Method and system of devices to develop hillsides by growing plants in intensive mode

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture and hydroponics. The method applies arrangement of terraces, including bulldoser arrangement as well. Vertical walls are reinforced with protective panels fixed by means of fastening cords that outgo from piled anchoring at higher slope horizons or on the opposite side of a slope. The terrace base is protected with decks, under which there are the support pedestals of cultivation pipes and pipelines of nutrient solution circulation system, as well as the main reservoir with a working nutrient solution in case of its underground arrangement. Lines of drain pipes that collect water in accumulator tanks are placed between fastening cords. The system comprises cultivation pipes, support pedestals, manifolds of nutrient solution circulation, arranged on terraces. The terraces on slopes are arranged with protective panels reinforced with fastening cords, between which there are lines of drain pipes that remove moisture from slope soil into an accumulator tank with its subsequent use for domestic and/or process purposes. The nutrient solution circulation system is arranged with the possibility to arrange the main reservoir with the working nutrient solution in a place, which is protected from overheating and exposure to cold - under ground, in a niche of the vertical terrace wall. A vertical stand with a nozzle to spray nutrient solution is located inside a cultivation pipe and is protected against overheating and exposure to cold. Cultivation pipes are connected by fastening links and are fixed with braces that increase the structure stability under impact of wind loads.

EFFECT: group of inventions makes it possible to grow vegetables and fruit in intensive mode on slopes.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly horticulture and fruit-growing, and can be used for intensive industrial production of tomatoes, peppers, apples, pears, Bush berries (for example, black currant, raspberry) and other food and industrial plants on the slopes of hills and mountains.

The history of the development of civilizations known method of terracing slopes for erosion control and for plant production. Terracing is common in countries with mountainous terrain (Japan, India, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Moldova, Republic of Central Asia and the Caucasus). Fruit crops are placed at a height of up to 2-3 thousand meters above sea level, slightly below - grapes, further down the slope citrus culture (see Dragavtsev A.P. Mountain horticulture, M., 1958; Fedotov VS Terracing of slopes under orchards and vineyards in Moldova, Kish., 1961; Dragavtsev A.P., Trusevich CENTURY southern horticulture, M., 1970).

As a prototype of the selected dozer way to the terraces, where on the terraces with a width of more than 6 m are placed in 2 rows and more Apple and pear on the trellis (the supports in the form of a vertical, horizontal or other plane, to which tie up the branches of the trees (see Evilenko, http://bse.sci-lib.com/article110218.html).

The disadvantages of the known methods of development derived from the new hills and mountains are the following:

- quick or relatively rapid depletion of the soil for the real agricultural production; insufficient prevention of soil erosion;

- inability to restore soil fertility in the necessary volume and quality;

the intolerability of intensive fruit and vegetable production and bringing it to possible for a given climate conditions;

- poor or relatively poor prevention of landslides.

The prior art also known inventions Antufyev I.A. (EN 2248120 AS 31/02, 17.01.2004; EN 2267259 A01G 31/00, 05.01.2004; EN 71507 A01G 31/00, 24.03.2006), which outlines the principle of hydroponic growing plant products in cultivation pipes or vertical sets of small cultivators in intensive mode.

The drawback of such methods and systems is overheating containers with nutrient solutions or from direct sunlight on the tank, or by heat transfer from hot air.

The present invention eliminates the main dangers of intensive agriculture on the slopes of hills and mountains when used in any (including dry) climatic zones.

The main point (or purpose) of the invention is a complete failure from soil cultivation of agricultural products, the transition to the hydroponics method of cultivation and create what the conditions for implementing the method in terms TerraServer slope.

This is accomplished by the device of the terraces of the required size, for example, four rows of cultivation pipes placed along the length of the terrace. Moreover, the bearing pedestal cultivation tubes containing the elements of the feeding and removing of the nutrient solution, are under the floor, made of any material with sufficient strength) based on transversely spaced beams, steel I-beams, bricks and other Floor is used for easy movement of staff, cars or other vehicles, as well as for shading location of functional pipelines (for example, highway medium) and protect them from overheating during the day and cold at night.

The edges of the terraces, especially the vertical edge secured the support plate or shield, held by ropes attached to the piles in the higher horizons of the slope. In addition to purely support, mounting options, the protective panel is a reflective object and aligns (increases) the illumination of plants on the shadow side. In addition, the protective panel can be placed solar cells.

