Fluorescent illumination, generating white light

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: light-emitting system (1), comprising a radiation source (2), capable of emitting first light with at least a first wavelength spectrum, first fluorescent material (4), capable of absorbing at least partially the first light and emit second light with a second wavelength spectrum, second fluorescent material (8) capable of absorbing at least partially the first light and emit third light with a third wavelength spectrum, in which the first (4) or the second (8) fluorescent material is a polycrystalline ceramic with density higher than 97% of the density of monocrystalline material, and the corresponding other fluorescent material is a powdered luminophor with average particle size 100 nm <d50%<50 mcm.

EFFECT: invention enables to design an illumination system which emits white light with high colour rendering index, high efficiency, clearly defined colour temperature and good illumination quality, with correlated colour temperature, and enables regulation of the correlated colour temperature of the illumination system.

16 cl, 8 dwg

 

This patent application relates mostly to the semiconductor light-emitting devices by converting phosphors.

Semiconductor light emitting devices including light emitting diodes (LED)available at the present time among the most efficient light sources. Used LED capable of operation across the visible spectrum. LED can be fabricated using semiconductor materials, including semiconductors of group III-V, especially double, triple and quadruple alloys of gallium, aluminum, indium, and nitrogen, also referred to as III-nitride materials.

LEDs are commonly used in various lighting systems of different types, for example, for lighting, for outdoor lighting, lighting devices for advertising, etc. in order to provide lighting with a good perception of the proposed lighting system when using UV-LED in which light emitted from the UV LED is converted by the fluorescent material.

Because the blue UV light has higher energy photons, i.e. shorter wavelength, compared with other colors of visible light, such light can be a simple way converted to create light with a longer wavelength. It is well known in the art that the light from the first peak is Lina wave ("first light") can be converted into light with greater peak wavelength ("second/third light") when using the process, known as luminescence. The luminescence process involves the absorption of the first light photoluminescent material (also called phosphor)with excitation of the atoms of the material, and the radiation of the second light. The peak wavelength and the wavelength range around it can, for brevity, be called wavelength. The wavelength of the second light will depend on the photoluminescent material. The type of photoluminescent material may be selected so as to obtain a secondary light having a peak wavelength.

To improve the color rendering index (CRI) of lighting systems using LEDs, already proposed two-color lighting system. In this system, the primary emission of a blue LED is combined with the light emitted from the photoluminescent material, such as a yellow phosphor. For example, the photoluminescent material is a phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+. Some of the blue light emitted from the LED is converted in such a phosphor in yellow light. Another part of blue light from the LED passes through the phosphor. Thus, this system emits blue light emitted from the LED and the yellow light emitted by the phosphor. The mixture of blue and yellow stripes radiation is perceived by the observer as white light. Perceive the light and eat the color rendering index (CRI) between 70 and 80, and its color temperature is in the range from about 5000 K to about 8000 K.

However, in many applications lighting color rendering index (CRI) of 80 is unacceptable. For example, the lighting in the room, exterior lighting, etc. LED white light based on the two-tone principle often cannot be used due to the low color rendering index (CRI), due to the absence of components of red. In particular, in the case of a color temperature of 5000 K, used in General lighting, color rendering index (CRI) is less than 70 for lighting systems on the basis of two-tone blue-and-yellow LED.

In order to further improve the color rendering index (CRI), even at high correlated color temperatures (CCT), i.e. when CCT<6000 proposed semiconductor light-emitting device with the converted wavelength, which used the first material, converts the wavelength, and a second material that converts a wavelength. Correlated color temperature (CCT) of the light source can be construed in accordance with the color coordinates of the radiator plate with the said temperature is at the minimum distance of the color point of the light source radiation in the color system of the CIE (international Commission on illumination, the coordinates of the u-v) from 1960

the first material, converts the wavelength (fluorescent material)that emits light with a shorter wavelength than light emitted from a second material that converts a wavelength. The first and second materials, converts the wavelength, can be placed on the light-emitting device. However, in the known device has low efficiency, since the first and second materials, converts the wavelength, mixed together, which leads to strong backscattering and the loss of light. In addition, a second material that converts a wavelength, often only excited by the light emitted by the first material that converts a wavelength. In addition, the desired correlated color temperature (CCT) is very difficult to control.

Therefore, the purpose of this application is the provision of a lighting system, emitting white light with high color rendering index (CRI). Another objective of this application is to provide a lighting system which has high efficiency, clearly defined color temperature and good quality lighting. Another objective of this application is the provision of an led light emitting warm white light, i.e., correlated color temperature (CCT)<6000 K. Another objective of this application is to ensure Uchenie regulation correlated color temperature (CCT) of the lighting system.

These and other problems are solved by a light-emitting system containing a radiation source capable of emitting the first light, at least with the first range of wavelengths, the first fluorescent material capable of absorbing at least partially the first light and the emission of the second light with a second spectrum of wavelengths, the second fluorescent material capable of absorbing at least partially the first light and the emission of the third light with a third range of wavelengths, in which the first or the second fluorescent material is a polycrystalline ceramic with a density of more than 97 percent of the density of monocrystalline material, and which corresponds to a different fluorescent material is a phosphor powder with an average particle size of 100 nm<d50%<50 μm.

The second fluorescent material may be polycrystalline ceramics with a density of more than 97 percent of the density of the monocrystalline material of identical composition.

Monocrystalline material may be understood as a crystalline solid phase, in which the crystal lattice during the entire sample is continuous, undistorted and without irregularities on the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries. Its density is 100%.

The polycrystals can be images which are a lot of small crystals called crystallites. The density of polycrystals can be determined by the number of pores, Steklova or impurity phases. The term "polycrystalline material" may be understood as a material with a bulk density of more than 90 percent of the density of the main component, consisting of more than 80 percent of single-crystal domains, when the diameter of each domain more than 0.5 μm and their different crystallographic orientation. Single-crystal domains can be linked amorphous or glassy material, or more crystalline components.

The phosphor powder may contain single crystals and polycrystals. Found that the combination of polycrystalline ceramics with a density of more than 97 percent of the density of the monocrystalline material of identical composition of the phosphor powder provides a high mechanical stability and good color rendering index (CRI).

