Method of producing carboxylic alkyl esters

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved method of producing carboxylic esters via esterification of carboxylic acids and/or re-esterification of carboxylic esters with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a metallic catalyst, in which the reaction takes place at temperature higher than 150°C, said metallic catalyst is an alkali-earth metal salt and an aliphatic carboxylic acid containing 10-24 carbon atoms, and at the end of esterification or re-esterification, respectively, the metallic catalyst is extracted and then reused as a liquid catalyst in the method of producing carboxylic esters via esterification of carboxylic acids and/or re-esterification of carboxylic esters with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst. The advantage of the method lies in that, in the initial mixture, free fatty acids can be present in any concentrations. These free fatty acids are also esterified in the said reaction to fatty acid alkyl esters. Hence, low-quality fat/oil can be processed. Another advantage of the method is that, the esterification/re-esterification reaction can also take place in the presence of water. Thus, water-containing material, particularly hydrous alcohol, can also be used. Unreacted free fatty acids or glycerides are returned for esterification/re-esterification, owing to which no losses occur. In contrast to processes without catalysts, the disclosed method has an advantage in that, the reaction can take place with amounts of alcohol which are a little higher than stoichiometric amounts, which markedly increases profitability of the method.

EFFECT: improved method of producing carboxylic esters.

5 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to a method for producing esters of carboxylic acids by esterification of carboxylic acids or transesterification of esters of carboxylic acids with alcohols in the presence of liquid metal catalyst.

Under transesterification should be understood alcoholysis of triglycerides, i.e. the interaction with the lower alcohols, in particular methanol and ethanol, and as intermediate products are formed di - and monoglycerides complex monoamino fatty acids and glycerin.

The term "triglycerides" refers to esters of higher saturated and/or unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol. Such esters are, for example, the main components of the oils and fats of vegetable or animal origin. Many vegetable fats, and waste waste fats and used cooking oils contain free fatty acids to a greater or lesser extent. So, these fats are a mixture of triglycerides, free fatty acids and other components, and the main component of this mixture, as a rule, are triglycerides.

Esters of fatty acids, in particular methyl ether, are important intermediate products in the chemistry of oils. Only in Europe annually produces 200,000 tonnes of methyl ester from vegetable oils as raw materials, primarily for surfactants. N is the number of this methyl ester of fatty acids is becoming increasingly important as a fuel for diesel engines.

As catalysts for the transesterification can be used basic catalysts (alkali hydroxide, alcoholate, oxides, carbonates, anion exchange resin, acid catalysts (inorganic acid, p-toluensulfonate acid, boron TRIFLUORIDE, cation exchange resin) and enzymes (lipases). At present in the reaction mixture is preferably applied soluble catalysts. They form a homogeneous mixture and provide high speed turning and mild reaction conditions. The most commonly used catalysts are sodium hydroxide and potassium as well as sodium methylate, alcohol solution which is mixed with vegetable oil. A similar method is known from the document AT-B 386 222. Acid catalysis requires elevated temperatures and pressures of the reaction and expensive the reaction. Acid transesterification known from the document FR-A-85 02340.

Transesterification using basic catalysis is carried out, typically without the use of solvent. The reaction begins in the two-phase system of the triglyceride and alcohol, but as the continuation of the reaction and formation of ester forms a homogeneous phase, which is due to the formation and deposition of glycerol is again two-phase and the light phase is untreated alkilany ether fatty acids, and heavy FA is but a phase, enriched with glycerin.

From EP-A1 477 551 known heterogeneous catalytic systems, which consist of salts of transition metals, particularly manganese. In addition, the described catalytic system of the sodium hydroxide/potassium and sodium/potassium soap.

In the document DE-A 19949718 described transesterification in the presence of soap transition metals. Also in the document EP-A1 308 498 describes the reaction of esterification and interesterification in the presence of alkaline soap. As possible catalysts is also known as zinc soap.

