Fuel composition

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquid hydrocarbon fuels with additives, particularly flameproof water-fuel microemulsions. Described is a fuel composition which contains diesel fuel, water, diethanolamide of oleic acid, diethanolamine soap of oleic acid, diethanolamine, and additionally containing a monoester of oleic acid and dioxyethylpiperazine, a composition of C4-C7 alcohols, and the diesel fuel contained in the composition is winter diesel, with the following ratio of components in wt %: diethanolamide of oleic acid 3.960-4.840; diethanolamine soap of oleic acid 1.199-1.465; diethanolamine 0.507-0.620; monoester of oleic acid and dioxyethylpiperazine 0.400-0.488; composition of C4-C7 alcohols 0.594-0.727; water 9.0-11.0; winter diesel fuel - the rest up to 100.

EFFECT: wider temperature interval of using flameproof diesel fuels.

6 ex, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to liquid hydrocarbon fuels with additives, in particular fire-water-fuel microemulsions, and may find application in diesel engines operating in conditions of high fire hazard.

The use of water-fuel emulsions (VTE) in internal combustion engines is of great practical importance. For example, the reverse water-fuel emulsion, namely, when the dispersion medium is a hydrocarbon fuel, and the dispersed phase is water, reduce the amount of hydrocarbon fuel, reduce emissions, reduce the heat density of the engine.

Already known fuel composition comprising a hydrocarbon fuel, water and surfactant, the so-called emulsifiers (Wmevent. "Fuel emulsion) Of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1962, p.10-15).

Known fuel composition based diesel fuel containing water, diethanolamide oleic acid (60%), diethanolamine soap of oleic acid (8-14%), diethanolamine (16-24%) and oleic acid (0-7,5) (U.S. Patent No. 4173455, C10L 1/18, publ. 1979).

Despite the fact that in the known compositions used relatively small amount of emulsifier (8% to 10% of water), the emulsion stability is insufficient (6 months).

Known fuel emulsion of hydrocarbons is one of the fuel with the addition of water (5-20%), emulsifier - oleate of monoethanolamine (3-5%), aliphatic alcohols (13-20%) and methanol (4-6%) (Avts No. 1225849, C10L 1/32, 1984)

Known emulsion, as noted by the authors, stable at low temperatures, but the content up to 20% of aliphatic alcohols makes it a fire hazard during operation, and 6% methanol toxic and environmentally harmful.

Closest to the technical nature of the invention and taken for the prototype is a fuel composition, which consists of summer diesel fuel, water (1.0 to 20.0%) and emulsifier consisting of diethanolamine oleic acid (0,227-4,505%), diethanolamine soap of oleic acid (of 0.066-1.314 GC%), monoether of oleic acid and diethanolamine (0,084-kzt1.664%), monoether of amerosport and oleic acid (0.104 g-2,056%) and diethanolamine (0,053-1,060%) RU (Patent of Russia № 2266947, C10L 1/22, 11.08.2004,).

Although known fuel composition as a microemulsion, has a high stability (up to 1 year) and fire safety while reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere, it can only be used in summer, similar to summer diesel fuels recommended for operation at an ambient temperature of 0°C and above.

The technical result of the invention is the extension of the temperature range fireproof diesel fuels, for which the efficiency of the use of fuel composition in autumn and spring when the temperature is minus 10°C, i.e. to increase the range of winter diesel fuels while maintaining high stability of the composition and fire safety while reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the known fuel composition containing diesel fuel, water, diethanolamide oleic acid, diethanolamine soap of oleic acid, diethanolamine, according to the invention additionally contains monoether oleic acid and diacetylhydrazine, the composition of alcohols With4-C7and as a diesel fuel includes diesel fuel in the winter in the following ratio, wt.%:

Diethanolamide oleic acid3,960-4,840
Diethanolamine soap of oleic acid1,199-1,465
Diethanolamin0,507-0,620
Monoether oleic acid and diacetylpyridine0,400-0,488
The composition of the alcohols With4-C70,594-0,727
Water9,0-11,0
Diesel is the fuel of winter the rest is up to 100

The set of used components aimed at improving the efficiency of fuel composition due to the use of it in the autumn-spring period at a temperature of minus 10°C, i.e. to increase the range of winter diesel fuels while maintaining high stability of the composition and fire safety while reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

It should be noted that if the fuel composition is not used in autumn and spring, it can be used along with fireproof diesel fuel summer (PBB-L).