Under the material with high density can be understood ceramics. She may have ≥95% to ≤100% of theoretical density. Thus, ceramics provides significantly better mechanical and optical properties compared to materials with lower density. Preferably, the ceramic material is ≥97% to ≤100% of theoretical density, more preferably ≥98% to ≤100%.

The radiation source mo is et to be LED, emitting light with a short wavelength, preferably in the spectral region from UV radiation spectrum And to blue light, for example, between about 330 nm and about 470 nm. It is also possible to use other light sources emitting light of high energy. Fluorescent materials fully or partially absorb the light from the radiation source and emit it again in other spectral regions in a fairly wide band, and through the use of the second fluorescent material with significant red radiation. This creates a total radiation with the desired white color temperature and color rendering index (CRI).

The first fluorescent material that converts a wavelength of the first light may be a polycrystalline ceramic mass, alloyed with cerium. Such ceramics can, for example, be alyumoittrievy garnet, alloyed with cerium, YAG:Ce(0.5 percent). The first fluorescent material can emit light in the yellow-green region of the spectrum. The first fluorescent material can be excited by the first light. For example, there may be used a phosphor based on lutetium-yttrium-gallium-scandium-aluminum garnet activated with cerium and praseodymium, the General formula (Lu1-x-yYxGdy)3-a-b(Al1-m-nGamScn)5O :CeaPrb) when 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤0.5, and 0,001≤a≤0,02, 0,001≤b≤0,005, 0≤m≤0.5 and 0≤n≤0,5 emitting in the yellow-green region of the spectrum. For example, garnet material may be preferred compounds (Luof 0.2Y0,8)2,994(Al4,95Sc0,05)O12:Ce0,006or (Yfor 0.9Gda 0.1)2,994Al5O12:Ce0,006. Examples may also include compositions that deviate from the ideal stoichiometry grenade, for example, (Yfor 0.9Gda 0.1)2,994Al5,01O12,015:Ce0,006. Most preferably, the compositions, which show the deviation from the ideal stoichiometry, are single-phase. Examples may also include compounds with additional components that can be traced to the use of fused fluxes, such as borates, oxides of silicon, silicates, compounds of alkaline earth metals, fluorides or nitrides such as aluminum nitride or silicon nitride. These additional components may be dissolved in the ceramic grains of the pomegranate, or they may be present as secondary phases, for example in the form of intergranular phases.

The second fluorescent material may be, for example, the red phosphor luminescence, such as the red phosphor, activated by europium. The second fluorescent material may be selected from the group comprising (Ca1-x-ySrx )S:Euywhen 0≤x≤1, 0,0003≤y≤0,01; (Ba1-x-ySrxCay)2-zSi5-aAlaN8-aOa:Euzwhen 0≤x≤0.5, and 0≤y≤0.8, the 0,0025≤z≤0,05, 0≤a≤1; or (Ca1-x-ySrxMgy)1-zSi1-aAl1+aN3-aOa:Euzwhen 0≤x≤0.5, and 0≤y≤0.2, a 0,003≤z≤0,05, 0≤a≤0,02. Preferably, uses a nitride calcium-aluminum-silicon, activated by europium, with the composition of Ca0,98Si0,985Al1,015N2,99O0,01:Eu0,02that is a red phosphor with a high chromaticity, excited in a region from the UV radiation spectrum (400 nm) to blue-green (500 nm) at a high quantum yield. For optimal use of this phosphor for fluorescent conversion primary LED light you need to modify the photophysical characteristics, to ensure, for example, efficiency, compliance to the color and durability of the respective light-emitting devices. Chromaticity and quantum yield of the nitride calcium-aluminum-silicon, activated by europium, can be modified by the substitution of calcium ions of divalent metal from the list comprising Ba, Sr, Mg, by changing the ratio of N/O and Al/Si in the crystal lattice. Most preferably, the material of the nitride-based calcium-aluminum-silicon, activated by europium, red glow, the floor is up a joint firing with the addition of halide flux, such as ammonium chloride or sodium chloride. Halide flux lowers the required temperature firing of the phosphor and greatly improves the efficiency of the material. The main part of the residual flux can be cleaned after firing, however, small amounts can be incorporated into the crystal lattice without deterioration of the luminescent properties that leads to such compounds as Ca0,98Si0,985Al1,015N2,99O0,01:Eu0,02Clxx≤0,0015 or Ca0,96Na0,02SiAlN2,98O0,02:Eu0,02Clxx≤0,0015.

In accordance with the variants of the second fluorescent material may be separated from the first fluorescent material, at least one additional layer. The additional layer may be located either between the radiation source radiating with the first range of wavelengths, and the first luminescense material, radiant with the second range of wavelengths, or on top of the first luminescense material sluchayem with the second range of wavelengths. The second fluorescent material may also be placed within at least one recess, preferably, within more than two recesses on the surface of fluorescent material. The recess may be positioned on the first surface or the first fluorescent material from the front side of the source of the radiation, or the second fluorescent material from the front side of the radiation source. This may cause a third light with a third range of wavelengths is excited mainly by the first light. Deepening can be a pit, groove, cavity, cavities, grooves or other Recesses can be placed on the surface, which is opposite the surface facing the radiation source. Deepening can be placed in the compartments.

The first fluorescent material can have at least one flat surface on which the second fluorescent material is formed of the second luminescense layer. Preferably, the second fluorescent layer diffuses the light. The second fluorescent material that converts a wavelength of the first and second light can be placed inside the recess. The second fluorescent material may be deposited on the surface of the first fluorescent material or placed in a recess in the form of balls, mass, cluster, granules, cubes, etc.

By placing the second fluorescent material in the form of a separate layer or in the recess of the second light emitted from the first fluorescent material is absorbed only a minimal way. The light from the first fluorescent material is irradiated with minimal re-absorption of the second floore is virtually all types of material. In addition, the second fluorescent material placed in the vicinity of the radiation source, so that the first light excites the second fluorescent material, and light emitted from the first luminescense material is not passed through the second luminescense material.