From US-A 6818026 known method, which worked in the supercritical state in the presence of solid catalysts. As a catalyst is called, among others, also magnesium oxide. However, given the degree of interesterification with magnesium oxide is only 91%.

In the document US-A 6147196 described three-stage process of interesterification, and two stages belong to the transesterification catalyzed by a heterogeneous catalyst, and one phase to the distillation of ester and separation of the cubic product and return the cubic product to the first stage. As catalysts applied zinc aluminate, however, this catalyst does not reach distillation and is not returned with kubovy product.

In the document US-A 6187939, in contrast, describes a method without catalyst sverkhkriticheskie the second area.

In the document DE-A 19942541 describes the esterification and transesterification of carboxylic acids and esters of carboxylic acids in the presence of heavy metals as a catalyst.

The methods of the prior art have, in particular, the disadvantage that the reaction proceeds with loss, because, inter alia, in the reaction mixture still has a lot of free fatty acids. This has led to the present invention, which aims to eliminate this disadvantage.

The method according to the invention obtain esters of carboxylic acids by esterification of carboxylic acids or transesterification of esters of carboxylic acids with alcohols in the presence of liquid metal catalyst, characterized in that the liquid metal catalyst is a salt of alkaline earth metal carboxylic acid.

Alkaline earth metal is preferably magnesium, and carboxylic acid is preferably an aliphatic carboxylic acid, in particular, with 10-24 carbon atoms in the molecule.

As alcohol is preferably used aliphatic monohydroxy alcohol, in particular methanol or ethanol.

As tarifitsiruemih or praeteritorum esters of carboxylic acids are used, in particular triglycerides, which preferably are fats and oils to grow in the nutrient or animal origin, in particular used edible oils and waste fats.

In the method according to the invention, carboxylic acids and esters of carboxylic acids, such as fats and/or oils and/or animal origin, aeriferous and/or preteritions alcohols, for example, from the group monatomic C1-C4alcohols with getting alilovic esters of carboxylic acids.

The catalysts can be formed before the reaction of esterification or interesterification by reacting an inorganic metal compounds such as metal oxides and/or hydroxides of metals with carboxylic acids, for example fatty acids.

The reaction takes place preferably at elevated temperature. In particular, at temperatures above 150°C, preferably above 200°C. the Pressure in the reaction corresponds to the vapour pressure of the mixture at the same temperature and, if necessary, can also be installed above the vapour pressure, for example up to 20 bar above.

In the method according to the invention the degree of conversion in the esterification and interesterification reach more than 90%. After the reaction stage, the reaction mixture was separated, and receive the following products: unreacted alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters of carboxylic acids, and water from the source of the products formed in react and alcohols, esters of carboxylic acids and water, and a catalyst.

The steps of the method will be described on the example of obtaining esters of fatty acids from oils and/or fats, which can also contain free fatty acids and water, by esterification and interesterification alcohol, for example, from the group of C1-C4of spirits.

In the reaction of fats and oils under the action used alcohol become in the interesterification in esters of fatty acids and glycerol. Free fatty acids react with used with alcohol esters of fatty acids and water. After the first reaction from the reaction mixture allocate excess alcohol present in the reaction mixture the water. This preferably occurs by separation of the evaporation of alcohol and water. However, the separation may also be carried out using membrane method or by adsorption and extractive method.

After separation of water and alcohol from the mixture stand out unreacted mono-, di - or triglycerides, a catalyst (for example, Soaps of metals and low volatile impurities. As separated in this way the mixture contains a catalyst, hereinafter it will be called the catalytic mixture. This separation can be carried out by a membrane method, a crystallization method, an adsorption method, or method of extraction. It is also possible branch is only the catalyst with an ion-exchange resin. However, preferably the separation is carried out by distillation. In distillation apparatus, preferably at a pressure below atmospheric (0,1-10 abs. mbar), the phase of ester of fatty acids and glycerin phase as a main fraction is separated from the catalytic mixture which accumulates as VAT product.

