (type kimana), Voeg Parez, emulsion polychloride, modified starch, such as hydroxyethyloxy starch, starch, polyacrylamide, modified polyacrylamide, high molecular weight alcohol, a product of the merger of carbonyl the Oh group to a high molecular weight alcohol, condensate of arandela/high molecular weight alcohol, polyamide, epichlorohydrin, glyoxal, pixelmachine, ethandiol, aliphatic polyisocyanate, isocyanate, 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate, diisocyanate, polyisocyanate, polyester, polyester resin, polyacrylate, polyacrylate resin, acrylate and methacrylate. Other additives include without limitation silica, such as colloids and sols. Examples of silica include without limitation sodium silicate and/or borosilicate. Other examples of additional substances are solvents, including, without limitation, water.

The paper base of the present invention may contain the means of keeping selected from the group consisting of coagulating agents, flocculosa agents and exciting agents, dispersed in supplements that increase the volume and porosity of the cellulose fibers.

Means of restraint for additives that increase the volume should retain a significant percentage of the additive in the middle of the cardboard, and not on the periphery. Appropriate means of restraint are their properties through coagulation, flocculation or capture additives that increase the volume. Coagulation involves the precipitation of the originally dispersed colloidal particles. This deposition may be carried out by charge neutralization or education sites high the th charge density on the surface of the particles. Because natural particles such as fine particles, fibers, clay, etc. are anionic, coagulation is mainly achieved by adding a cationic material to the overall system. Such selectable cationic materials preferably have a high ratio of charge to mass. Suitable coagulants include inorganic salts such as alum or aluminum chloride, and the product of the polymerization, for example, the GROIN or polyaluminium chloride, or synthetic polymers, politically-dimethylammoniumchloride - DADMAC), polydimethyl-co-epichlorohydrin, polyethyleneimine, poly-3-butyltrichlorosilane, poly-4-activeselectionset, poly-2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium, poly-5-isoprenylcysteine and polyacryloyldimethyl. Other suitable cationic compounds having a high ratio of charge to mass, include all polysulfone compounds such as, for example, the polymer obtained from the product of the merger of 2-chlormethyl, 1,3-butadiene and diallylsulfide, all polyamine, obtained by the reaction of amines, such as, for example, Ethylenediamine, Diethylenetriamine, Triethylenetetramine, or different dialkylamino with bigalo, bisepoxy or chlorohydrine compounds, such as, for example, 1-2 dichloroethane, 1,5-diepoxyoctane or epichlorohydrin, each polymer gua is Idina, such as, for example, the product of guanidine and formaldehyde with polyamines or without them. The preferred coagulant is polydiallyldimethyl (DADMAC)having a molecular weight of approximately 90 000 - 200 000 and polyethylenimine having a molecular weight of approximately 600 000 - 5 000 000. Molecular weights of all polymers and copolymers in this proposal is based on the weighted average molecular weight, usually used to measure the molecular mass of polymer systems.

Another preferred restraint system suitable for the production of cardboard of the present invention is occulation. This is mainly the formation of bridging ties or cross-linked structures of particles through the oppositely charged macromolecules of high molecular weight. Alternatively, bridging the communication is carried out by applying a dual polymer systems. Macromolecules, suitable for use of one additive, are cationic starch (amylase and amylopectin), cationic polyacrylamide, for example, polyacrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammoniumchloride, polyacrylamide-co-acryloyldimethyltaurate, cationic vegetable glues, chitosan and cationic polyacrylates. Natural macromolecules, such as, for example, starches and vegetable glues, acquire cationic properties usually after treatment and the 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium, but can also be used and other compounds, such as, for example, 2-khlorehtilaminami, acryloyloxyhexyloxy, acrylonitrilebutadiene etc. Double additives used for dual polymer systems, are any of the compounds having the properties of coagulants plus anionic macromolecule with a high molecular weight, such as, for example, anionic starches, carboxymethylcellulose, anionic vegetable glues, anionic polyacrylamides (e.g., polyacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) or finely dispersed colloidal particles (e.g., colloid colloidal silica, colloidal alumina, bentonite clay or polymeric microparticles, offered by the company Cytec Industries under the name Polyflex). Natural macromolecules, such as cellulose, starch and vegetable glues, usually acquire anionic properties after processing them Chloroacetic acid, but can be used in other ways, such as phosphorylation. Suitable flocculonodular agents are nitrogen-containing organic polymers having a molecular weight of from about 100 000 to 30 000 000. Preferred polymers have a molecular weight of approximately from 10 000 000 to 20 000 000. The most preferred polymers have a molecular weight of approximately 12 000 000 18 000 000. Suitable high molecular weight polymers are polyacrylamides, anionic acrylamide-acrylate polymers, cationic acrylamide copolymers having a molecular weight of approximately from 500 000 to 30 000 000, and polyethylenimine having a molecular weight of approximately from 500 000 to 2 000 000.

The third way of holding the filler in the sheet of fibers is to capture. He is a mechanical capture of particles in the fiber structure. Capture is achieved through education of the highest possible mesh structure, for example, through the formation of networks in the presence of high molecular weight anionic polyacrylamide or high molecular weight polyethylene oxides (PEO). Alternatively, the molecular network formed in a mesh structure by reaction dual additives, such as, for example, PEO and phenolic resins.

These additional substances can be dispersed in the cross-section of the paper base, or can be concentrated to a greater extent within the cross section of the paper base. In addition, other additional substances, such as binders and/or sizing agents may, for example, have a higher concentration in the direction of the outer surfaces of the cross-section of the paper base. More specifically, a large portion of the percentage of additional substances, such as St. the user or sizing agents, may be, preferably, spaced from the outer surface of the base, which is equal to or less than 25%, more preferably 10%, of the total thickness of the base. Examples of localization of such additional substances as a binder and sizing agents, as a function of the cross-section bases are, for example, the paper base "h"profile, which is mentioned in the provisional patent application U.S. No. 60/759,629 entitled "PAPER base WITH a HIGH CONTENT of SIZING AGENT ON the SURFACE AND the LOW CONTENT of SIZING AGENT on the INSIDE AND WITH a HIGH SPATIAL STABILITY", which is incorporated herein in full by reference. In addition, examples of adding fillers can be found in the provisional patent application U.S. No. 60/759,630, titled "PAPER base CONTAINING a FILLER WITH a HIGH CONTENT of SIZING AGENT ON the SURFACE AND the LOW CONTENT of SIZING AGENT on the INSIDE AND WITH a HIGH SPATIAL STABILITY", which is incorporated herein in full by reference, and patent application U.S. No. 10/662,699, now published with publication number 2004-0065423 entitled "PAPER WITH HIGH STIFFNESS AND the AMOUNT AND METHOD of ITS MANUFACTURE", which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

One item is the iMER binder is polyvinyl alcohol, for example polyvinyl alcohol with a degree of hydrolysis in the range from 100% to 75%. The degree of hydrolysis of polyvinyl alcohol may be 75, 76, 78, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 98 and 100%, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base of the present invention may also contain PVA in the amount of from 0.05 wt.% up to 20 wt.% from the total mass basis. This range includes 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,006, 0,008, 0,01, 0,02, 0,03, 0,04, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4, 0,5, 0.6, 0,7, 0,8, 0,9, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 20 wt.% from the total mass basis, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base of the present invention may also contain a surface sizing agent such as starch and/or modified and/or functional equivalents in the amount of from 0.05 wt.% up to 20 wt.%, preferably from 5 to 15 wt.%, from the total mass basis. Mass content of starch in the basis can be 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4, 0,5, 0,6, 0,7, 0,8, 0,9, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 20 wt.% from the total mass basis, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. Examples of modified starches include, for example, oxidized, cationic, leaded, gidroksietilirovanny etc. are Examples of functional equivalents are without limitation, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylene, alginate, carboxymethyl cellulose, etc.