The transmission quality of luminous colors, the radiation source emitting white light, which is designated as the color rendering index (CRI)should be enhanced by the lighting system in accordance with the variants of implementation. A CRI of 100 indicates that the light emitted by the light source, identical to the light source, which is absolutely black body, i.e. from the incandescent lamp or halogen lamp correlated color temperature (CCT)<5000 K in the visible spectral region from 380 nm to 780 nm or identical to the solar spectrum, as defined in the publication 13.3 International Commission on illumination (CIE 13.3:1995, Method of Measuring and Specifying Colour Rendering Properties of Light Sources (Method of measuring and determining the quality of color light sources)).

By matching layer thickness, volume and size of the recess can be adjusted correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). For example, the distance between at least two recesses can be selected so that it ranged from 0.1 mm is about 1 mm, preferably 0.5 mm Recesses can be formed on the surface of the first fluorescent material in the form of a comb. The depth of each recess may be at least half the thickness of the first fluorescent material. It is preferable that the recess had a depth of 20 μm. The thickness D of at least one polycrystalline fluorescent material is 50 μm <D<850 μm, preferably 80 μm <D<250 μm. Deepening in the form of a ridge can be formed by pyramids on the surface of the first fluorescent material. The top of the pyramids can be cut off.

In accordance with a variant implementation, the second fluorescent material may be placed on at least one surface of the first fluorescent material, so that the combination of the first light, second light and the third light has a color rendering index above 80 when the correlated color temperature of less than 6000 K, preferably less than 5000 K.

For example, the layer formed of the second fluorescent material placed on at least one surface of the first luminescing material has a dissipation factor of s in the interval of 30 cm-1<s<1000 cm-1. This layer may consist of a phosphor particles with an average diameter of d50%constituting 0.5 µm≤d50%≤20 μm. In other primarilyin, at least one recess may be at least half the thickness of the first fluorescent material, preferably 20 μm. Through this, the second fluorescent material is located close to the radiation source, and the light from the first luminescing material can radiate without mutual influence of the second fluorescent material. To ensure the possibility of direct excitation of the second fluorescent material light source on the basis of LED options for implementation include at least one recess with an angle of aperture of between 15° and 160°, preferably 90°.

Another feature of this application is a lighting device containing the previously described light-emitting system.

Another feature of this application is a method for manufacturing a light-emitting system with the formation of grooves on the surface of the first fluorescent material, the placement of the second fluorescent material is formed in the recesses, and fastening the first fluorescent material on the radiation source. In particular, it is suitable for the described lighting system.

Another feature of this application is a method for manufacturing a light-emitting system with a first fluorescent material, the formation of a film with a binder material is Yalom with the second fluorescent material, and placing this film with the second fluorescent material on the radiation source with the first-mentioned luminescense material. In particular, it is suitable for the described lighting system. Films can be produced by dispersing a powder of the phosphor (d50%=5 μm) in an amount of from 1 to 20 percent by weight in the polymer gel with high viscoelasticity of the binder material of the substrate. Examples of binder materials include thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, resins, binders, basic polymers, monomers, composites and organosilicon compounds. Additives solvents can be used to adjust the viscosity and quality of curing required for the manufacture of films. The film can be formed by such techniques as extrusion, casting, extrusion, obtaining a uniaxial oriented fibrous plastic, machining, heat treatment and welding in a plastic condition. The film can be formed with the formation of the required dimensions before placing the second fluorescent material.

These and other features of this application will be more obvious when explained with reference to the following drawings.

Figure 1 illustrates a side view of the first variant implementation of the lighting system.

Figure 2 illustrates a perspective view of the second variant implementation of the lighting system.

Figure 3 illustrates a perspective view of the third is about a variant implementation of the lighting system.

Figure 4 illustrates a view in the context of embodiments of the lighting system.

Figure 5 illustrates the spectra of emission and absorption components of the lighting system in accordance with the variants of the implementation.

6 illustrates other spectra the emission and absorption components of the lighting system in accordance with the variants of the implementation.

7 illustrates other spectra the emission and absorption components of the lighting system in accordance with the variants of the implementation.

Fig illustrates the radiation spectra for different configurations of the lighting system in accordance with the variants of the implementation.

Figure 1 illustrates the side view of the system 1 lighting in accordance with options for implementation. The system 1 may include a radiation source 2, which may be, for example, an LED emitting blue light. On the surface of the LED 2 is posted first fluorescent material 4. The first fluorescent material 4 has a flat surface on which is placed the second fluorescent material 8. The first fluorescent material 4 is preferably polycrystalline ceramics with a density of more than 97 percent of the density of the monocrystalline material. The second fluorescent material 8 is preferably a powder. The powder may have an average particle size d50%of 100 nm<d50%<50 μm. The powder can be deposited on the surface of the first fluorescent material coating, electrostatic coating or the so-called method of photorelease. It is also possible to apply the second fluorescent material 8 in the form of a film, comprising a binder material with phosphor, and placing the film with the second fluorescent material on the radiation source with the first-mentioned luminescense material.

Figure 2 illustrates a perspective view of the system 1 lighting in accordance with options for implementation. The system 1 may include a radiation source, which may be, for example, UV LED 2. On the surface of the LED 2 is posted first fluorescent material 4. The first fluorescent material 4 has recesses 6, which posted the second fluorescent material 8.

Used fluorescent materials 4, 8 can react to the UV light generated by the fluorescent lamps and light emitting diodes, visible light generated by the diode blue glow. The radiation source is required to emit light with a wavelength capable of excitation of the fluorescent material 4, 8. This may be a discharge lamp and a semiconductor light-emitting device emitting blue or UV light, such as light emitting diodes and laser diodes.

The radiation sources included the t itself semiconductor optical sources and other devices optical radiation which occurs in response to electrical excitation. Semiconductor optical sources include crystals, light-emitting diode (LED), light emitting polymers (LEP), organic light-emitting device (OLED), polymer light emitting devices (PLED), etc.

In addition, for use as radiation sources are also suitable such light-emitting components, such as those that are gas-discharge lamps and fluorescent lamps, such as mercury vapor discharge lamps of low and high pressure, sulfuric gas discharge lamp and a discharge lamp on the basis of molecular emitters. Especially good results are achieved when using a blue LED 2, the emission maximum is in the region from 400 nm to 480 nm. Optimal ranges are from 440 nm to 460 nm and 438 nm to 456 nm, taking into account the specific excitation spectrum used fluorescent materials 4, 8.