If necessary, before separating the catalytic mixture from the phase of glycerol or of ester of fatty acids can be added to a mixture of the reaction stage containing a metallic compound (for example, oxides or hydroxides), which subsequently forms a metal Soaps. While free fatty acids, which are present in the reaction mixture, Malaysia, allowing easier separation of the catalyst mixture from the phase of ester and glycerol. This addition of the metal compounds can also be carried out before or after separation of the alcohol and/or water. Due to this there is also the opportunity to enter into the process the catalyst.

If necessary, before separating the catalytic mixture can distinguish phases of esters of fatty acids and glycerin phase and separation of the catalyst mixture from the phase esters of fatty acids and glycerin phase. In this case, you can apply the same methods mentioned above, preferably by distillation.

Phase of ester of fatty acids with EB the PA division of the catalytic mixture can be further purification process. As the purification method is suitable washing of polar liquids and ion-exchange method, absorption method, extractive method or additional stages of distillation.

Purified phase of ester of fatty acids can be used, for example, as fuel. Obtained after separation of the catalyst mixture phase of glycerol may be conducted at the following stages of treatment. These cleaning steps may include the processes of ion exchange, absorption, extractive processes and distillation. After distillation and subsequent processing of the activated carbon can be obtained, for example, pharmaceutical glycerin.

The obtained catalytic mixture may without further processing again to return to new reaction stage (esterification or interesterification) and there again to act as a catalyst for the reaction of esterification and interesterification. However, you can also select the catalyst of the catalytic mixture and return to a pure form. Catalyst separation can be carried out using deposition method, crystallization, membrane method, the method of ion exchange, adsorption, extraction method or by the method of distillation. A special feature is the deposition of compounds of alkali/alkaline earth metals with water. Oxidation catalytic mixture can be decomposed into organises the e components of this mixture and return the metals in the form of inorganic compounds on the stage of the reaction or to her. These metal compounds under the action of carboxylic acids again become necessary catalytic compounds.

The obtained catalytic mixture can be returned, in whole or in part. Partial conclusion the catalytic mixture has the advantage that thereby the process will be also displayed impurities.

The return can be performed or directly in the reaction volume, or in the feed material before it is fed into the reaction volume.

For the first stage of the esterification reaction and a transesterification can be followed by further reaction stages, and educated by-products (mainly water and formed alcohols) can be separated preferably after each reaction step, and, if necessary, at each reaction stage, the reaction mixture is added the catalyst, and a new spirit. The reaction may be conducted in batch or continuous mode, and from the point of view of saving energy should be preferred continuous process with heat recovery.

The method according to the invention provides significant advantages, primarily in the production of esters of fatty acids of vegetable and/or animal fats and/or oils by esterification and/or transesterification with alcohols, for example, from the group of C1-C4the alcohols. In contrast to the method described in the document DE-A 19942541, the method according to the invention gives significantly higher rate of transformation. Comparative examples also show that the esterification proceeds very well, especially with magnesium soap and the reaction mixture is almost not present any free fatty acids. This gives advantages in the separation of the reaction mixture, as, for example, by distillation of free fatty acids partially submitted to the head product from esters of fatty acids, which as a complex ester of fatty acids is deteriorating.

The most common methods of obtaining esters of fatty acids from fats and oils by transesterification with alcohol work on the main catalysts. These methods can only go with the raw material essentially containing no water and fatty acids. In this process the catalyst is destroyed, constantly bring a new catalyst, with costs, respectively, are high. For example, KOH, one should expect the cost of catalyst at about 7-9 euros per tonne of ester of fatty acids. In the method according to the invention the catalyst is regenerated, making the cost of the catalyst in the method according to the invention comprise less than 1 Euro per tonne of ester of fatty acids.