The slope in certain places and with the required intervals and the necessary curvature of the trajectory laid drainage pipe (removes moisture from the upper layers of the slope) and the depth to area is determined by the temperature-moisture regime of soils (for example, at a depth of 100 cm). Drainage pipes collect moisture in the downstream of the storage tank for further purification and use in industrial and/or domestic momentum.

Cultivation tube is made of multiplemodel material (e.g. foam with thick wall (up to 100 mm), which protects against overheating the root zone of plants. Cultivation tube is made with the possibility of placing on them a few dozen bushes tomato, pepper or more trees, fruit plants, and thickness are chosen in accordance with the expected load, and the diameter - based placement (inside cultivation pipe riser with nozzle on the top end.

All cultivation pipe connected stabilizing bridges, and network roll jumpers are connected by stretch marks with cables at the nodes connecting them with a protective shield terraces.

Plants before placing in the hole cultivation of pipes, wrap the holding and sealing tape that protects the plant from injury and does not allow significant movement of the plant in the hole, and sealing all space holes cultivation of the pipe and making it impervious to dust, moisture and microorganisms of different types.

The power supply system and cooling of the root zone of plants (especially important is I in hot regions) is designed as a network of pipelines, risers with jets and cavities in the bearing tables, providing circulation of liquid through cultivation pipes and collecting it in the tank beneath the floor, or under the ground or in the wall of the vertical section of the terraces (the niche in the soil). This arrangement prevents the container with nutrient solution from overheating in the sun during the day and cool at night when there are sharp differences of temperatures in the highlands.

Circulation system the nutrient solution is made in the form of a plot of the uterine vessels with uterine fluids and the circulation system solution through cultivation pipe with a filtering unit prepared working solution and node sterilization and supply (feed solution) line pipe and collect the solution in the tube located in the space of the reference tables.

Stimulate a movement of the solution on the grid of the tube is the corresponding pump power.

The supply of electric motors and other mechanisms and devices terraces is carried out by use of solar panels with battery power and backup power supply.

In fact, a system of devices for the development of mountain slopes and growing vegetables and fruits in intensive mode consists of the following components:

- terraced slope of a mountain or hill,

- fixing t the wasps for fixing the protective panels of the vertical walls of the terraces,

- the drainage system is maintained plot of the slope of the cumulative capacities and uniting them manifold (piping),

- cultivation of the column for hydroponic cultivation of agricultural products in intensive mode,

- circulation system the nutrient solution through the cultivation of the pipe to the underground location of the main vessel with the working nutrient solution and sterilization space capacity (quartz burner),

- control system parameters for the operation of the nutrient solution and the automation unit to turn on and turn off the pump, feed nutrient solution in the cultivation of the pipe through the riser and nozzle on it).

That is, in brief terms, we have by way of the following definition of the invention:

"The way of the development of mountain slopes by growing vegetables and fruits in intensive mode, which uses the device of terraces, including bulldozer, characterized in that the vertical walls strengthen the protective panels, fastened by a fastening cables coming from pile fastening at higher horizons of the slope or on the opposite side of the slope and the base of the terrace protect flooring, under which is placed the bearing pedestal cultivation of pipes and pipelines circulation system nutrient dissolve the and, as well as the main nutrient reservoir with a working solution in case of its underground location between the fastening ropes placed lines of drainage pipes that collect water in the accumulation tank".

From the standpoint of the device we have the following a brief expression of the invention:

"A system of devices for the development of mountain slopes by growing vegetables and fruits in intensive mode, containing cultivation pipe, pivot tables, highway circulation of the nutrient solution, located on the terraces, characterized in that the terraces on the slopes made with protective panels, reinforced mounting cables, between which lines of drainage pipes, the outlet moisture from the soil of the slope in the cumulative capacity, and then use that for domestic and/or industrial purposes; and circulation system the nutrient solution made with the possibility of the location of the main vessel with the working nutrient solution protected from overheating and hypothermia (below ground in niche vertical wall terraces), and the vertical riser with nozzle for spraying the nutrient solution is placed inside the cultivation tubes and protected from heat and cold stress; in addition, cultivation pipe connected with fixing bridges and fixed stretch marks, increase ostoich the stability of the structure under the influence of wind loads".

The invention is illustrated by figures 1, 2 and 3, where figure 1 shows the General layout of the slope to accommodate the mounting of cables and network of drainage lines; figure 2 shows the layout of cultivation tubes and part of the circulation system of the nutrient solution; figure 3 shows one possible arrangement of the riser with nozzle for spraying the nutrient solution.