The first fluorescent material 4 may be a garnet green/yellow radiation. For example, for applications requiring white light, suitable Y3Al5O12doped Ce3+(preferably to 0.15%). Narrow excitation spectrum normal Y3Al5O12:Ce3+leads to the gap in the joint spectrum between radiation 2 and the emission of the first fluorescent material 4. Expanding the range of excitation allows the use of 2 LED, emitting light with a wavelength, which may at least partially fill the gap in the spectrum, which potentially has a beneficial effect on the color combined light emitted by the device. Although in the above discussion of the first variant implementation of the specified base pomegranate Y3Al5O12you should understand that can also be used fluorescent materials on the basis of garnet of General formula (Lu1-x-yYxGdy)3-a-b(Al1-m-nGamScn)5O12:CeaPrb) when 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤0.5, and 0,001≤a≤0,02, 0,001≤b≤0,005, 0≤m≤0.5 and 0≤n≤0,5. This class of fluorescent materials based on activated luminescence of the cubic garnet crystals. Grenades are a class of materials with the chemical formula of the crystals A3B5X12. The atoms of A can be selected from the group consisting of Y, Gd, Lu, Tb, Yb, La, Ca, Sr, B atoms can be selected from the group consisting of Al, Mg, Sc, B, Ga, Si, Ge, In, atoms and X can be selected from the group consisting of O, N, F, S. a part of the atoms may be replaced by alloying atoms selected from the group consisting of Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm. The concentration of the alloying atoms can be in the range from 0.01 to 10 mol.% in relation to atoms A, most preferably in the range is 0.1 to 2 mol.%.

The second fluorescent material 8 may be a red phosphor emission. Examples of suitable phosphors red radiation include Ca1-x-ySrxAlSiN3:Euyor Sr2-xSi5N8:Euxwhere to 0.005<x<0,05, or Sr2-ySi5-xAlxN8-xOx:Euywhere 0<x<2, of 0.005<y<0,05, or Ba2-x-ySrxSi5N8:Euywhere 0<x<1, of 0.005<y<0,05.

Light emitted from the LED 2, is converted by the wavelength of the first fluorescent material 4 and the second fluorescent material 8. Blue light emitted from the LED 2, mixed with green and red light emitted from the first fluorescent material 4 and the second fluorescent material 8 to form white light. Correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) of this white light can be controlled by changing the design of the first fluorescent material 4 and the second fluorescent material 8.

The structure of the fluorescent material 4, 8 can be formed by forming recesses in the layer of the first fluorescent material 4, i.e. with the use of means of mechanical grinding and cutting, conventional techniques of lithography and etching, deposition of the second fluorescent material 8, i.e. by means of electrophoretic deposition. As alter the consumption, patterns and layers of fluorescent material can be applied using screen printing or inkjet printing, or spraying, electrostatic coating or the so-called method of photorelease. Ultimately, the set of the first fluorescent material 4 and the second fluorescent material 8 can be placed on LED 2.

In accordance with the variants of the second fluorescent material 8 is deposited in the recesses 6 of the first fluorescent material 4. The recesses 6 can be formed in the form of pits, grooves, depressions, cavities, grooves. As shown in figure 1, the recesses formed in the form of grooves which are parallel to each other along the length of the first fluorescent material.

Another arrangement in accordance with the implementation shown in Figure 3. As you can see, recesses 6 are placed in the form of grooves, which are evenly distributed on the surface of the first fluorescent material 4. The recesses 6 are bottom, which can be placed in a blind hole. Blind hole at the bottom of the recess 6 may be used for applying the second fluorescent material 8.

View in the context of the recesses 6 is shown in Figure 4. The second fluorescent material 8 is deposited in the housing bore 10 of the recess 6. Blind hole 10 is placed on the bottom surface of the recess 6. The angle α sostav the et from 45° to 170°, preferably 90°. The size of E is preferably 170 μm. The depth of the recess 6 and a blind hole 10 is preferably 180 μm. The total thickness D is preferably 350 μm. The distance between the two recesses 6 preferably is 0.5 mm.

By varying the quantity and sizes of the recesses may be subject to a correlated color temperature (CCT). For example, the distance between at least two recesses can be selected so that it ranged from 0.1 mm to 1 mm, preferably 0.5 mm Recesses can be formed on the surface of the first fluorescent material in the form of a comb. The depth of each recess may be 180 μm, and the thickness of the first fluorescent material may be 350 μm. Deepening in the form of a ridge can be formed by pyramids on the surface of the first fluorescent material. The top of the pyramids can be cut off.

In accordance with a variant implementation, the second fluorescent material may be placed inside at least one indentation on the surface of the first fluorescent material, so that the combination of the first light, second light and the third light has a color rendering index above 80 when the correlated color temperature of less than 6000 K, preferably less than 5000 K.

For example, the depth, by at least one recess may be at least half the thickness of the first fluorescent material. Through this, the second fluorescent material is placed near the radiation source. The third light can be emitted in the direction of the light without mutual influence of the first fluorescent material. In addition, the second light can be emitted in the direction of the light without mutual influence of the second fluorescent material.

To ensure the free emission of the third light in the direction of the light options for implementation include at least one recess with an angle of aperture of between 45° and 120°, preferably 90°. Illustrates the placement of the second fluorescent material 8 in the recess 6 provides the absorption of only a minimal amount of light emitted from the first fluorescent material 4. In addition, the second fluorescent material placed near the LED 2, so that the light from the LED 2 starts second fluorescent material 8. The pyramid-shaped holes formed in the first fluorescent material 4, the light from the second fluorescent material to be transmitted without distortion in the direction of the light. As can be seen from Figure 4, the recess may be formed in the form of a comb. Each recess may have a pyramidal shape. The top of the pyramids can be cut, h is o provides a flat surface on the first fluorescent material 4.