Emulsifier consisting of diethanolamine oleic acid, diethanolamine soap of oleic acid, diethanolamine, monoether oleic acid and diacetylhydrazine, received in the result of the synthesis of oleic acid (THE 9145-172-7431297-94 "Oleic acid. Technical conditions") and diethanolamine (TU 6-09-2652-86 "Diethanolamin. Technical conditions"), held at certain correlations between these components and operating parameters obtained experimentally by the authors. In the final product of the synthesis of type composition of alcohols With4-C7. The composition of the alcohols With4-C7(butyl, isobutyl, amyl, isoamyl, etc.) were optimized in terms of temperature opacities and the established temperature filterability.

Ready mix authors called emulsifier "Amicron COP", which is controlled by the acid number according to GOST 5985-59 "Petroleum products. Method for the determination of acidity and acid number", the value of which should be in the range of 25.0-30.0 mg KOH/g and an amine number of at p. THE 0257-067-04838697-2007 within 80,0 to 90.0 mg HCl/g Emulsifier "Amicron COP" is an easy flowing light brown liquid.

To substantiate the quantitative composition of the fuel compositions were prepared samples, the composition of which is presented in table 1.

Table 1
The composition of the fuel compositions
Components of the fuel compositionContent, wt.% the composition of
PrototypeSamples
No. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4No. 5No. 6
234 5678
1Diethanolamide oleic acidof 2.2673,5203,9604,4004,8405,280
2Diethanolamine soap of oleic acid0,6611,0661,1991,3321,4651,598
3Diethanolaminof 0.5330,4510,5070,5640,6200,677
4Monoether of oleic acid and diethanolamine0,837-----
5Monoether of amerosport and oleic acid1,035 -----
6Monoether oleic acid and diacetylpyridine-0,3550,4000,4440,488of 0.533
7The composition of the alcohols With4-C7-0,5280,5940,6600,7270,792
8Water10,008,0009,00010,00011,00012,000
9Diesel summer84,667-----
10Winter diesel fuel- 86,08084,34082,60080,86079,120

Presented in table 1, the samples underwent laboratory tests.

Studies of the prepared compositions was conducted the following laboratory methods: stability interdepartmental method included in THE 0251-015-081511164-2007, cetane number according to GOST 3122 "diesel Fuel. The method of determining the cetane number by matching flares", the kinematic viscosity according to GOST 33 "Oil. Method for the determination of kinematic viscosity, temperature limit filterability according to GOST 22254 "diesel Fuel. Method of determination of the maximum temperature point, the cloud point according to GOST 5066 "Fuel motor. Methods for the determination of cloud point and the beginning of crystallization, freezing temperature according to GOST 20287 "Petroleum products. Methods for the determination of the freezing temperature and the probability of ignition and flash methods within the Complex of methods of assessing fire hazard of fuel and lubricants and special fluids", in field conditions under the direct standard weapons on the fuel tanks filled with fuel compositions.

The test results presented in table 2.

Table 2
The results of the test fuel compositions
IndicatorsRequirements THE 0251-015-081511164-2007Song
PrototypeSamples
No. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4No. 5No. 6
12345678
1AppearanceHomogeneous transparent or light liquidHomogeneous light liquidHomogeneous light liquidUniform with
opalescence liquid
Homogeneous transparent liquidUniform ol the transparent liquid Homogeneous light liquid
2Stability, monthNot less than 12121212121212
3Cetane number, unitAt least 40424848484642
4Kinematic viscosity at 20°C, mm/sNot more than 15,011,24,56,07,38,08,7
5The cloud point, °CNot higher than minus 12Minus 5Minus 16Minus 13Minus 12Minus 12Minus 9
6Pour point, °CNot higher than minus 25-Below minus 45Below minus 45Below minus 45Below minus 45Below minus 45
7The maximum temperature point, °C.Not higher than minus 12Minus 5Minus 19Minus 18Minus 17Minus 16Minus 10
8The probability of ignition %01000000
9The likelihood of the outbreak, %5010055504545