The paper base may shall be made by contact expandable microspheres, and/or composition and/or particle of the present invention and cellulose fibers sequentially and/or simultaneously. In addition, the contact may take place at an acceptable concentration levels that provide in a paper substrate of the present invention any of the above mentioned quantities of cellulose and expandable microspheres, and/or compositions and/or particle of the present invention, both individually and in any combination. More specifically, the paper base of the present invention can be produced by adding from 0.25 to 20 pounds expandable microspheres, and/or compositions and/or particles per ton of pulp fibers. The amount of expandable microspheres, and/or compositions and/or particles per ton of pulp fibers may be 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 pounds.

The contact can occur at any time in the paper manufacturing process, including, without limitation, weight before pressing the weight after pressing, the headbox and coating installation, and the preferred location of the add is weight after pressing. In addition, point additions include the tank, forming a box and a suction side of the fan.

The paper base may also be made by contact additional substances and cellulose fibers. Contact can occur is arranged at any time in the process of making paper, including, without limitation, weight before pressing the weight after pressing, headbox, in the size press, water tank and coating installation. In addition, point additions include the tank, forming a box and a suction side of the fan. Cellulose fibers, expandable microspheres and/or additional components may be introduced into contact sequentially, alternately and/or simultaneously in any combination with each other. Cellulose fibers and expandable microspheres can be pre-mixed in any combination before adding or during the paper manufacturing process.

The paper base may pressoffice in the press section, containing one or more contact areas. However, it can be used any means of pressing, known in the manufacture of paper. The contact zone can be without limitation, one felt, the two Fermi, shafts and extended contact zone in the presses. However, it can be used in any area of contact, known in the manufacture of paper.

The paper base may be dried in the drying section. Can be used any means of drying known in the manufacture of paper. The drying section may contain a clothes dryer, the drying cylinder, the drying means Condebelt, infrared means, or other means and mechanisms of drying, zvezdnye in this area. The paper base may be dried to any selected water content. Preferably, the base is dried to a water content less than or equal to 10%.

The paper base may be omitted through the size press, which can be any sizing tool, known in the manufacture of paper. The size press may be pressed with size bath (inclined, vertical, horizontal) or dosed pressure (e.g., scraper, rod). In the sizing press, such sizing agents, as a binder, can be contacted with a base. Optionally, the same sizing agents may be added in the paper manufacturing process before drying. After gluing the paper base may again be subjected to or not subjected to drying in the above-mentioned means, shown as an example, and other means of drying known in the manufacture of paper. The paper base may be dried to any selected water content. Preferably, the base is dried to a water content less than or equal to 10%.

The paper base may Kalankatuatsi any means of calendering, known in the manufacture of paper. More specifically, it is possible to use, for example, wet calendering, dry calendering, calendering steel contact area, hot calendering in a soft calender or calendering in the extended area of contact, etc. Without being bound to any theory, the authors believe that the presence of expandable microspheres, and/or composition and/or particle of the present invention can reduce the requirements for rigid tools and environments calendering for some paper bases depending on the intended end use. During calendering, the base may be subjected to any pressure in the contact zone. However, preferably, the pressure in the contact zone can be from 5 to 50 psig, more preferably from 5 to 30 pounds per square inch. The pressure in the contact zone can be 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 pounds per square inch, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may be microfinishing processing any means microfinishing processing known in the manufacture of paper. Microfilaria processing is a means, including friction for finishing surfaces of the paper base. The paper base may be microfinishing processed by calendering or without applied sequentially and/or simultaneously. Examples funds microfinishing processing can be found in published patent application U.S. No. 20040123966 and specified reference materials that are jointly and fully incorporated herein by reference.

the one embodiment of the present invention the paper base may be a paper base coated. Accordingly, in this embodiment, the paper or cardboard the basis of the present invention may also contain at least one coating layer that includes the choice of two coating layers and/or a set of them. The coating layer may be applied on at least one surface of the paper and/or cardboard base, including its two surfaces. In addition, the coating layer may penetrate into the cardboard and/or paper-based. The coating layer may contain a binder. In addition, the coating layer may also optionally contain a pigment. Other optional components of the coating layer are surface-active agents, dispersing agents and other known additives for printing compositions.

The coating layer may contain a polymer and/or copolymer coating, which may be branched and/or crosslinked. Polymers and copolymers suitable for this purpose are polymers having a melting point below 270°C. and a glass transition temperature (Tg) in the range from -150 to +120°C. the Polymers and copolymers containing carbon and/or heteroatoms. Examples of suitable polymers may be polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, nitrocellulose, polyethylene, Saran and copolymers of styrene and acrylic acid. Typical polymers coatings are, among others, methylcellulose is a, the copolymer acetate and carboxymethyl cellulose, copolymers of vinyl acetate, a copolymer of styrene and butadiene and a copolymer of styrene and acrylic. You can use any standard composition coating for paper and/or cardboard bases, such as compositions and methods described in U.S. patent No. 6,379,497, which is incorporated herein in full by reference. However, examples of preferred compositions of the coating, which can be used can be found in the patent application U.S. serial number 10/945,306, filed September 20, 2004, which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

The coating layer may contain a single layer or multiple layers of any thickness that is needed and can be obtained by standard methods, especially printing methods. For example, the coating layer may contain a base layer and top layer. The base layer may, for example, contain thermoplastic particles of low density and, optionally, the first binder. The top layer may, for example, contain at least one pigment and, optionally, a second binder, which may be the same as in the base layer, or different from the first binder. The particles of the base layer and at least one pigment of the upper layer can be dispersed in an appropriate binder.

The thickness of the coating layer may be sonatica within wide limits, and you can use any thickness. Typically, the thickness of the coating layer is from about 1.8 to about to 9.0 μm, at least depending on the average density and mass relationships of each component of the coating. The thickness of the coating layer is preferably from about 2.7 to approximately 8.1 μm and more preferably from about 3.2 to about 6.8 microns. The thickness of the coating layer can be 1,8, 2,0, 2,2, 2,5, 2,7, 3,0, 3,2, 3,5, 3,7, 4,0, 4,2, 4,5, 4,7, 5,0, 5,2, 5,5,. 5,7, 6,0, 6,2, 6,5, 6,7, 7,0, 7,2, 7,5, 7,7, 8,0, 8,2, 8,5, 8,7 and 9.0 microns, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The weight of the coating layer may vary within wide limits, and can be used any known coating. The base coating is usually applied to the paper substrate in an amount of from about 4 to 20 g/see the Weight of the base coating is preferably from 6 to about 18 g/cm and more preferably from 7 to about 15 g/see the Weight of the base coating is 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 g/cm, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Although the paper base with coating or without coating can be of any basic mass, in one embodiment, the paper base according to the present invention with the coating may have a base weight of at least 20 pounds/3000 square feet, preferably from 140 to 325 the fur boots/3000 sq. ft. The paper base coated may have a base weight 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320 and 325, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Although the paper base coated or uncoated, may be of any apparent density, in one embodiment, the paper base according to the present invention with the coating may have an apparent density of from 4 to 12, preferably from 5 to 10 pounds/3000 square feet per 0.001 inch thickness. The apparent density of the paper base of this variant implementation coating can be 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 pounds/3000 square feet per 0.001 inch thickness, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Although the paper base coated or uncoated, may be of any apparent density, in one embodiment, the paper base according to the present invention with coating can have a thickness of from 8 to 32 mils, preferably from 12 to 24 mil. The thickness of the paper base of this variant implementation coating can be 8, 10, 12, 13, 14. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 Mila, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Although the paper base coated or uncoated can have any smoothness Sheffield, in one embodiment, the paper base according to the present invention coated can is to have a Sheffield smoothness of less than 50, preferably less than 30, more preferably less than 20 and most preferably less than 15, as measured by TAPPI method T 538 om-1. The Sheffield smoothness of the paper base of this variant implementation coating can be 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5 units, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. The Sheffield smoothness can be measured before or after calendering. The Sheffield smoothness of the basis of the present invention with coating improves to 10%, preferably 20%, more preferably 30% and most preferably by 50% compared to the smoothness of the famous paper bases coated, not containing expandable microspheres, composition and/or particle of the present invention.