5 to 7 illustrate the spectra of emission and absorption. Presents the normalized spectra of radiation of the LED 2 (12), the first fluorescent material 4 (14) and the second fluorescent material 8 (16). In addition, the absorption spectra (k) of the first fluorescent material 4 (18) and the second fluorescent material 8 (20).

Figure 5 illustrates the range of 16 radiation of the second fluorescent material 8 Ca1-xSrxAlSiN3:Eu, where 0<x<1, and the range of 14 radiation garnet YAG:Ce (0,3%), used as the first fluorescent material 4. Presents relevant range of 20 absorption of the second fluorescent material 8 Ca1-xSrxAlSiN3:Eu, where 0<x<1, and the range of 18 absorption of yttrium aluminium garnet YAG:Ce (0,3%), used as the first fluorescent material 4.

6 illustrates the range of 16 radiation of the second fluorescent material 8 Sr2-ySi5-xAlxN8-xOx:Euywhere 0<x<2, of 0.005<y<0,05, and the range of 14 radiation of yttrium aluminium garnet YAG:Ce (0,2%), used as the first fluorescent material 4. Presents relevant range of 20 absorption of the second fluorescent material 8 Sr2-ySi5-xAlxN8-xOx:Euywhere 0<x<2, of 0.005<y<0,05, and range 18 absorption of yttrium aluminium garnet YAG:Ce (0,2%), used the as the first fluorescent material 4.

Fig.7 illustrates the range of 16 radiation of the second fluorescent material 8 Sr2-xSi5N8:Euxwhere to 0.005<x<0,05, and the range of 14 radiation of yttrium aluminium garnet YAG:Ce (0.5%), and used as the first fluorescent material 4. Also shown is the corresponding range of 20 absorption of the second fluorescent material 8 Sr2-xSi5N8:Euxwhere to 0.005<x<0,05, and absorption spectrum 18 of yttrium aluminium garnet YAG:Ce (0.5%), and used as the first fluorescent material 4.

Fig illustrates the spectra of the radiation system 1 lighting in accordance with options for implementation. Figure 22 illustrates the emission spectrum of the lighting system, presented in figure 2. Graph 26 shows the emission spectrum of the lighting system, presented in figure 1. Ultimately, graph 24 illustrates the emission spectrum of the lighting system, in which the second fluorescent material 8 is located between the LED 2 and the first fluorescent material 4.

Accommodation recesses and applying the material in accordance with this invention provide for the creation of white light with a color rendering index (CRI) above 80 when the color temperature of less than 6000 K, preferably less than 5000 K.

1. Light emitting system (1)consisting of:
the radiation source (2)capable of emitting the first light, at least the first range of wavelengths;
the first fluorescent material (4), capable of absorbing at least partially the first light and emit second light with a second spectrum of wavelengths;
the second fluorescent material (8), capable of absorbing at least partially the first light and emit third light with a third range of wavelengths;
in which one of the first (4) or the second (8) fluorescent material is a polycrystalline ceramic with a density of more than 97% of the density of monocrystalline material, and corresponds to a different fluorescent material is a phosphor powder with an average particle size of 100 nm<d50%<50 μm.

2. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the second fluorescent material (8) is placed in a layer in one of the following provisions:
A) between the radiation source (2), radiant with the first wavelength, and the first luminescense material (4), radiant with the second range of wavelengths; or
B) on the upper side of the first luminescing material (4), radiating with the second range of wavelengths.

3. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the second fluorescent material (8) is placed inside at least one recess (6) on the surface of the first fluorescent material (4) such that the third light with a third range of wavelengths is excited predominantly first St is volume.

4. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which at least one recess (6) is placed on the first surface, at least one of the
A) a first fluorescent material (4) from the front side of the radiation source (2); or
B) a second fluorescent material (8) from the front side of the radiation source (2).

5. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the depth of the at least one recess (6) is at least half the thickness of the first fluorescent material (4).

6. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the thickness D of at least one polycrystalline fluorescent material is 50 μm<D<850 microns.

7. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the second fluorescent material (8) is placed together with the first fluorescent material (4) in such a way that the combination of the first light, second light and the third light has a color rendering index above 80 when the correlated color temperature CCT of less than 6000 K, preferably less than 5000 K.

8. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the second fluorescent material (8) is placed inside at least one recess (6) on the surface of the first fluorescent material (4) in such a way that the third excitation light, a second light is less than the first excitation light.

9. Light emitting system (1) is about to claim 1, in which at least one recess (6) has an angle of aperture of between 15° and 160°, preferably 90°.

10. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 3, in which the distance between at least two recesses (6) is 0.1-1 mm, preferably 0.5 mm

11. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the aforementioned fluorescent material (4) contains a phosphor of the formula (Lu1-x-yYxGdy)3-a-b(Al1-m-nGamScn)5O12:CeaPrb) when 0≤x≤1, 0≤y≤0.5, and 0,001≤a≤0,02, 0,001≤b≤0,005, 0≤m≤0.5 and 0≤n≤0,5.

12. Light emitting system (1) according to claim 1, in which the second fluorescent material (8) can be selected from the group
A) (Ca1-x-ySrx)S:Euywhen 0≤x≤1, 0,0003≤y≤0,01;
B) (Ba1-x-ySixCay)2-zSi5-aAlaN8-aOa:Euzwhen 0≤x≤0.5, and 0≤y≤0.8, the 0,0025≤z≤0,05, 0≤a≤1; or
C) (Ca1-x-ySrxMgy)1-zSi1-aAl1+aN3-aOa:EUzwhen 0≤x≤0.5, and 0≤y≤0.2, a 0,003≤z≤0,05, 0≤a≤0,02.

13. Lighting device containing a light emitting system (1) according to claim 1.

14. A method of manufacturing a light emitting system (1) with the formation of the recesses (6) on the surface of the first fluorescent material (4), the location of the second fluorescent material (8) formed in the recesses and securing the first fluorescent material (4) on the source of radiation is placed (2).

15. A method of manufacturing a light emitting system (1) with the first fluorescent material (4), including the formation of a film of binder material with the second fluorescent material (8) and the application of this film with the second fluorescent material (8) on the radiation source (2) with the first-mentioned luminescense material (4).