According to the results of the conducted research it was determined the network effect of each component of the emulsifier, namely:

diethanolamide oleic acid is the major surface-active component of the emulsifier, providing crushing drops;

diethanolamine soap of oleic acid regulates the optimum hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (products HLB) emulsifier;

diethanolamin facilitates obtaining a microemulsion;

monoether oleic acid and diacetylpyridine improves the stability of the microemulsion at temperatures below 0°C;

the composition of alcohols C4-C7improves low temperature properties of the microemulsion.

According to the requirements of THE 0251-015-081511164-2007 "Fuel fireproof diesel winter (PBB-3)" rate for the indicator "Cetane number" meet not less than 40 samples No. 2-6, the norm on the kinematic viscosity at 20°C not more than 15.0 mm /s satisfy the samples No. 2-6, normal to the maximum temperature point not higher than minus 12°C satisfy the samples No. 2-5. Evaluation indicators of the probability of ignition and flash the best characteristics have samples No. 3-6.

Thus, samples No. 3-5 on all indicators meet the requirements of THE 0251-015-081511164-2007 "Fuel fireproof diesel winter (PBB-H)".

Sample 4 (the best option) was prepared by an experienced party in autocompletesource ATM-5-4320 volume of 5000 litres.

Fuel composition prigotovit who are by mixing the components in a particular capacity (bowser, tank, cask, canister, etc.).

The temperature of all components before preparing should not be below minus 10°C. For the preparation of the composition in the container is pumped required number of winter diesel fuel 4130 liters (calculated on the basis of the amount of used capacity and according to table 1, sample No. 4), then it adds the calculated amount of emulsifier, 370 liters (according to the invention), and stirred for 10 minutes with the pump, enabled "on the ring" (if the composition is prepared in a barrel, then simply rolling).

In the mixture when the pump add required amount of water, in this case 500 litres of water systems Moscow), continue the stirring for the time required to pump the entire volume of the tank, which is used by mixing pump (if it is a barrel or canister, then after adding water rolling capacity is carried out within 20 minutes).

The criterion for the end of the mixing is the appearance of selected samples, which should be transparent or light liquid.

The appearance of the obtained emulsion is the main criterion of its quality (stability), since the transparency of the fluid indicates that the particle size of the dispersed phase of less than 1 μm. Amul the FIC with such a particle size of the dispersed phase are microemulsions, which are thermodynamic stable systems (Mittal K. Micellization, solubilization and microemulsions. - M.: Mir, 1980. - S. 597, Il).

A pilot batch has been tested in comparison with the fuel composition of the prototype and winter diesel fuels JP with depressant additives (TU 38.101889-2004)widely used in practice in the autumn-spring period, also in comparison with indicators of the stability of the fuel composition according to the patent of Russia № 2266947 C10L 1/22. The results are presented in table 3.

Table 3
The results of comparative tests
IndicatorsSamples of the compositions of fuel
No. 1 (prototype) Patent of Russia № 2266947No. 4 Experienced partyWinter diesel fuel JP with depressant additives (TU 38.101889-2004)
12345
1Stability: the tendency to separation in dynamic conditions
when mixing is about speed 100 min -1at
20°C, months1212-
2Stability: the tendency to stratification in static conditions during storage, months. when the temperature:
0°C1212-
Minus 10°CLess than one day12-
Minus 12°CLess than one day3-
3The propensity for delamination in static conditions when the temperature changes sharply:
The number of cooling cycles (0°C for 12 hours) and heating (40°C for 12 hours)More than 10 cyclesMore than 10 cycles -
4Cetane number424845
5Kinematic viscosity at 20 C, mm/s11,27,264,5