Although the paper base coated or uncoated can have any surface roughness, measured by the apparatus Parker Print (10 kgf/cm2), in one embodiment, the paper base according to the present invention with the coating may have a surface roughness, measured by the apparatus Parker Print (10 kgf/cm2), less than or equal to 2, preferably less than 1.5, more preferably less than 1.3, and most preferably approximately from 1.0 to 0.5, as measured by TAPPI method T 555 om-99. For paper substrate of the present invention by coating the surface roughness, measured by the apparatus Parker Print (10 kgf/cm2), can be 2,0, 1,8, 1,6, 1,4, ,2, 1,0, 0,8, 0,6, of 0.4 and 0.2, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. For paper substrate of the present invention by coating the surface roughness, measured by the apparatus Parker Print, improved by 5%, preferably 20%, more preferably 30%, and most preferably 40% in comparison with known roughness of the paper fundamentals, not containing expandable microspheres, composition and/or particle of the present invention. Preferably, the surface roughness, measured by the apparatus Parker Print improved by 10-20% compared with the roughness of the known paper basics, not containing expandable microspheres, composition and/or particle of the present invention.

The paper base according to the present invention with coating can be improved leaf spot color imprint 2nd Cyan, measured by the scanner. Spotting is determined by the scanner in the following order. Selected representative samples of prints on paper with a coating containing a pigment, or cardboard, which are obtained under controlled conditions commercial offset printing blue ink when the density value measured in reflected light 1,35±0,05. The image is completely solid blue print is scanned in digital mode and is converted by using a neural network model to obtain the indicator spot print in the interval of the 0 (completely homogeneous layer of paint without spots) to 10 (visually noticeable, controversial and possibly bachema spotting imprint, random heterogeneity visual density in the reflected light or arbitrary non-uniform color print area). Data in this system, the scanning spot of imprint colors 2nd Cyan can be correlated to subjective visual perception (using a scale from 0 to 10), or can be converted into equivalent values of the spot measured by the device for control of spotted seal company Tobias Associates, using the following equation:

Spotting Tobias=Spotting on the scanner X8,8+188

Methods procedures and details of the application of the above equations can be found in the patent application U.S. serial number 10/945,306, filed September 20, 2004, which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

In one of the best options for the implementation of paper or cardboard the basis of the present invention coated or uncoated has any spotting imprint measured by the scanner on the 2nd color Cyan. However, spotting imprint color 2nd Cyan can be from 0 to 10, preferably not more than 6, more preferably not more than 5, most preferably not more than 4. Spotting imprint color 2nd Cyan, measured by the scanner, can be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Spotting print basis of the present invention with coating improves by 5%, preferably 20%, more preferably 30% and most preferably by 50% in comparison with the known paper bases coated, not containing expandable microspheres, composition and/or particle of the present invention. Preferably the improvement in spot print is in the range from 10 to 20% in comparison with the known paper bases coated, not containing expandable microspheres, composition and/or particle of the present invention. The basis of the present invention has a spot print color 2nd Cyan, measured by the scanner, which improved on 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000% in comparison with the known paper bases coated, not containing expandable microspheres, composition and/or particle of the present invention.

In another best embodiment, coated paper preferred example of the coating layer contains a base coat on the substrate surface. The base coating may contain a thermoplastic particles of low density, dispersed in a polymeric binder. Used herein, the term "thermoplastic particles of low density" refers to particles that are molded from thermoplastic or elastic polymers having a density of men is higher than 1.2 kg/l in the dry state, including the amount of air voids. The density is preferably less than 0.8 kg/l, more preferably less than 0.6 kg/l, and most preferably from 0.3 kg/l to about 0.6 kg/HP Thermoplastic particles of low density is preferably not extensible, and more preferably have a diameter of less than about 3 microns, more preferably less than about 2 microns and most preferably from 0.1 to approximately 1.0 μm. Without being bound to any theory, we believe that the inclusion of thermoplastic particles of low density makes the base coating is more compressible and enhances the advantageous properties of the material. Improved properties include leaf spot color imprint 2nd Cyan, high gloss sheet and stamp and/or improved Sheffield smoothness and surface roughness Parker Print compared to similar material which has the same characteristics except for the presence of thermoplastic particles of low density in the base floor.

Without being bound to any theory, we believe that the curve of coating thickness and compressibility (degree of compaction) against reducing the height of the cover needed to reduce the spot offset print, is directly proportional to the inhomogeneity in the Z-direction of basic education cardboard bases at pressures offset printing. For example, the pressure offset PE the ATI usually are in the range of approximately 10 kg/cm 2that was standardized as R (rubber) 10 kg/cm2surface roughness measured by the apparatus Parker Print (PPS μm). If you apply this load range, the compressibility of the base layer used in the load range must be able to float or cushion in hard points of intersection of the fibers in the Z-direction to prevent or reduce the change point of the pressure seal. If there are changes they first lead to changes in Krasnoperova, and then to uneven grip presses part of the paint film on the offset plate (printing cylinder).

Thermoplastic particles of low density, which can be used can vary widely and include, without limitation hollow polymer particles of plastic pigments and binder with a size that is at least about 175 nm. Examples of such particles are ROPAQUE® HP 1055 and AF1353 company Rohm and Haas and plastic pigments HS 2000NA and HS 3000NA Dow Chemical Company. The amount of thermoplastic particles of low density in the base coating may vary within wide limits, but is preferably less than 30% by weight of the composition of the base coating. More preferably, they are present in an amount of from about 1 to about 15% by weight of the composition of the base coating, enableprefetcher in the amount of from about 2 to about 10% by weight of the base coating in an amount of from about 3 to about 7% by weight of the composition of the base coating in the best options for implementation.

The base coating can contain a combination of calcium carbonate (or equivalent material) and thermoplastic particles of low density. The amount of thermoplastic particles of low density may be from 0.5 to 30 wt.%, preferably from 1 to 8 wt.%, more preferably from 3 to 7 wt.% and most preferably from 4 to 6 wt.% from the total mass of thermoplastic particles of low density and calcium carbonate (or equivalent material).

As another main component of the base coating contains one or more polymeric binders. Examples of suitable binders are binders that are commonly used in paper coatings, as, for example, butadiene-styrene rubber, acrylate styrene, polyvinyl alcohol and copolymers, polyvinyl acetate and copolymers, copolymer of vinyl acetate, carboxypropanoyl butadiene-styrene rubber, copolymers of acrylate-styrene, ABS plastic, butadiene/styrene/acrylate/Acrylonitrile polyvinyl pyrrolidone and copolymers, polyethylene oxide, poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline), polyester resin, gelatin, casein, alginate, cellulose derivatives, polyvinylacetate, soy protein polymer, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, starch, ethoxylated, oxidized and enzyme converted starches, cationic starches, water-soluble vegetable glues, CME and water-soluble and water-insoluble resins or polymer latexes, etc. Preferred polymeric binders are karboksilirovanie butadiene-styrene rubbers, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, a copolymer of styrene and Acrylonitrile, a copolymer of butadiene/styrene, styrene/acrylate and polymers and copolymers of vinyl acetate.

Particles of rubber binder having sufficient size, also provide an initial charge, with the introduction together with inorganic or organic pigments with extenders. Rubber particles typically have a size of from about 100 to 300 nm when used in coatings for paper. Rubber particles having a sufficient size to provide compressibility, typically have a size of at least 175 nm. The particle size of the rubber, which provides compressibility is directly proportional to the average size of the inorganic and organic pigments used in the base coating. Usually the source of ground calcium carbonate (ICC)used in the base coating for paper, is HYDROCARB® 60 (the company OMYA). This ground calcium carbonate is the product of wet milling in a ball mill and has a size of 60% of its particles less than 2 microns. Therefore, 40% of the particles have a size equal to or greater than approximately 2 microns. Preferably, the particle size of the rubber is at least 175 nm for the base coating consisting mainly of the time from calcium carbonate HYDROCARB® 60 or similar products. More preferably, the particle size of the rubber is at least 185 nm, and even more preferably the particle size of the rubber is at least 190 nm.