16. The method according to item 15, also containing a dispersion of powder phosphor (d50%=5 μm) in an amount of from 1 to 20% by mass in the polymer gel with high viscoelasticity of the binder material of the substrate, including thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, resins, binders, basic polymers, monomers, composites and organosilicon compounds, and the formation of films such techniques as extrusion, casting, extrusion, obtaining a uniaxial oriented fibrous plastic, machining, heat treatment and welding in a plastic condition.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: light-emitting diode lamp has an aluminium radiating housing with a power supply unit in its top part, formed by a hollow rotation body with external radial-longitudinal arms which form the outline of the lamp, fitted with internal radial-longitudinal arms with windows between them and a circular area on the butt-end of the external radial-longitudinal arms in its inner part, on which light-emitting diodes are tightly mounted. The design of the radiating housing with windows between the internal radial-longitudinal arms and guides in the top and bottom parts of the radiating housing, provides efficient convectional heat removal from powerful light-emitting diodes separated from each other by inner and outer streams. The light-emitting diode module has a light-emitting diode fitted into an optical lens and tightly joined to a printed circuit board through a flexible sealing element encircling the light-emitting diode, and the light-emitting diode is rigidly joined to a heat-removing copper plate through a hole in the printed circuit board.

EFFECT: stable light output and colour temperature over the entire service life, high light flux is ensured by a set of structural solutions of the radiating housing and compact light-emitting diode modules.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed nano radiator comprises 4-6 nm-dia nucleus of noble metal surrounded by two concentric envelopments. Envelopment nearest to nucleus represents an optically neutral organic layer with thickness of about 1 nm. Second 1-3 nm-thick envelopment is made up of J-aggregates of cyanine dyes. During electron excitation of metal nucleus plasmons, the latter actively interact with J-aggregate envelopment to excite cyanine dyes (Frenkel's excitons) and radiate light in visible range. Metal nucleus electrons may be excited by both photons and electrons.

EFFECT: high quantum output of luminescence and controlled spectrum of radiation in visible range.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: described light-emitting diode has an emitting crystal (crystals), a conical holder and a luminophor, where the holder is made from white material with angle of inclination to the wall equal to 60+5-10 degrees and height equal to 2-3 times the cross dimensions of the crystal. The walls of the holder are covered by a layer of a transparent polymer in which luminophor is distributed. The cavity of the holder is completely filled with a transparent polymer with a flat (or almost flat) surface covered by a layer of polymer in which luminophor is distributed. The invention enables design of light-emitting diodes which emit white light with luminous efficacy of up to 120 lm/W.

EFFECT: high luminous efficacy.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of semiconductor item having composite semiconductor multi-layer film formed on semiconductor substrate, according to invention, involves the following: preparation of element including layer (1010) removed by etching, composite semiconductor multi-layer film (1020), insulating film (2010) and semiconductor substrate (2000) on composite semiconductor substrate (1000), and having the first groove (2005) which passes through semiconductor substrate and insulating film, and groove (1025) in semiconductor substrate, which is the second groove provided in composite semiconductor multi-layer film so that it is connected to the first groove, and etching agent contacts the layer removed by etching as to the first groove and the second groove, and thus, removed layer is etched to separate composite semiconductor substrate from the above element.

EFFECT: increasing yield ratio and simplifying manufacturing procedure.

28 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in injection of gas source of nitrogen and gas source of gallium into reactor for growth of layer of gallium nitride. Also, injection of gas- the source of nitrogen and gas - the source of gallium includes injection of gas containing atoms of indium at temperature from 850 to 1000°C so, that vacant centre of surface defining a cavity formed on a grown layer of gallium nitride is united with atoms of gallium or atoms of indium for filling the cavity. Internal pressure in the reactor is from 200 to 500 mbar.

EFFECT: improved surface morphology of gallium nitride layer due to reduced amount of cavities formed on it surface; device possesses improved working characteristics.

12 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: electroluminescent device has at least one electroluminescent light source (2) for emitting primary radiation, preferably having wavelength between 200 nm and 490 nm, and at least one light-converting element (3), lying on the beam path of the primary radiation for partial absorption of the primary radiation and emitting secondary radiation, where the dimension of the said light-converting element (3) in the direction (5) of the primary radiation is less than the average scattering length of primary radiation in the light-converting element (3).

EFFECT: invention enables design of an electroluminescent device with conversion by a luminophor, which is characterised by high attenuation coefficient of the apparatus combined with a colour temperature which is as independent from the viewing angle as possible.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor light-emitting device has an n-type region, a p-type region; a III-nitride light-emitting layer between the n- and p-type regions. The III-nitride light-emitting layer is doped to concentration of dopants between 6 × 1018 cm-3 and 5 × 1019 cm-3 and has III thickness between 50 Å and 250 Å; where the III-nitride light-emitting layer is configured to emit light having a maximum on wavelength higher than 390 nm, and content of InN in the light-emitting layer is gradient content. The invention also discloses four versions of the III-nitride light-emitting device having a light-emitting area with a double heterostructure.

EFFECT: high efficiency with high current density.

46 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed method of producing nanocrystalline silicon involves a sintering reaction at temperature of approximately 800 K of finely ground magnesium silicide and aerosil with subsequent dissolving and washing off magnesium oxide in an acidified aqueous solution and then cleaning nanocrystalline silicon by depositing ethanol and dissolving in trichloromethane. The invention enables to obtain nanocrystallin silicon, having stable, bright luminescence, maximum intensity of which can be shifted to the 750-550 nm range, and also enables to obtain nanocrystalline silicon particles which retain luminescence properties at high temperatures of up to 650 K in bulk without using expensive and highly flammable substances.