This method has the advantage that in the original mixture of free fatty acids can is also be present in any concentration. These free fatty acids in this reaction also aeriferous to alilovic esters of fatty acids. Thereby, it is possible to process the fats/oils of low quality. Another decisive advantage of the method is that the reaction of esterification/transesterification can be carried out in the presence of water. Thereby, it is possible to use water-based raw materials, in particular water-containing alcohols.

Unreacted free fatty acids or glycerides also returned to the esterification/transesterification, which does not have any losses.

Unlike processes without catalysts method according to the invention gives the advantage that the reaction can be carried out with quantities of alcohol, slightly in excess of stoichiometric, which again improves the profitability of the way, as the cost of removing alcohol less significant than the method without catalyst.

With the help of the following example are described in more detail preferred variants of the method according to the invention.

Example 1

Conducted a comparative test a number of different catalysts for the esterification or transesterification of esters of carboxylic acids. We used the following chemicals:

rapeseed oil from rapeseed varieties "00", refined, neutralized, deodorized, misuse is Noah,

oleic acid technically pure,

methanol technically pure,

deionized water;

as catalysts for technical purity:

tetrabutyltin,

dibutyltindilaurate,

magnesium stearate

calcium stearate,

sodium stearate.

With all of these catalysts was carried out the following experiments.

Each time 150 g of rapeseed oil, 37.5 g of oleic acid and 123 g of methanol was mixed with indicated in table 1 amount of catalyst and brought into reaction in a laboratory autoclave at 210°C continued for 30 minutes. After the reaction was determined by the concentration of methyl ester of fatty acids (FS-methyl ether) in the phase of ester, which are listed in table 1.

the 9.7
Table 1
CatalystThe catalyst [mol cat./ kg oil]Qty of metal [g met./ kg oil]Diglyceride [wt.%]Diglycerides [wt.%]Monoglycerides [wt.%]Free fatty acid [wt.%]FS-methyl ether [wt.%]
Tetrabutyltinof 0.0663,2 5.5the 9.711,34,869,0
Magnesium stearate0,1343,30,31,84,30,192,2
Dibutyltindilaurate0.0273,21,18,811,84,272,7
Calcium stearate0,0803,20,42,36,44,086,8
Sodium stearatewas 0.1383.29,914,213,16,256,
Tetrabutyltin0,1346,41,7the 5.7the 3.879,1
Dibutyltindilaurate0,13415,90,46,18,4the 3.880,0

It is obvious that with an equal amount of metal in the mixture in the case of compounds of alkaline earth metals could be achieved significantly better transformation. This is true for both weight ratios and molar ratios.

The total reaction product was placed in a laboratory distillation apparatus. In this distillation apparatus, first at normal pressure from the reaction mixture drove methanol and water. Then at a pressure of about 0.5 mbar was fractionally by distillation of the basic amount of the phase of the methyl ester and the glycerin phase. ORGANOMETALLIC compounds, which act as the catalyst remained in the distillation as residue. This residue was again mixed with rapeseed oil and oleic acid, and methanol and again conducted on the reaction of esterification/transesterification. Selected quantitative correlation can be seen from table 2.

Table 2
CatalystOil, fatty acids, catalytic mixture [g]Methanol [g]The phase composition of esters after reaction
Triglycerides [wt.%]Diglycerides [wt.%]Monogatari
dy [wt.%]
Free fatty acid [wt.%]Esters of fatty acids [wt.%]
Tetrabutyltin190,79124,01,65,99,5the 4.778,2
Magnesium stearate187,55121,90,12,55,00,192,4
Dibutyltindilaurate193.3 M.125,72,56,59,84,876,4
Calcium stearate187,74122,10,12,36,44,086,8
Sodium stearate182,76ll8,81,87,214,24,072,8

Conditions for the second reaction stage again was chosen so that the product was aged for 30 minutes at a temperature of 210°C. the Content of methyl ester in the phase of methyl ester after this second reaction stage are also presented in table 2. Clearly visible higher output with catalysts based on alkali-earth metals.