Sources of calcium carbonate can be mixed in any quantity. For example, sources of ground calcium carbonate, containing 60% of its particles less than 2 microns may be present in an amount of from 10 to 90 wt.% from the total mass of calcium carbonate. The number of sources of calcium carbonate, containing 60% of its particles smaller than 2 microns, can be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 wt.% from the total mass of calcium carbonate, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Sources of calcium carbonate can be mixed in any quantity. For example, sources of ground calcium carbonate contains 40% of its particles smaller than 2 microns may be present in an amount of from 10 to 90 wt.% from the total mass of calcium carbonate. The number of sources of calcium carbonate contains 40% of its particles smaller than 2 microns, can be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 wt.% from the total mass of calcium carbonate, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In more preferred embodiments, the implementation of the present invention apply additional pigments or fillers to improve the properties of paper and paperboard coated. These additional the additional pigments can vary widely and include inorganic pigments, commonly used in paper and paperboard coated, such as silica, clay, calcium sulfate, calcium silicate, activated clay, diatomaceous earth, magnesium silicate, magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate and aluminum hydroxide. To further increase the amount of coverage can also be included inorganic particles such as particles of precipitated calcium carbonate-dimensional structures, such as crystals with rosethorne structure. In the most preferred embodiments of implementing the present invention, inorganic pigments having rosethorne or other three-dimensional structure, can be included in the base coat to give it a more original volume or thickness. Rosethorne structure provides an increased thickness of the coating, thereby improving the distribution of coverage at a given mass. This allows the coating after drying is more easily move in the Z-direction compression hot soft calender machines for making paper from bleached sulphate pulp, and, thus, to form uniformly covered the surface with a reduced number of more subtle areas. Preferred inorganic pigments include, without limitation precipitated calcium carbonate, mechanically or chemically treated clay, fired CH who have other types of pigments, which reduce the average density of the coating after drying. These pigments do not attach the compressibility of the base coating after drying. They synergistically reduce the average density of the coating and increase the average coating thickness for a given mass, therefore compressible materials, such as binders with larger particles and hollow plastic spheres, become more effective with the depreciation in the Z-direction of the inhomogeneity of education foundations of paper when creating a point of change of the pressure seal in the contact zone offset printing.

The weight of the base coating may vary within wide limits, and can be used any known coating. The base coating is usually applied to the paper substrate in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 g/m2. The weight of the base coating is preferably from about 6 to about 18 g/m2and more preferably from about 7 to about 15 g/m2. The thickness may vary within wide limits, and may be any thickness. Typically, the thickness ranges from approximately 1.8 to approximately 9,0 μm as the minimum and depends on the average density and the mass ratio of components of the coating. The thickness of the base coating is preferably from about 2.7 to is roughly of 8.1 μm and more preferably from about 3.2 to about 6.8 microns. If taken into account the factors of packaging in different forms, the average thickness of the coating on impervious surface will be much more here theoretical values. However, due to the roughness of cardboard in General, and also in connection with the use and dosing of the base coating at an average coating weight of 12 g/m2the thickness of the coating on the rough surface of the higher parts of the paper may be only 2-3 microns, and in the hollows between the major surface of the fibers, the coating thickness may be increased up to 10+microns. Dosing the base coating hard knife helps to achieve a smooth surface to be quite uniform layer of top coating.

An additional component of the material is the top floor. The upper floor contains one or more inorganic pigments, dispersed in one or more polymeric binders. The polymer binder and inorganic pigments are those that are typically used in the coating of paper and cardboard. Examples of suitable pigments and a binder contained in the description of the base coating.

The weight of the top coating may vary within wide limits, and can be used any known coating. The top floor is usually applied to the paper substrate in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 g/sup> 2. The weight of the top coating is preferably from about 6 to about 18 g/m2and more preferably from about 7 to about 15 g/m2. The thickness of the upper cover 16 may vary within wide limits, and may be any thickness. Typically, the thickness of the top coating is from about 1.8 to about to 9.0 μm as a minimum, depending on the average density and the mass ratio of components of the coating. The thickness of the top coating is preferably from about 2.7 to approximately 8.1 μm and more preferably from about 3.2 to about 6.8 microns, at least, depending on the average density and the mass ratio of components of the coating. The value at which the volume of the void is filled with binders and additives for all pigments, called the "critical volume of the void". In the field of paints this value is called the transition from matte to glossy colours.

Paper or paperboard of the present invention with coating can be produced by using known methods. Methods and devices for manufacturing and applying the coating composition on the base paper is well known in the manufacture of paper and cardboard. See, for example, the publication G.A.Smook mentioned above, and the reference material is ialy, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. All such known methods can be used when implementing the present invention in practice and in detail will not be described. For example, a mixture of basic pigments, polymer or copolymer binder and additional components may be dissolved or dispersed in an appropriate liquid medium, preferably water.

The percentage of solids in the compositions of the top and base coatings can vary widely, and can be used a known percentage of solids. The percentage of solids in the composition of the base coating is preferably from about 45% to 70%, because in this range the material has excellent features spot print with increasing requirements for drying. The percentage of solids in the base coating is more preferably ranges from approximately 57% to 69%, and most preferably from about 60% to about 68%. The percentage of solids in the composition of the base coating in the best variants of implementation ranges from approximately 63% to 67%.

The composition of the coating can be applied on the basis of any appropriate way, for example, irrigation, knife, air knife, CTE shall reap, roller, grooved roller, slot coating, spraying, immersion, spiral slice, reverse roller, extrusion, etc. in Addition, the composition of the coatings can also be applied in the size press of the paper machine with a metering rod or other means of dosing. In the best embodiments for carrying out the invention the composition of the base coating is applied by devices with a doctor blade, and the composition of the top coating is applied by device doctor blade or device with an air scraper. In the most preferred embodiments, the base coating is applied with a device with a rigid doctor blade, and a top coat is applied with a device with a curved doctor blade or device with an air scraper.

Paper or cardboard base with coating or without coating is dried after treatment with the composition of the coating. Methods and devices for drying cloths of paper or cardboard, treated with a coating composition, are well known in the manufacture of paper and cardboard. See, for example, the publication G.A.Smook. mentioned above, and the reference materials. Can be used any known method and device for drying. Therefore, these methods and devices will not be described in detail here. Preferably, after drying the wet paper or cardboard is met, the moisture content, equal to or less than about 10 wt.%. The amount of moisture in the wet paper or cardboard after drying, more preferably ranges from about 5 to about 10 wt.%.

After drying the paper or cardboard base with coating or without coating may be dried in one or more subsequent stages, such as described, for example, in the publication G.A.Smook. mentioned above and indicated in her reference material. For example, a paper or cardboard sheet can be Kalankatuatsi to improve the smoothness and features spot print, and other paper properties, for example, by passing the coated paper through a contact zone formed by the calender to add gloss upper surface of the paper or cardboard with a coating used solid calenders (chrome steel on rubber shaft) or hot soft calendering (chrome steel composite polymer surface). The amount of heat and pressure in such calenders dependent on the speed of passage of the blade through the contact zone, shaft sizes, composition and hardness of the shafts, the specific load, the masses of the top and base coating, the roughness of the underlying cardboard, strength, bond coats and roughness of the pigments present in the coating. Usually the top coatings contain very small particles of clay and ground and is and precipitated calcium carbonate, binder, a means of improving the rheology and other additives. Usually hot soft calendering have a diameter of 1 m and more, and heated inside the very hot liquid. The diameter of the heated steel shaft is directly dependent on the width of the paper machine. Usually the wider the paper machine width 400 inches requires, compared to machines with a width of 300 or 250 inches, shaft of a much larger diameter so that the weight of the shaft did not cause sagging of the shaft in the center. Use shafts with internal heating of the hydraulic fluid and compensation convexity. Surface temperatures typically range from 100 to 200°C. the Preferred range is 130°C-185°C with a load in the contact zone from 20 kN/m 300 kN/m

The base and the coating layer are put into contact with each other by any known means of applying a layer of coating, including the means of impregnation. The preferred method of applying the coating layer is a linear process with one or more devices. Device coating may be any known means commonly used in the manufacture of paper, including, for example, brush, rod, air knife, spraying, watering, cleaning blade, the transmitting shaft, a reverse shaft, as well as any combination of them.