The slopes of the hill or mountain has been processed to device terraces 1 (figure 1), which have different vertical wall (which is determined by the objective structure and terrain slope). Mounting cables 2 thrown down the slope after the effective fastening on stilts (the area of the piles) 3 to the desired horizon (for example, to the base of the hill). Between the regular places (lines) location mounting cables made laying drainage pipes 4 to the desired depth. At the lower levels of the slope (or at the base of the slope) is made of the storage tank 5, connected with a common manifold (piping) 6.

The vertical portions of the terraces protected by panels 7 (figure 2), which is fixed in its place by several factors: the bars 8 (or beams for flooring), fixing ropes in nodes 9 and screws 10. The bearing pedestal 11 is installed on the substrate (not shown) between the planks for flooring. Cultivation of the pipe 12 is installed Tumby at a desired distance from each other and coupled mounting crosspieces 13 and is fixed by braces 14. For fixation of the plants in the holes cultivation pipes made lodgements 15 mounted on the hoops 16.

Hatches 17 for inspection and control of containers 18 from the main working solution is made in the ground horizontal part of the terrace (at the underground location of the tanks). The vessel is equipped with quartz burner 19 or bactericidal lamps to achieve the required level of sterility in the internal volume.

The riser 20 (3) for feeding the nutrient solution in the upper part of the cultivation tube is made from nozzle 21, a closed top sealed by a cap 22 which prevents the penetration of dust, moisture and microorganisms into the interior cultivation of the pipe. On the path of movement of the nutrient solution down to the bottom of cultivation pipes are root zone 23 of 24 plants. To collect the nutrient solution in the bottom Cabinet made the space 25, which open collector (outlet) pipe 26 that delivers the solution in the main working capacity. To supply the nutrient solution in the riser is made of the supply pipe 27. To protect the system of circulation of the nutrient solution from overheating and overcooling, and also for ease of movement of the transport means is movable flooring (floor) 28.

The method is realized in the following way with the implementation of required sequential operation is:

- terracing,

- the formation of pile section for fastening cables support protective panels terraces,

- construction of drainage lines and the storage device receptacles

- re-alignment of the terraces (vertical and horizontal surfaces),

device placement the main tank with a working nutrient solution and device inspection and repair manholes (in-ground placement of the containers),

device and fastening the protective panels terraces,

- accommodation reference tables and the device routes for supply and collection of the nutrient solution,

- installation of cultivation pipes and a bunch of them fixing bridges, the establishment of fixing stretch marks

the device is collapsible decking (floor) terraces,

- check operation of the system with water supply and sterilization of the interior volume of the pipes, tanks and spaces for gathering the nutrient solution,

- preparation of the nutrient solution from the mother solution and filling the capacity of the working nutrient solution,

- planting and the beginning of cultivation.

The process of preparing nutrient solutions and the formulation of a system of circulation of the solution through the cultivation of a pipe includes the following necessary operations and functional units:

- the device is small uterine vessels and cooking source is enough solutions for the future preparation of the diluted working nutrient solution,

the device filtration system ready (working) nutrient solution before feeding it into the circulation system of cultivation tubes,

device node sterilization working nutrient solution (for example, quartz burners) before feeding it into the circulation system,

device sensors measuring the volume of solution fed into the circulation system and returning to the main working capacity,

device sensors for automatic control of the working acidity of the nutrient solution with the emergency alert system.

The cultivation process is as follows.

After debugging system circulation of the nutrient solution (holes for plants sealed tubes) and the establishment of a given mode of solution flow through the cultivation pipes start planting the plants in the holes cultivation pipes. Planting can be complete (all the holes in the pipe occupied by plants) and incomplete, but in any case, all holes checked for leaks.

Cultivation are specified for a given climatic region mode according to the developed technology map. Remove side shoots and remove the extension ovaries do not produce and allow you to develop all the rudiments of the fruit. Nutrient solution replace or regenerate as needed (for example once every 3-4 weeks) and/or the results of chemical analysis of leading (indicative) components of the solution (for example, pH). But in any case carry out control and chemical analytical measurements the main indicative of parameters of a solution, for example, on a weekly basis.

Harvesting produce when they reach the required standard sizes.

System device to implement the method works as follows.

After making terraces, device mounting cables and drainage lines with cumulative capacities operating systems become cultivation tubes with their mortar node, the node filter node sterilization and circulation system the nutrient solution.