After the second reaction mixture was fractionally by distillation (separation of methanol and water) and then spent the distillation of the methyl ester and glycerol. Phase of ester with both distillations was separated from the phase of glycerol (by sedimentation under gravity) and then washed with 0.5 wt.% water. Thus obtained ester meet the quality requirements of standard EN 14214. The outputs that can be obtained with some of the catalysts are given in table 3. Clearly, CTOs catalysts based on alkali-earth metals was achieved much better outputs, than with catalysts based on heavy metals.

Table 3
The yield of methyl ester of fatty acids in the calculation of the used amount of oil and fatty acids
Tetrabutyltin74%
Magnesium stearate94%
Dibutyltindilaurate77%
Calcium stearate88%
Sodium stearate68%

Example 2

In 2 series of experiments in operating in continuous mode the pilot installation every time in the continuation of the 5 days were processed following raw materials: used cooking oil with a content of free fatty acids, about 7% (used cooking oil: household waste edible oil and oil from catering contained a mixture of different vegetable and animal fats and oils, free fatty acids, water, and other impurities, for example, from the process of cooking in deep fat, and animal fat from plants butchering animals with a content of free fatty acids of about 14%.

As the catalyst used oleate is Agnes. To obtain catalysts 4 kg of magnesium oxide and 44 kg of oleic acid was brought into reaction at 60°C for 2 hours and then kept at the ready for processing oils and fats.

Processing includes the following steps: first, a mixture of oil/fat was mixed with methanol and a catalyst. This mixture was pumped from the mixing device by a pump into the receiving tank. From the receiving tank mixture with another pump was continuously pumped into the installation with the capacity of 25 l/h of the First mixture is conducted through a heat exchanger and heated to 215°C. After the heat exchanger, the mixture is flowed down through the reactor, the residence time in the reactor was 30 minutes, with the help of located after reactor throttle valve set pressure 50 absbr.

In the heat exchanger and the reaction apparatus was leaking desired esterification reaction (free fatty acids and methanol with methyl ester of fatty acids and water) and the interesterification reaction (glycerides and methanol in methyl ester of fatty acids and glycerol). Through a throttle valve, the pressure of the reaction mixture was shot to atmospheric, and the methanol and water were evaporated and separated in the following flash evaporation apparatus. The remaining mixture was carried out on the next stage of degassing, which was conducted at a temperature of 140°C and an absolute pressure of 50 mbar,due to what was removed residual amounts of water and methanol.

After this degassing the remaining mixture in a continuous mode were separated in the distillation unit vacuum on CBM product containing mainly unreacted glycerides, fatty acid, a catalyst and a minor amount of methyl ester, and the main product that was received in the form of two liquid phases: phase methyl ester and the glycerin phase. These phases are conducted through the apparatus gravitational deposition and in this way separated from each other. Phase glycerin contained about 99.5% glycerol. Phase methyl ester was washed with 0.5 wt.% water in the mixer, the aqueous phase separated in the apparatus of gravitational sedimentation and phase of ester was then dried in the drying device with instant evaporation at 120°C and an absolute pressure of about 100 bar. Then methyl ester had a quality which complies with the standard EN 14214. Not only managed to achieve the required values CFPP (limit temperature of the cold point) for winter conditions in the case of ether animal fat and used cooking fat. CBM product was collected in a container and then mixed in a mixing device with the following raw material and thus, again used for the catalysis of these reactions.

This process was carried out continuously for each raw material in 5 days around the clock. In the following table 4 shows to the number of components, which was processed or received.

Table 4
DownloadProductsMethyl ether
The oil/fatMethanolCatalystWaterMethyl etherGlycerinWaste waterMethanolCBM productOutput
Used cooking oil846,0691,710,27,6820,080,08,3600,447,0to 96.9%
Animal fat842,0615,410,47,2827,0 81.57,9534,331,0of 98.2%

Used cooking oil had a polymer content of 5.5%. Since the release of methyl ester of fatty acids used for edible oil is almost 97%, these polymers also mostly converted into methyl ester. As the product of the concentration of the polymer was less than 1%.