The base coating can be dried in the drying section. Can be is used any means of drying, known in the manufacture of paper and/or coating. The drying section may include an infrared device to blow drying air and/or drying drums heated by steam or other means and mechanisms of drying known in the field of coating.

The base coating can be subjected to finishing finish any means known in the manufacture of paper. Examples of such finishing means including one or more finishing sections are solid calender, soft calender and/or a calender with an extended area of contact.

These aforementioned methods of making compositions, particles and/or paper substrate of the present invention can be added to any of the known methods of making paper, as well as to methods of conversion, including abrasion, grinding, cutting, scoring, perforating, raising, calendering, finishing sheet, recycling of packaging, coating, laminating, printing, etc. Preferred known methods include methods of obtaining paper bases that can be used as paper, cardboard products and/or bases coated or uncoated.

The base may also contain other known additives, such as, for example, starch, mineral and polymer fillers, adhesives ve is esta, a means of retaining and reinforcing polymers. Among the fillers that may be used organic and inorganic pigments, such as, for example, minerals such as calcium carbonate, kaolin and talc, as well as advanced and expandable microspheres. Other known additives include, without limitation waterproof resin, the inner adhesive shopruche resin, alum, fillers, pigments and dyes.

Expandable microsphere, composition, particle and/or the paper base of the present invention can be used in various end products, known in the field that use paper and/or cardboard base. Such end products include packing containers and/or products made of paper and cardboard, including products requiring large and small basic mass of the respective bases, ranging from envelopes and letterhead and ending with carton, respectively. In addition, the final product, the product and/or packaging may contain several layers of paper such as corrugated structures, where at least one layer contains an expandable microsphere, composition, particle and/or base paper of the present invention.

In one embodiment, the product contains several paper basics, where any or all of them may contain expandable microsphere, songs of the Sabbath. Yu, particle and/or base paper of the present invention.

In this particular embodiment, the expandable microsphere, the composition and/or particle are the means of giving to the volume of paper products and foundations. However, in this embodiment, it is possible to use any means to add volume, although the preferred means of giving volume are expandable microsphere, composition, particle and/or the paper base of the present invention. In addition, the product/packaging material/the basis of the present invention can be used several tools to add volume.

Examples of other alternative means of giving volume may be without limitation, surfactants, Reactopaque, pre-expanded microspheres, STMR (bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp), microfilaria processing and multi-layered design to create I-beam construction paper or cardboard base. Such tools give volume can be incorporated into a paper basis or applied to it to ensure proper print quality, thickness, base weight, etc. in the absence of hard calendering conditions (i.e. pressure in one zone of contact and/or fewer contact areas in the means of calendering), at the same time allowing the product to contain a paper about the Nova, having the following physical and performance characteristics.

The product according to this variant implementation of the present invention may contain a means of giving volume in the amount of from 0.01 to 20, preferably from 0.5 to 10 pounds per ton of final product, when such means provide volume is additive. Tool add volume may be present in the amount of 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 0,75, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5, 3, 3,5, 4, 4,5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 pounds per ton of final product, when such means provide volume is additive.

If the product is an envelope and/or forms, the product according to this variant implementation of the present invention may contain a base paper of the present invention at a thickness of from 3.5 to 8 mils, more preferably from 4.2 to 6.0 mils and most preferably from 4.9 to 5.2 mils.

If the product is an envelope and/or forms, the product according to this variant implementation of the present invention may contain a base paper of the present invention when the base weight of from 12 to 30 pounds per 1300 square feet, preferably from 16 to 24 pounds per 1300 square feet, most preferably from 16 to 22 pounds per 1300 square feet.

If the product is an envelope and/or forms, the product according to this variant implementation of the present invention can sod is neigh base paper of the present invention, at a density of 3.0 to 7.0, more preferably from 3.5 to 5.0, most preferably between 3.75 to 4.25 pounds per 1300 square feet per 0.001 inch of thickness.

If the product is an envelope and/or forms, the product according to this variant implementation of the present invention may contain a base paper of the present invention when the fracture resistance MD Gurley less than or equal to 500 msf, preferably from 150 to 500 msf, more preferably from 225 to 325 msf. Fracture resistance MD Gurley should be sufficient for standard conversion means, preferably by means of conversion are the means known in the manufacture of envelopes and letterhead.

If the product is an envelope and/or forms, the product according to this variant implementation of the present invention may contain a base paper of the present invention when the fracture resistance CD Gurley less than or equal to 250 msf, preferably from 50 to 250 msf, more preferably from 100 to 200 msf. Fracture resistance CD Gurley should be sufficient for standard conversion means, preferably by means of conversion are the means known in the manufacture of envelopes and letterhead.

If the product is an envelope and/or forms, the product according to this variant implementation of the present invention may contain a paper basis this is the future of invention Sheffield smoothness less than 350 units, preferably from 150 to 300 units, most preferably from 175 to 275 units.

If the product is an envelope and/or forms, the product according to this variant implementation of the present invention may be multi-layered and contain at least one layer containing an expandable microsphere, composition, particle and/or base paper of the present invention, if the layer has a width of from 1 to 15 inches and a length from 1 to 15 inches. The width can be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 inches, including all ranges and subranges within these limits. The length can be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 inches, including all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The product according to the present invention may contain multiple layers containing expandable microsphere, composition, particle and/or base paper of the present invention, which may or may not be continuous.

Examples of products according to the present invention may be any standard envelope size and shape known in the manufacture of envelopes. In addition, the product may be an envelope containing a set of forms. The envelope of the present invention preferably contains a base paper having a means of giving volume, preferably by means of giving volume are expandable micro is Fehr, the composition, the particle of the present invention.

Preferably, the product according to the present invention contains a set of forms, made of a paper base having a means of giving volume, preferably by means of giving volume are expandable microsphere, the composition, the particle of the present invention.

Most preferably, the product is an envelope with some many forms, made of a paper base having a means of giving volume, preferably by means of giving volume are expandable microsphere, the composition, the particle of the present invention.

Especially it is preferable that the product of the present invention contains a set of forms that is greater by at least 1 blank, than a product that does not contain the basics, have applied the tool to add volume. The product of the present invention has at least one layer (continuous or intermittent), containing the basis having applied the tool to add volume. The most preferred means of giving volume is the tool with expandable microsphere, composition and/or particle deposited on a basis that is contained in at least one layer of the product. In addition, the layer of the product may be blank.

The package of this image is the shadow has mass, on the average, equal to or less than 1 oz, preferably less than 1 oz. The package of the present invention has one or a number of layers and weight, the difference of which from 1 ounce is an absolute value that is greater than in the known package with the same number of layers. Accordingly, in the package of the present invention can be introduced more layers than in the known package, while maintaining the total mass of the package is less than 1 ounce.

The present invention is explained in more detail using the following example which is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way.