An additional element may be a node of heating the nutrient solution in the winter, to ensure the survival of plants during periods of frost (figures not shown). Additional may be the film shelter cultivation pipes during winter (figures not shown).

Operating systems are as follows.

In mortar site (not shown) to prepare the uterine solutions, of which by dilution prepare working nutrient solution and merge it into the main working tank 18, where the solution further sterilized quartz burner 19. From the working vessel 18 solution pump (not shown) serves in the supply line 27, the riser 20 and the nozzle 21 cultivation inside pipe 12 under the hood 22, eduarsti flows down through the root zone 23 of 24 plants in the space 25 of the bearing pedestal 11, where the solution is removed through line 26.

The spent nutrient solution is directed into the main working tank 18 and reuse in circulation through the cultivation of the pipe 12 until you change the main indicators of the status of the solution (e.g. pH). After exhaustion of the working solution is removed and replaced with new, re-filling them to capacity 18.

Under appropriate conditions (for example, a very shallow base of the mountains), allowing you to grow a vegetable products for standard agricultural technologies, the spent nutrient solution can be used as a good feed for any plant.

1. Method development of mountain slopes by growing vegetables and fruits in intensive mode, which uses the device of terraces, including bulldozer, characterized in that the vertical walls strengthen the protective panels, fastened by a fastening cables coming from pile fastening at higher horizons of the slope or on the opposite side of the slope and the base of the terrace protect flooring, under which is placed the bearing pedestal cultivation of pipes and piping systems of circulation of the nutrient solution, as well as the main nutrient reservoir with a working solution in case of its underground location between the fastening ropes placed linetraining pipes, collect water in the accumulation tank.

2. A system of devices for the development of mountain slopes by growing vegetables and fruits in intensive mode, containing cultivation pipe, pivot tables, highway circulation of the nutrient solution, located on the terraces, characterized in that the terraces on the slopes made with protective panels, reinforced mounting cables, between which lines of drainage pipes, the outlet moisture from the soil of the slope in the cumulative capacity, and then use that for domestic and/or industrial purposes; and circulation system the nutrient solution made with the possibility of the location of the main vessel with the working nutrient solution protected from overheating and overcooling place under the earth, in the niche vertical wall terraces, and a vertical riser with nozzle for spraying the nutrient solution is placed inside the cultivation tubes and protected from heat and cold stress; in addition, cultivation pipe connected with fixing bridges and fixed stretch marks, improves the stability of the structure under the influence of wind loads.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of forestry. Cuttings of planting stock and hydroponics channels with host material are prepared. Cuttings for rootage are placed in greenhouse gutters with polyethylene covering. Rootage stimulators are used. Flow exchange of water is created in gutters. Stimulating sprinkling of cuttings and their leaves with sugar solution creates conditions of natural sugar generation in cutting, which defines development of its rootage. Additional stimulating fertilising of cuttings is provided by leaf treatment with growth regulator spraying. Bed of hydroponics is filled with substrate from cutting wood type chips. Polyethylene film that forms hydroponics bed and maintains its permanent temperature is laid in gutters arranged in natural soil of greenhouse. Prepared cuttings of planting stock are formed in bundles in cases arranged in gutters.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to eliminate dependence of individual peculiarities of trees and weather conditions in period of rootage and to improved yield of biennial standard seedlings.

4 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: substrate contains perlite pre-treated with a 0.01-0.04% aqueous solution of an organic acid. Tartaric, oxalic, acetic or citric acid may be used for the above purpose. The perlite used for the substrate preparation originates mostly from the Hungarian and/or the Georgian fields.

EFFECT: efficient growth and development of the plants roots.

3 cl, 7 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment used for prolonged automatic irrigation of house plants in pots through drain openings in case of prolonged absence of hosts, for example, during vacation.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has individual tray for receiving pot with flower and independent water supplying source provided with level regulator and positioned in consumer vessel thereof. Tray and consumer vessel are connected through flexible siphon having inlet arranged below water level set in consumer vessel and outlet whose end is provided with tongue to be attached in tray under pan bottom. Flexible siphon is made transparent and equipped with catch. Distance from site of attachment of catch to consumer vessel exceeds liquid level height therein. In order to water several plants, several flexible siphons may be used. Apparatus allows several plants to be simultaneously watered and/or volume of independent water supplying source to be increased.

EFFECT: reduced area of free water surface, reduced volume of water for providing desired water level in trays under pans.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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