Comparative example

Specified in example 2, the number of source materials: used cooking oil and animal fat, mixed, according to the prior art, with methanolate potassium and methanol, in order to carry out the transesterification to the corresponding methyl ester. For this purpose at first was to dissolve the potassium hydroxide (including, OK. 88%) in methanol (including). The number was chosen so as to obtain a solution with a KOH concentration of 8%. This solution was mixed with these fats in a ratio of oil : solution = 10 : 1,5. After 20 minutes of reaction at about 40°C and the subsequent period of sedimentation 12 hours there was no phase separation, the catalyst (potassium methylate) was inactive due to saponification reactions from those present in the raw material fatty acids. After addition, the reaction mixture was concentrated sulphuric acid to pH 4 correspond to the traveler, the reaction mixture was separated into an oil/fat phase and the phase of methanol/glycerol. The output of the methyl ester in the oil/fat phase was only about 15%.

1. The method of obtaining esters of carboxylic acids by esterification of carboxylic acids and/or transesterification of esters of carboxylic acids with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a metal catalyst, wherein the reaction is carried out at a temperature higher than 150°C, the specified metal catalyst is a salt of alkaline earth metal and an aliphatic carboxylic acid containing from 10 to 24 carbon atoms, and the fact that at the end of the esterification or interesterification, respectively, the metal catalyst is isolated and this highlighted the catalyst was again used as the liquid catalyst in the production method of esters of carboxylic acids by esterification of carboxylic acids and/or transesterification complex esters of carboxylic acids with methanol or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the alkaline earth metal is magnesium.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the alkaline earth metal is calcium.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as esterified or preterition ether carboxylic acids used triglycerides.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that as triglycerides apply W the market and oils of vegetable or animal origin.



 

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Fuel composition // 2423411

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquid hydrocarbon fuels with additives, particularly flameproof water-fuel microemulsions. Described is a fuel composition which contains diesel fuel, water, diethanolamide of oleic acid, diethanolamine soap of oleic acid, diethanolamine, and additionally containing a monoester of oleic acid and dioxyethylpiperazine, a composition of C4-C7 alcohols, and the diesel fuel contained in the composition is winter diesel, with the following ratio of components in wt %: diethanolamide of oleic acid 3.960-4.840; diethanolamine soap of oleic acid 1.199-1.465; diethanolamine 0.507-0.620; monoester of oleic acid and dioxyethylpiperazine 0.400-0.488; composition of C4-C7 alcohols 0.594-0.727; water 9.0-11.0; winter diesel fuel - the rest up to 100.

EFFECT: wider temperature interval of using flameproof diesel fuels.

6 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to additive improving wear resistant properties of low-sulphur diesel fuels. The additive contains distilled tall oil or fraction of fat acids of tall oil in mixture with quaternary ammonia derivatives on base of amines of tall oil at ratio from 0.66:1 to 4:1.

EFFECT: additive of enhanced wear resistant efficiency in diesel fuels.

2 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of alkylphenol-aldehyde resins and nitrogen-containing polymers in improving electroconductivity of oil distillates with low water content and to oil distillates with additives. The invention discloses oil distillates with water content less than 150 pts/mln and electroconductivity of not less than 50 pS/m, containing at least one alkylphenol-aldehyde resin in amount of 0.1-200 pts/mln and at least one nitrogen-containing polymer in amount of 0.1-200 pts/mln, selected from a) comb-like polymers containing units formed from C4-C40 alkyl monomers and at least one nitrogen-containing comonomer, b) copolymers of ethylene with unsaturated ethylene and nitrogen-containing comonomers, c) polymeric polyamines obtained via condensation of the aliphatic primary monoamine or N-alkyl-alkylenediamine with epichlorohydrin or glycidol. The invention also discloses versions of the method of improving electroconductivity of oil distillates, additives for oil distillates, as well as use of the alkylphenol-aldehyde resin and composition based on said resin in improving electroconductivity of oil distillates.