Examples

Example 1. The paper base with a coating containing expandable microspheres

The paper base coated, suitable for example for use as a cardboard container, made in the usual ways of making paper. Base paper was Kalandarishvili at a pressure of 10 pounds per square inch and then it inflicted known coating using known means for coating. After application of the coating layer on the basis of the measured spot print (visually and are much more sensitive and objective standard tool (scanner). The relationship between the data measurement system spot imprint color 2nd Cyan can be correlated with the subjects who passed the visual perception (using a scale of 0-10), or can be converted into equivalent values of the spot, measured by the apparatus Tobias companies Tobias Associates, using the following equation:

Spotting Tobias=Spotting on the scanner X8,8+188

Methods procedures and details of the application of the above equations can be found in the patent application U.S. serial number 10/945,306, filed September 20, 2004, which is incorporated herein in full by reference. Then, in subsequent experiments expandable microspheres were injected in a known way to obtain paper having 1 wt.% and 2 wt.% expandable microspheres of the total mass basis. Were performed two series of experiments using pressure calendering 10 and 20 psi, respectively. The results are shown in table 1.

The results in table 1 clearly show that the foundations containing expandable microspheres, after coating give a noticeable improvement in spot print measured by the scanning system of imprint colors 2nd Cyan.

Example 2. Other paper substrate with a coating containing expandable microspheres

The paper base coated, suitable for example for use as a cardboard container, made in the usual ways of making paper. After application of the coating layer on the basis of the measured spot print (visually and are much more sensitive and objective standard the m means (scanner), as well as other characteristics (results shown in table 2). Then, in subsequent experiments expandable microspheres were injected into the above-mentioned conventional method in quantities of 10, 5, 2 and 1 pound per ton to obtain a paper containing expandable microspheres. The results are shown in table 2. In addition, figure 1 shows the spot imprint color 2nd Cyan, measured by the scanner as a function of the amount of expandable microspheres added to the paper manufacturing process. Control samples 1 and 2 did not contain expandable microspheres added to the paper manufacturing process.

The results of experiments

Table 2.
Control 1 (test)Experiment 1 (5 pounds per ton)Experiment 1 (10 pounds per ton)Control 2 (test)Experiment 2 (1 pound per ton)Experiment 2 (2 pounds per ton)
The content of Expancel (pounds per ton)051001 2
Basic weight255237,4of 225.6255,1251,2247
Thickness23,824,123,724,023,824,0
The Sheffield smoothness27,49,2922,7a 21.513,0
PPS101,511,51,551,471,481,42
Fracture resistance GM325284249336309309
Internal communication8072,7887476 81
The spotted seal (2 Cyan)2,52,172,1to 3.672,872,7
Reduce the base weight (%)6,911,51,533,18

Adsorption of polyethylenimine (PAYS) microspheres

Conditions of adsorption
Sample Expancel®820 SLU 40820 SLU 80642 SLX 80
Volume 40% suspension7.5 g7.5 g7.5 g
The volume of solution PAYS (6%)48 g48 g48 g
g of dry particles / g of dry PAYS1/11/1 1/1
Extension properties
Sample Expancel®820 SLU 40820 SLU 80642 SLX 80
TO.E.(C)828390
To.s.(°C)140125132
Vexp (80°C) (ml)
V(100°C)(ml)
Adsorption of the PAYS not to have a significant impact on extension

The treatment of the surface charge by a further aluminization

Labels

40% Solids=solids Content 40%

Mixing, 1-4 h=Mixing, 1-4 hours

Excess PEI and X-100...=Excessive and PAYS X-100 (20% solids) with adsorbed PAYS

After centrifugation=After centrifugation

Excess PEI=Excessive PAYS

X-100 with Adsorbed PEI=X-100 with adsorbed PAYS

Conditions and the sorption

20,00
ConditionThe ratio of the X-100/PAYSMixing time, hObservation
1Not applicableNot applicable
2ALow-molecular-weight4,001A uniform mixture
2BLow-molecular-weight4,004A uniform mixture
3ALow-molecular-weight10,001After the initial flocculation becomes uniform mixture
3BLow-molecular-weight10,004After the initial flocculation becomes uniform mixture
4ALow-molecular-weight1After the initial flocculate becomes uniform mixture
4BLow-molecular-weight20,004After the initial flocculation remains flocculating
9Macromolecular40,001A uniform mixture

Used in this document the ranges of values are reduced for the purposes of the designation of any and every value that is within range, including all sub-ranges.

In light of the above description numerous possible modifications and changes of the present invention. It is therefore understood that within the scope of the attached formula of the invention may be implemented differently than described in this document.

All links to the documents as well as the reference materials are hereby incorporated by reference with respect to the corresponding parts of the description relating to the subject matter of the present invention and all variants of its implementation.

1. Composition for the production of paper containing
at least one thermally expands who represented the hollow microsphere of thermoplastic material, optionally containing at least one foaming agent selected from lower alkanes, and at least one ionic compound selected from the group comprising connection polyamine, the connection polyethylenimine, colloid containing at least one member of the group consisting of silica, alumina, tin oxide, zirconium dioxide, antimony oxide, iron oxide and oxides of rare earth metals, Sol containing at least one member of the group consisting of silica, alumina, tin oxide, zirconium dioxide, antimony oxide, iron oxide and oxides of rare earth metals, and said composition has electrokinetic potential, greater than or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6to 0.1 mol.

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the said electrokinetic potential of 0 mV.

3. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the said electrokinetic potential is in the range from greater than 20 to 130 mV.

4. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the said ionic compound is crosslinked, branched or combination of crosslinked and branched.

5. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the said connection polyethylenimine has a molecular weight of at least 600 average molecular masses.

6. To notice according to claim 1, characterized in that the said connection polyethylenimine has a molecular weight of from 600 to 40,000 average molecular masses.

7. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the said ionic compound is cationic.

8. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres associated with an ionic connection.

9. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres ecovalence associated with an ionic connection.

10. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the composition is a particle.

11. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer surface of the at least one expandable microspheres is anionic.

12. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing a set of cellulose fibers.

13. A method of manufacturing a composition according to claim 1, containing contact at least one expandable microspheres with at least one ionic compound for the formation of the mixture, centrifuging the mixture for the formation of the first phase, containing at least one ionic compound, and the second phase containing the particle.

14. The method according to item 13, which contact at least one expandable microspheres with at least one ionic compound is the adsorption is carried by men whom she least one ionic compounds on at least one extensible microsphere.

15. The method according to item 13, where the particle addition enter in contact with some many cellulose fibers.

16. The method according to item 13, where the particle is additionally injected into a solution that contains a lot of cellulose fibers.

17. Paper or cardboard base that contains a lot of cellulose fibers, from 0.1 to 5 wt.% the composition according to claim 1, where the base has a Sheffield smoothness less than 250 units, as measured by the method TARR T 538 om-1, and leaf spot color imprint 2nd cyan no more than 6.

18. Based on 17, where the outer surface of the expandable microspheres is associated with an ionic connection.

19. Based on 17 containing from 0.1 to 3 wt.% the composition according to claim 1.

20. Based on 17 containing from 0.1 to 2 wt.% the composition according to claim 1.

21. Based on claim 20, additionally containing at least one coating layer.

22. Based on 17, where the coating layer contains at least one upper floor and at least one base coat.

23. Based on 17, where the Sheffield smoothness less than 250 units and spot print on the scanner less than 6 after calendering mentioned bases, as measured by the method TARR T 538 om-1.

24. Based on 17, where said base has a surface roughness Parker Print from approximately 1.0 to 0.5, as measured by the method TARR T 555 om-99.

25. The packaging article containing the base by 17.

26. Product by A.25, where the Foundation will Supplement what Ino contains a foaming agent.

27. The article on p. 25, wherein the product is a cardboard container.

28. Product by A.25, where the product weighs equal to or less than 1 oz, and has mass, the difference of which from 1 oz is the absolute value that is greater than that of known packaging with the same number of layers.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: cellulose product comprises thermoplastic microspheres and a charged aromatic acrylamide polymer. The method to produce a cellulose product includes provision of an aqueous solution of suspension that contains cellulose fibres. Addition of thermoplastic microspheres and the charged aromatic acrylamide polymer into the suspension, and dehydration of the produced suspension. Thus made cellulose product may be used as a cardboard for liquid packing.