EFFECT: stable, bright photoluminescence of silicon in the visible spectral region in bulk, which facilitates use of this material in medicine and biology for fluorescent diagnosis, photodynamic and photothermal therapy, photochemical sterilisation of blood banks, as well as in ecology for purifying water from organic contaminants and pathological microflora.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: light-emitting device having a solid-phase light source (3), at least one conversion element (4) and a light-scattering element (6), where the solid-phase light source (3) is provided for transmitting a first (511) portion of primary radiation, which must fall on the light-scattering element (6), and a second (512) portion of primary radiation which must fall on conversion element (4) for at least partial conversion into at least one secondary (521, 522) radiation, where the light-scattering element (6) is provided for generating mixed radiation (5) having a Lambert light distribution pattern, corresponding to the first (511) portion of the primary radiation, secondary (521, 522) radiation and a portion of the second (512) portion of primary radiation which was not converted in the conversion element (4). The first (511) portion of the primary radiation comes out of the light-emitting device without passing through the conversion element (4).

EFFECT: invention enables design of a light-emitting device having Lambert light distribution, which is characterised by high luminous efficiency.

12 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: light-emitting device having a solid-phase light source (3), at least one conversion element (4) and a light-scattering element (6), where the solid-phase light source (3) is provided for transmitting a first (511) portion of primary radiation, which must fall on the light-scattering element (6), and a second (512) portion of primary radiation which must fall on conversion element (4) for at least partial conversion into at least one secondary (521, 522) radiation, where the light-scattering element (6) is provided for generating mixed radiation (5) having a Lambert light distribution pattern, corresponding to the first (511) portion of the primary radiation, secondary (521, 522) radiation and a portion of the second (512) portion of primary radiation which was not converted in the conversion element (4). The first (511) portion of the primary radiation comes out of the light-emitting device without passing through the conversion element (4).

EFFECT: invention enables design of a light-emitting device having Lambert light distribution, which is characterised by high luminous efficiency.

12 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: semiconductor emitting devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed light-emitting diode based on nitride compounds of group III metals, that is aluminum, gallium, and indium (AIIIN), includes p-n junction epitaxial structure disposed on insulating substrate and incorporating n and p layers based on solid solutions of group III nitrides AlxInyGa1 - (x + y)N, (0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1), as well as metal contact pads for n and p layers disposed on side of epitaxial layers, respectively, at level of lower epitaxial n layer and at level of upper epitaxial p layer. Projections of light-emitting diode on horizontal sectional plane, areas occupied by metal contact pad for n layer, and areas occupied by metal contact pad for p layer are disposed on sectional plane of light-emitting diode in alternating regions. Metal contact pad for n layer has portions in the form of separate fragments disposed in depressions etched in epitaxial structure down to n layer; areas occupied by mentioned fragments in projection of light-emitting diode onto horizontal sectional plane are surrounded on all sides with area occupied by metal contact pad for p layer; fragments of metal contact pad for n layer are connected by means of metal buses running over metal contact pad insulating material layer applied to portions of this contact pad over which metal buses are running.

EFFECT: enhanced output optical power and efficiency of light-emitting diode.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: devices built around diodes emitting blue and/or ultraviolet light.

SUBSTANCE: proposed light source emitting light in ultraviolet or blue light region (from 370 to 490 nm) and capable of producing high-efficiency white light affording control of luminance temperature within comprehensive range has light-emitting component that emits light in first spectral region and phosphor of group of optosilicate alkali-earth metals and that absorbs part of source light and emits light in other spectral region. Novelty is that phosphor used for the purpose is, essentially, europium activated bivalent optosilicate of alkali-earth metal of following composition: (2-x-y)SrO · x(Bau, Cav)O · (1-a-b-c-d)SiO2 ·aP2O5bAl2O3cB2O3dGeO2 : yEu2+ and/or (2-x-y)BaO · x(Sru, Cav)O · (1-a-b-c-d)SiO2 ·aP2O5bAl2O3cB2O3dGeO2 : yEu2+.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, enlarged luminance temperature control range.

14 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: porous-structured semiconductor materials are modified by recognition element and exposing to electromagnetic radiation carries out photoluminescence reaction. Recognition elements that can be chosen from bio-molecular, organic and non-organic components interact with target to be subject to analysis. As a result, the modulated photoluminescence reaction arises.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity.

31 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: structural components of semiconductor devices with at least one potential or surface barrier.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device that can be used, for instance, in railway light signals built around light-emitting diodes has one or more photodetectors and set of optical filters additionally disposed on substrate. Each photodetector has its p region connected to its respective wire lead through contact pad; wire lead is passed through substrate hole and insulated from the latter; its n region is connected to its respective wire lead by means of conductor provided with metal or metal-plated contact made in the form of ring segment, all segments being integrated into ring by means of insulating inserts. Set of optical filters having similar or different spectral filtering characteristics is formed by parts of hollow inverted truncated cone whose quantity equals that of photodetectors; all parts are integrated through insulating gaskets into single hollow inverted truncated cone. Disposed on butt-ends of hollow inverted truncated cone are dielectric rings of which upper one has inner diameter equal to that of large base of truncated cone and outer diameter, to that of substrate. Dielectric ring has holes over its circumference for electrical connection of photodetector conductors and light-emitting chips to contacts in the form of ring segments.

EFFECT: ability of checking up device emission parameters within optical range and of varying indicatrix of emission.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: semiconductors.

SUBSTANCE: device has emitting surface, recombination area, not less than one passive layer, transparent for emission with hv energy, at least one of layers is made with n-type of conductivity and at least one of said layers is positioned between recombination area and emitting surface, not less than one heat-draining surface and node for connection to outer energy source. Concentration of free carriers (n) and width of forbidden zone (E1) in aforementioned passive layer match relations: where hv and Δhv0.5 - quant energy and half-width of spectrum of emission, formed in recombination zone, respectively, eV, and ndeg - concentration of carriers, at which degeneration of conductivity zone starts, cm-3.

EFFECT: increased radiation strength, increased spectral range of source.

12 cl, 12 ex, 6 dwg

FIELD: spectral-analytical, pyrometric and thermal-vision equipment.