EFFECT: additives which are efficient at low temperatures and also improve low-temperature fluidity of fuel distillates.

18 cl, 3 tbl, 59 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of alkylphenol-aldehyde resin and polar nitrogen compounds dissolved in oil distillates for increasing electroconductivity of oil distillates with low water content, as well as to oil distillates with additives. The invention discloses use of compositions containing at least one alkylphenol-aldehyde resin (component I) in amount of 0.1-200 pts/mln with a structural element of formula

where: R5 denotes an alkyl with 1-200 carbon atoms or an alkenyl with 2-200 carbon atoms, O-R6 or O-C(O)-R6, R6 denotes an alkyl with 1-200 carbon atoms or an alkenyl with 2-200 carbon atoms, n is a number varying from 2 to 100, and at least one polar nitrogen compound (component II) which is soluble in jet fuel, petrol, diesel, in amount of 0.1-200 pts/mln, in order to improve electroconductivity of different types of fuel.

EFFECT: sharp increase in electroconductivity and considerably more reliable use of different types of fuel at low temperatures compared to existing additives.

16 cl, 4 tbl, 61 ex

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: composition includes oil diesel fuel, biological component such as vegetable or animal oil or fat and mixture of fuel additives. Mixture of fuel additives contains a cetane increasing additive, a dehydrating additive, a detergent additive, a lubricating additive and a depressant. The procedure consists in filtering biological component through a polyester filter and in bringing non-soluble and unsaponifiables to a specified value. Filtrate is settled in conic tanks, and sedimentation is removed. Further, there is added oil diesel fuel which is mixed at certain temperature. Mixture of fuel additives is added to premix and mixed. Thus produced mixture is pumped over to conic tanks, is conditioned at ambient temperature, is settled, and sedimentation is removed. Successively, mixture is filtered, centrifuged in a centrifugal separator and prepared fuel composition is pumped over to storage tanks.

EFFECT: produced fuel is equivalent to summer diesel fuel of 2-D grade from viewpoint of engine power and rpm; it facilitates more pure combustion and is essentially less expensive; also, composition functions as biocide for bacteria growth inhibition.

14 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: in the method of producing high-octane additive for motor fuel, which involves sulphuric hydration, said hydration is carried out with a mixture of ethylene- and propylene-containing gases - a product of pyrolysis of hydrocarbon material by feeding said material into a first reactor for hydration of propylene from a mixture of sulphuric acid gases to obtain isopropyl sulphuric acid, further hydrolysis thereof to obtain a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water, feeding the remaining mixture of gases into a second reactor for hydration of ethylene from the mixture of sulphuric acid gases to obtain ethyl sulphuric acid, further hydrolysis thereof to obtain a mixture of ethyl alcohol and water, fractionation of the mixture of isopropyl and ethyl alcohol and water to obtain the end product.

EFFECT: high stability and antiknock properties of the high-octane additive, low power consumption and reduced production wastes, which ensure high profitability of oil refining.

11 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for reducing chill point and dynamic viscosity and also for prevention of formation of pyrobitumen waxy-resin sediments (PWRS) at oil transportation and storage. Here is disclosed the depressant of complex action including ethylene copolymer with polar monomer, non-ionogenic surface active substance (NSAS) and aromatic solvent. Also, the depressant additionally contains triple copolymer of vinyl-pyrrolidone, alkyl-acrylate and methacrylic acid and/or copolymer of isobutylene with isoprene at the following ratio of components, wt %: ethylene copolymer with polar monomer - 2.0 - 30.0; triple copolymer of vinyl-pyrrolidone, alkyl-acrylate and methacrylic acid and/or copolymer of isobutylene with isoprene 5.0 - 10.0; non-ionogenic surface active substance - 1.0 - 10.0; aromatic solvent - the rest. Additionally, there is disclosed the procedure for transporting waxy-resin and low watered oil consisting in introducing reagent into oil flow. As the reagent there is used the above described depressant of complex action. The depressant is introduced into oil flow proportionally.