EFFECT: reduced porosity of a cellulose product as its volume increases and improved resistance of a wick edge to penetration of aqueous liquids for cellulose products.

25 cl, 3 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: paper with improved rigidity and bulk and method of its manufacturing may be used in pulp and paper industry and are intended for photocopier equipment. Paper comprises three-layer double-tee structure that forms a single web. It has central core layer manufactured mainly from cellulose, bulk of which is increased with the help of filler, such as hydrazine salt. Starch-based coating is applied on both sides of core layer, at the same time starch has high content of solid products. Coating forms three-layer paper having composite structure with outer layers of high strength that surround core of low density.

EFFECT: improved strength, rigidity and resistance to twisting of produced material.

32 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: textile; paper.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to production paper material and can be applied in paper-and-pulp industry when producing paper material with low-density. Method includes formation of aqueous suspension containing pulp. Addition of latex with agglomerated hollow particles in suspension. Formation of a wet sheet from the suspension and drying of the sheet. It also relates to paper material prepared by using the method.

EFFECT: production of paper material having good combination of optical, mechanical, tactile properties, evenness and volume including economical efficiency of the process.

10 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: paper material and method of its production are designed for the production of paper products such as file folders and can be used in pulp and paper industry. The paper material contains cellulose fibers and expanded microspheres in the amount of approximately 0.1-0.4 wt % and 5.1-6.0 wt % of the web total dry weight; the paper web has the density equal to or exceeding about 6.0 pounds per 3000 square feet per mil. Method of manufacturing this material involves preparing composition for paper production containing cellulose fibers and expanded microspheres in the above amount, forming a fibrous web from this composition, web drying and calendering up to the above thickness.

EFFECT: preventing skin cuts, improving flexibility and stiffness of paper material.

29 cl, 25 dwg, 14 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: pulp-and-paper industry, in particular, paper sheet having surface feeling hash to the finger, and method for applying coating onto paper sheet.

SUBSTANCE: paper sheet of such structure may be used for manufacture of paper or plastic medium for carrying of printed information, paper or plastic package, cover used in stitching and binding processes, or cardboard or plastic carton having surface feeling hash to the finger. At least one side of paper sheet is coated with layer containing non-compressible microscopic particles of non-gelatinized starch grains, or said particles are produced by grinding of plastic material. Method involves treating at least one side of paper sheet with water-based composition containing non-compressible microscopic particles which are made three-dimensional and rounded, binder, and filler; drying paper sheet after treatment. Particles are non-gelatinized starch grains, or particles are produced by grinding of plastic material. Method allows paper sheet to be produced, which has roughness coefficient Kd below 0.5.

EFFECT: simplified method and improved quality of paper sheet.

17 cl, 16 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: paper coated with composition for coating various kinds of paper, for offset printing of paper used for manufacture of books, magazines, annual reports, or packaging paper.

SUBSTANCE: composition comprises pigments and binder. Composition pigments are formed as microballs having sizes below 10 micrometers, preferably about 7 micrometers. Paper coated with such composition is silky by touch and has at least one surface coated with such composition, preferably both of its surfaces. This paper may be tracing paper.

EFFECT: improved quality of paper owing to preventing sliding thereof during separation of sheets in stacks, delamination of coating during printing process and, accordingly, elimination of paper dusting and formation of impure imprints.

7 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 13 ex

The invention relates to thermosensitive recording materials, in particular paper and taking into account the major area of application is the production of business and securities can be attributed to the means of their protection against forgery
The invention relates to the production of paper containing various means of protection against counterfeiting and unauthorized manufacture, and more particularly to securities with protective means, the action of which is based on the phenomenon of thermal sensitivity, t

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: i) obtaining granules of a foamed polymer, ii) applying a coating on the granules from step i) and iii) moulding the coated granules to obtain the said composite, wherein the coating is obtained from an aqueous gel-forming composition which contains (a) 5-40 wt %, preferably 10-25 wt %, aluminium silicate; (b) from ore than 0 wt % to 10 wt %, preferably from 0.3 wt % to 5 wt %, organic liquid which improves integrity of the film, and up to 100 wt % water, possibly containing one or more other optional components. The composite is used as construction material, insulating material and structural material for packaging.

EFFECT: improved composites are obtained using silicates, where the said composites have a water-based coating and are suitable for use as fire-resistant compositions.

38 cl, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a foamed vinylaromatic polymer containing a) a matrix obtained via polymerisation of 100 wt % vinylaromatic monomer; b) 1-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) foaming agent incorporated in the polymer matrix; c) 0.01-25 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) technical carbon, characterised by average diametre between 30 and 2000 nm, specific surface area between 5 and 40 m2/g, sulphur content between 0.1 and 1000 parts per million and ash content between 0.001 and 1%; d) 0-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) graphite; e) 0-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) aluminium; f) 0-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) antimony trisulphide, provided that the total amount of components (a)-(f) equals 100, and that concentration of matrix (a) is not less than 80 wt % and at least one of (d)-(f) is present. The invention also describes a foamed article having density between 5 and 50 g/l, characterised by thermal conductivity between 25 and 50 mW/mK, obtained after foaming at temperature several times higher than the glass transition point of the polymer and granules of the vinylaromatic polymer given above. Described is a method of improving insulating capacity of the foamed vinylaromatic polymer given above.

EFFECT: improved insulating capacity of the foamed product.

13 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a solid powdered composition containing unexpanded thermally expandable microspheres and an inhibitor, and is designed for use in compositions containing a polymer resin, its preparation, a method of preparing a similar composition and products made from the said composition. The composition contains expanded or unexpanded thermally expandable microspheres which are a thermoplastic polymer shell encapsulating a liquid propellant and from approximately 0.1 to approximately 50 wt % the number of microspheres of at least one inhibitor. The inhibitor is selected from a group consisting of acids having melting point lower than approximately 200°C and their precursors, where the said acid is not citric acid. The thermoplastic polymer shell is made from homo- and copolymers obtained from polymerisation of ethylene unsaturated monomers, and the liquid propellant has boiling point which is not higher than softening point of the thermoplastic polymer shell.

EFFECT: mixture of certain inhibitors with microspheres considerably reduces decolouration when using the composition as a blowing agent when making polymer materials at high temperature and/or long periods of processing.

24 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the thermoplastic resin particles designed for forming the Styrofoam containers. The foaming thermoplastic resin particles are described, consisting of polymer obtained from the vinyl aromatic monomers, and bearing on their surface the covering composition at approximately 0.005 to 2.0 mass percent at particle mass. At that, the said covering composition includes the components selected from the group consisting of 1) liquid part and 2) solid part; and the said liquid part contains: a) from approximately 0.01 to 0.8 mass percents at a particles mass of polyethylene glycol with the apparent molecular weight from approximately 200 to 800; the said solid part contains the components selected from the group consisting of b) from approximately 0.01 to 1.0 mass percent at a mass of the polyolefin wax particles; c) from approximately 0.01 to 0.6 mass percent at a mass of the particles of the metal-containing salt of the higher fatty acids; d) from approximately 0.01 to 0.8 mass percents at a particles mass of polyethylene glycol with the apparent molecular weight from approximately 900 to 10000; and e) from approximately 0.01 to 0.1 mass percent at a mass of the fatty bisamide particles; and their combinations. Also, the styrofoam container and the formed article produced from the said foaming particles, are described. The covering composition for the said particles and the method for improvement the leakage resistance in the styrofoam container, are described.

EFFECT: prevention of oil and/or fat-containing liquid and food leakage, edge firmness improvement.