Continuation of table 3
IndicatorsSamples of the compositions of fuel
No. 1 (prototype)
Patent of Russia №2266947
No. 4
Experienced party
Winter diesel fuel JP with depressant additives (TU 38.101889-2004)
12345
6The cloud point, °CNo dataMinus 12Minus 10
7Pour point, °CNo dataBelow min is 45 Minus 38
8The maximum temperature point, °CMinus 5Minus 17Minus 17
9The probability of ignition %00100
10The likelihood of the outbreak, %10050100
11The coefficient coking spray nozzles:
- Assembly with shut-off needle.2,31,911,8
12The relative change in specific fuel consumption, Rel.%:
+ increase
- reduction -1,1-1,1+1,0
13The relative change of exhaust smoke, Rel.%10,07,010,6

From table 3 it can be seen that the inventive fuel composition is level and even far exceeds the samples for comparison, on indicators such as stability (lines 1-3), cloud point, pour point, limit point (lines 6, 7, 8), the probability of ignition and flash (lines 9, 10), the coefficient coking (line 11), smoke EXHAUST (line 13), and also allows you to reduce the specific fuel consumption (line 12).

The proposed fuel composition does not require application modification of the fuel system of a diesel engine, because the size of the dispersed phase allows you to pump it through all the filters in the fuel system at the same time, increasing the fire safety of the facility due to the high stability of the fuel composition (table 3, rows 1-3).

In addition, in the exhaust gases (EXHAUST gas) decreases the concentration of oxides of nitrogen and carbon, respectively, 30% and 15%, reduces smoke emissions and the estimated propensity scores of the proposed fuel composition to coking of the injectors is much lower which, than the commodity of winter diesel fuel JP with depressant additives (TU 38.101889-2004) (table 3, lines 11, 12, 13).

Although in the claimed compositions used emulsifier get in the synthesis process (know-how of the applicant), the overall fuel composition is simple in manufacturing (requires moderate mechanical and other mixing devices), effective (see tables 2, 3) and is ready for use in motor vehicles, operating diesel engines.

The invention will extend the operating temperature range fireproof diesel fuels and will allow the use of fuel composition in autumn and spring when temperatures below minus 10°C, i.e. to improve the fire safety of road transport operated in the system of the Ministry of emergency situations, especially when extinguishing fires, to improve the environmental performance of diesel engine exhaust, will reduce the formation of deposits on the parts injector of diesel engine, and thereby increase the service life and even reduce the specific consumption of fuel (by improving the combustion process of a stable micro-emulsions).

Fuel composition containing diesel fuel, water, diethanolamide oleic acid, diethanolamine soap of oleic acid, diethanolamine, characterized in that it further contains monoether oleine the Oh of the acid and diacetylhydrazine, the composition of alcohols With4-C7and as a diesel fuel includes diesel fuel in the winter in the following ratio, wt.%:

Diethanolamide oleic acid3,960-4,840
Diethanolamine soap of oleic acid1,199-1,465
Diethanolamin0,507-0,620
Monoether oleic acid and diacetylpyridine0,400-0,488
The composition of the alcohols With4-C70,594-0,727
Water9,0-11,0
Winter diesel fuelthe rest is up to 100



 

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SUBSTANCE: there proposed is addition to diesel fuel, which contains alkyl(C3-C20)nitrate, alkyl(C1-C25)succinimide, unsaturated fatty acid chosen from group of oleic, linoleic, linolenic, or amide of this acid and calcium sulphonate. In addition to the above components the addition also includes copolymer of highest ethers C6-C28 of acrylic or methacrylic acid with ethylenically unsaturated monomer. There also proposed is diesel fuel based on base fuel containing this addition in quantity of 0.001-1.0 wt %. As base fuel, the fuel includes gas condensate diesel fuel, summer or winter diesel fuel of oil origin. The proposed diesel fuel completely corresponds to requirements for diesel fuels by European Standard (EN 590) and new GOST R 52368-2005.

EFFECT: proposed addition allows improving start-up and low-temperature characteristics and greasy properties of diesel fuels.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: fuel consists of gaseous mixture of two combustible gases, one of which has cetane number not over 30, while another has cetane number over 100. Also, their quantitative content in mixture depends on modes of engine operation.

EFFECT: operation of engine with two, one separate from another, kinds of fuel - liquid and gaseous; additional advantage of gaseous fuel is its ecological compatibility.

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