EFFECT: simplified oil processing, reduced cost of oil transporting.

2 cl, 37 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: multifunctional motor gasoline additive contains the following in wt %: hexamethylene diammonium tetraborate 8.0-10.0, stearic acid 35.0-40.0, 180…350°C hydrocarbon fraction up to 100.

EFFECT: improved operational and environmental characteristics of fuel, low content of toxic substances in exhaust gases of motorcars.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: anti-wear additive is used for low-sulphur diesel fuel in form of composition. The additive contains distilled tall oil or tall fat acids and head fraction of hydro-dewaxed diesel fuel at weigh ratio equal to (1-5): 1 correspondingly.

EFFECT: improved physic-chemical and consumer properties of additive, and high resistance to water, avoiding usage of de-emulsifier.

7 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to multi-functional additive to automobile petroleum, which contains the following, wt %: methyl tertiary butyl ether 20-40; detergent additive containing friction modifier (Hitech 6437) up to 10; colour stabiliser - diethylamine or triethylene tetramine 0.01-0.2; anti-knock additive on the basis of aromatic amines, which includes N-methylaniline as the main component, is the rest. Invention also refers to fuel composition for internal combustion engines. Automobile petroleum by using the proposed additive meets the general requirements of European Standards.

EFFECT: additive within the proposed range and ratio of components together with high anti-knock detergent and corrosion-protecting properties has colour stability after 1 year of storage.

2 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: raw material composition based on fatty acids or esters of fatty acids, obtained by hydrolysis of oil from seeds or by re-etherification of oil from seeds with C1-8-alkanol, contains more than 70 wt % of unsaturated fatty oleic acid, and less than 1.5 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of composition, after purification with adsorbent. Admixture contains one or more organic hydroperoxides. Method of olefin methathesis lies in contacting of raw composition, obtained from seed oil and containing one or more unsaturated fatty acids or esters of unsaturated fatty acids, with lower olefin in presence of catalyst based on phosphororganic transition metal complex. Used raw material composition contains less than 25 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of raw material composition, able to inhibit methathesis catalyst. As a result of reaction olefin with shortened chain and unsaturated acid or unsaturated ester with shortened chain is obtained. Method of obtaining complex polyether polyepoxide lies in carrying out the following stages. At the first stage raw material compositiojn, obtained from seed oil, containing one or more unsaturated fatty acids or esters of fatty acids, contacts with lower olefin in presence of olefin methathesis catalyst. Used raw material composition contains less than 25 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of composition. At the second stage (re)etherification of obtained unsaturated acid with shortened chain or unsaturated ester with shortened chain with polyol is carried out. At the third stage epoxidation of obtained complex polyether polyolefin is carried out with epoxidising agent optionally in presence of catalyst. Method of obtaining α,ω-oxoacid, complex α,ω-oxyester and/or α,ω-diol with shortened chain lies in carrying out the following stages. At the first stage raw material composition, obtained from seed oil, containing one or more unsaturated fatty acids or esters of fatty acids contacts with lower olefin in presence of olefin methathesis catalyst. Used raw material composition contains less than 25 milliequivalents of admixture(s), poisoning methathesis catalyst, per kilogram of composition. At the second stage hydroformilation is carried out with hydrating of obtained unsaturated acid or ester with shortened chain in presence of hydroformiolation/hydration catalyst.

EFFECT: increase of catalyst serviceability and obtaining chemical compounds with high productivity.

25 cl, 3 tbl, 12 ex

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