SUBSTANCE: emitter has electro-luminescent diode of gallium arsenide, generating primary emission in wave length range 0,8-0,9 mcm, and also poly-crystal layer of lead selenide, absorbing primary emission and secondarily emitting in wave length range 2-5 mcm, and lead selenide includes additionally: admixture, directionally changing emission maximum wave length position as well as time of increase and decrease of emission pulse, and admixture, increasing power of emission. Photo-element includes lead selenide layer on dielectric substrate with potential barrier formed therein, and includes admixtures, analogical to those added to lead selenide of emitter. Optron uses emitter and photo-elements. Concentration of addition of cadmium selenide in poly-crystal layer of emitter is 3,5-4,5 times greater, than in photo-element. Open optical channel of Optron is best made with possible filling by gas or liquid, and for optimal synchronization and compactness emitter and/or photo-element can be improved by narrowband optical interference filters.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: semiconductor emitting devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed semiconductor element that can be used in light-emitting diodes built around broadband nitride elements of AIIIBV type and is characterized in ultraviolet emission range extended to 280 -200 nm has structure incorporating substrate, buffer layer made of nitride material, n contact layer made of Si doped nitride material, active layer with one or more quantum wells made of nitride material, barrier layer made of Mg doped AlXGaI-XN, and p contact layer made of Mg doped nitride material; used as nitride material for n contact layer is AlyGaI-yN in which 0.25 ≤ V ≤ 0.65; used as nitride material of active layer is AlZGaI ZN, where V - 0.08 ≤ Z ≤ V - 0.15; in barrier layer 0.3 ≤ X ≤ 1; used as nitride material in p contact layer is AlwGa1 - wN, where V ≤ W ≤ 0.7; active layer is doped with Si whose concentration is minimum 1019 cm-3; width "d" of active layer quantum wells is 1 ≤ d ≤ 4 nm; molar fraction of Al on barrier layer surface next to active layer is 0.6 to 1 and further reduces through barrier layer width to its boundary with p contact layer with gradient of 0.02 to 0.06 by 1 nm of barrier layer thickness, barrier layer width "b" ranging within 10≤ b ≤ 30 nm.

EFFECT: enlarged ultraviolet emission range of semiconductor element.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: semiconductor emitting devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed semiconductor element that can be used in light-emitting diodes built around broadband nitride elements of AIIIBV type and is characterized in ultraviolet emission range extended to 240 -300 nm has structure incorporating substrate, buffer layer made of nitride material, n contact layer made of Si doped nitride material AlXIInX2GaI-XI-X2N, active layer made of nitride material AlVIInY2GaI-YI-Y2N, and p contact layer made of Mg doped nitride material AlZIInZ2GaI-ZI-Z2N; active layer is divided into two areas; area abutting against contact layer is doped with Si and has n polarity of conductivity; other area of active layer is doped with Mg and has p polarity of conductivity; molar fraction of Al (YI) in p area of active layer is continuously and monotonously reducing between its boundary with n contact layer and boundary with p area of contact layer and is within the range of 0.1 ≤ VI ≤ 1; difference in VI values at boundaries of active-layer n area is minimum 0.04 and width of forbidden gap in active-layer p area at its boundary with active-layer n area exceeds by minimum 0.1 eV the maximal width of n area forbidden gap.

EFFECT: enlarged ultraviolet emission range, enhanced inherent emissive efficiency, simplified design of light-emitting component.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: semiconductor optoelectronics; various emitters built around light-emitting diodes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed light-emitting diode has chip covered with optical component made of translucent material whose outer surface is of aspherical shape obtained due to rotation of f(x) curve constructed considering optical properties of light-emitting chip and optical component material about symmetry axis of light-emitting diode; it is light-emitting surface. Curve f(x) in coordinate system whose origin point coincides with geometric center of light-emitting chip active area has initial point A0 disposed on ordinate axis at distance corresponding to characteristic size of light-emitting diode; used as this size is desired height of optical component or its desired diameter; active area is formed by plurality of points Ai (i = 1, 2..., n). Taken as coordinates of each point are coordinates of intersection point of straight line coming from coordinate origin point at angle αini to ordinate axis and straight line coming from preceding point Ai - 1 at angle Gi to abscissa axis drawn to point Ai - 1; αini is angle of propagation of iin light beam pertaining to plurality of beams emitted by light emitting chip and chosen between angles 0 and 90 deg.; angle Gi is found from given dependence.

EFFECT: ability of shaping desired light-beam emission directivity pattern.

1 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: semiconductor optoelectronics; various emitters built around light-emitting diodes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed light-emitting diode has light-emitting chip covered by optical component made of translucent material whose outer surface is aspherical in shape due to rotation of curve f(x) built considering optical properties of light-emitting chip and optical component material about symmetry axis of light-emitting diode. This surface emits light and f(x) curve in coordinate system whose origin coincides with geometric center of active area of light-emitting diode has initial point A0 disposed on ordinate axis at distance corresponding to characteristic size of light-emitting diode which is, essentially, optical component height or its desired diameter, and is formed by plurality of points A, (i = 1, 2... n); coordinates of intersection point of straight line drawn from coordinate origin point at angle αini to ordinate axis drawn from preceding point Ai - 1 at angle Gi to abscissa axis drawn to point Ai - 1 are taken as coordinates of each of them;; αini is angle of propagation of iin light beam pertaining to plurality of beams emitted by light-emitting chip chosen between 0 and 90 deg. Angle Gi is found from given dependence. Angle αouti is found by pre-construction of directivity pattern DPin of beam emitted by light-emitting chip. Coordinates of A points are checked by means of light-emitting diode simulator that has optical component whose outline is formed by plurality of Ai points as well as light-emitting chip whose beam directivity pattern is DPin; this chip is used as distributed light source having three-dimensional emitting area whose size and appearance correspond to those of emitting area used in light-emitting diode of light-emitting chip. Light emitting points in light-emitting chip of simulator under discussion are offset relative to origin of coordinates within its emitting area; coordinates of Ai points are checked by comparing directivity pattern DPout and directivity pattern DPsim of beam emitted by light-emitting diode simulator, both displayed in same coordinate system. When these directivity patterns coincide, coordinates of points Ai function as coordinates of points forming curve f(x); if otherwise, coordinates of points Ai are found again, and DPoutj is given as directivity pattern DPout whose points are disposed above or below the latter, respectively, depending on disposition of directivity pattern DPsim below or above directivity pattern DPout in the course of check.

EFFECT: ability of proposed light-emitting diode to shape desired directivity pattern of light beam.

1 cl, 3 dwg

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