31 cl, 10 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the disposable containers with the latex coating.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the disposable molded thermoplastic container for example, the cup, the bowl made out of the foaming polystyrene particles has the latex coating, for example, made out of the latex of the interpolymer of methylmethacrylate and styrene, the latex of the interpolymer of methylacrylate and styrene, the latex of the interpolymer of the acrylic acid and styrene and the latex of the interpolymer of the butadiene and styrene applied on, at least, its internal surface by the dipping, paint-brushing or sputtering methods for the improved strength against leakage and-or the stains formation and-or durability at storage. The coating may be applied on the outer surface of the container for rising the anti-leakage strength and realization of patterning. The invention also considers the method of molding of the container, the article and usage of the container for improvement of the method of storage of the liquid and food substances.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the manufactured container, the article and the coating shall improve the storage of the liquid and food substances.

21 cl, 4 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; automotive industry; other industries; production of the expansible polyolefin particles.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the expansible polyolefin particles, which are coated with the mean used for prevention of the particles sticking together at frothing and are applied in the capacity of the foamed plastics in the automotive industry, in the packing industry and in the field of leisure. The expansible polyolefin particles contain from 1 up to 40 mass % of the volatile organic frothing agent and have the bulk density of more than 400 g/l. The coating contains from 0.01 up to 3 mass %, in terms of the mass of the particles, as the mean of prevention of sticking together - the salt and-or ester and-or the amide of the long-chained acid from the fatty acids, preferentially - calcium stearate. The polyolefin particles under the invention at frothing do not stick together and without the problems can be welded in the foam molded products.

EFFECT: the invention ensures that the polyolefin particles at frothing do not stick together and without the problems can be welded in the foam molded products.

8 cl, 2 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides granules of foamable vinylaromatic polymers, which contain (a) matrix obtained via polymerization of 50-100% of one or more vinylaromatic monomers with 0-50% of at least one copolymerizable monomer; (b) 1-10% (based on the weight of above polymer) of foaming agent incorporated in polymer matrix; (c) from 2 ppm to 2% (based on the weight of polymer) of anticaking additive distributed over the surface of granules and selected from group IB and VIIIB metal oxides and mixtures thereof. Process of manufacturing above-defined granules is also described.

EFFECT: achieved suppression of conglomeration of swelled granules without loss in ability for subsequent adhesion and foaming.

10 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of coating substrates comprises the following steps: a) preparing the substrate, b) depositing a composition onto at least one side of the substrate, the composition containing an inorganic compound which contains at least one metal and/or semimetal selected from a group comprising Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Nb, V, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Fe, Co, B, Al, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Zn, Pb, Sb, Bi or mixtures thereof, and at least one element selected from a group comprising Te, Se, S, O, Sb, As, P, N, C, Ga or mixtures thereof, c) drying the composition deposited at step b), d) applying at least one coating onto at least one side of the substrate onto which the composition was deposited at step b), wherein the coating contains silane of general formula (Z1)Si(OR)3, where Z1 is R, OR or Gly (Gly=3-glycidyloxypropyl), and R is an alkyl residue with 1-18 carbon atoms, and R can be identical or different, oxide particles selected from a group comprising oxides of Ti, Si, Zr, Al, Y, Sn, Zn, Ce or mixtures thereof, and an initiator, wherein the coating preferably contains 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane and/or 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane and/or N-2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane, and e) drying the coating applied at step d). The composition at step b) and/or the coating at step d) contain at least one pigment which reflects infrared radiation, and said pigment has a core coated by an electroconductive layer which contains tin oxides and/or titanium oxides. The invention also discloses use of the coated substrate obtained using the disclosed method as wall-paper.

EFFECT: method enables cheap production of a coated substrate capable of reflecting infrared radiation, and simplifies facing buildings.

33 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coat and method of coating outer surfaces. Proposed method of coating pipeline outer surfaces by polymer capable of forming cross-links under action of water comprises the following stages: a) pipeline outer surface is coated by, at least, one polymer that forms cross-links under action of water. Note here that said polymer represents HDPE grafted by alkoxy silane. b) Polymer is cross linked on subjecting it to water at increased temperature to produce cross-linked polymer layer unless cross linking degree makes ≥30% to ≤80%. c) Polymer is cross linked that can form cross links under action of water at ≥50°C to ≤350°C, preferably at ≥150°C to ≤300°C, more preferably at ≥200°C to ≤260°C. Note here that during these stages, pipeline is heated to ≥170°C to ≤230°C, preferably to ≥180°C to ≤220°C, more preferably to ≥190°C to ≤210°C. Powder ionic spraying method is used epoxy resin layer is applied with thickness of ≥0.08 to ≤0.16 mm, preferably of ≥0.10 to ≤0.13 mm, more preferably, 0.125 mm. Method of envelopment extrusion is used to apply a layer of glue with thickness of ≥0.15 mm to ≤0.30 mm, preferable of ≥0.22 mm to ≤0.27 mm, more preferably of 0.25 mm. By method of extrusion, applied is upper layer of HDPE with thickness of ≥2.8 mm to ≤3.2 mm, preferably of ≥2.9 mm to ≤3.1 mm, more preferably of 3 mm. Extrusion is used to apply layer of HDPE cross linked by silane with thickness of ≥0.8 mm to ≤1.2 mm, preferably of ≥0.9 mm to ≤1.1 mm, more preferably of 1 mm. Now, pipeline is treated by water with temperature of ≥10°C to ≤40°C, preferably of ≥20°C to ≤30°C, more preferably of 25°C. Coat is made as described above. Invention covers also coated pipeline.

EFFECT: improved operating performances and expanded applications.

11 cl, 2 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a foamed vinylaromatic polymer containing a) a matrix obtained via polymerisation of 100 wt % vinylaromatic monomer; b) 1-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) foaming agent incorporated in the polymer matrix; c) 0.01-25 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) technical carbon, characterised by average diametre between 30 and 2000 nm, specific surface area between 5 and 40 m2/g, sulphur content between 0.1 and 1000 parts per million and ash content between 0.001 and 1%; d) 0-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) graphite; e) 0-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) aluminium; f) 0-10 wt % (per amount of polymer (a)) antimony trisulphide, provided that the total amount of components (a)-(f) equals 100, and that concentration of matrix (a) is not less than 80 wt % and at least one of (d)-(f) is present. The invention also describes a foamed article having density between 5 and 50 g/l, characterised by thermal conductivity between 25 and 50 mW/mK, obtained after foaming at temperature several times higher than the glass transition point of the polymer and granules of the vinylaromatic polymer given above. Described is a method of improving insulating capacity of the foamed vinylaromatic polymer given above.

EFFECT: improved insulating capacity of the foamed product.

13 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of treating and modifying materials. Described is a method of preparing materials which protects said materials from UV radiation and ozone using a modifier, involving obtaining the modifier by reacting a stilbene derivative in form of 4,4'-bis(s-triazinyl-)diamine-2,2'-disulphostilbene at temperature of up to 55°C in the presence of water with diamine of carbonic acid in amount of 0.5-55 wt % with respect to weight of said stilbene derivative, and material such as foamed or foamable plastic, cement or concrete is then directly treated with the prepared modifier, and/or active radicals of said modifiers are introduced into the surface of said materials. Described also is a method of preparing materials for their protection from UV radiation and ozone using a modifier, involving obtaining the modifier by inoculating a stilbene derivative in form of 4,4'-bis(s-triazinyl-)diamine-2,2'-disulphostilbene with solid diamine of carbonic acid with crystal size less than 40 mcm at 55°C in the absence of water, by grinding the modifiers in a mill and homogenisation at ambient temperature for more than 4 hours, with amount of diamine of carbonic acid of 0.1-45 wt % with respect to the solid stilbene derivative, and material such as foamed or foamable plastic, cement or concrete is then directly treated with the prepared modifier, and/or active radicals of said modifiers are introduced into the surface of said materials.

EFFECT: elimination of negative effect of UV radiation and ozone on surface of materials.

2 cl, 4 ex

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