Device for rotating beam of high-energy heavy ions
SUBSTANCE: device for rotating beam of high-energy heavy ions has a cylindrical resonator cover, end flanges with beam input and output openings, several pairs of deflecting plates mounted on supports, a high-frequency power supply and a focusing system. Each deflection plate has correcting projections lying on the edges parallel to the longitudinal axis. The total volume of the resonator is formed by structurally independent sections which are fastened together, with a pair of deflection plates at the centre of each of the sections. Distance between centres of the plates along the axis of the resonator is equal to D=V/2f, where V is the velocity of deflected ions and f is the working frequency of the resonator. Along the outer edge of each deflecting plates away from the axis there is a projection which shortens the distance between the plates on the periphery of the deflection gap; a deflector may have a different number of sections.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain resultant ion deviation which is proportional to the total number of cells passed, which can reach any necessary value when the sufficient length of the deflecting resonator is chosen.
The invention relates to the field of physics of charged particle beams and accelerator technology and can be used to create hollow quasitransitive heavy-ion beam of high energy rotating around the longitudinal axis with a high frequency. Such a beam can be used in experiments on inertial fusion.
There is a method of deflection of a beam of heavy ions with high energy by exposure to electric and/or magnetic fields. In this method, the beam passes through a pair of vents, one of which deflects the beam in the vertical plane and the other horizontal. Thus the amplitude and phase of the deflecting fields must be coordinated so as to obtain the desired trajectory of the rotation.
Closest to the proposed device according to the totality of symptoms is the magnetic deflector, in which the beam is deflected in the horizontal and vertical planes under the action of an alternating magnetic field. In this device, the phase difference between the horizontal and vertical deflection equal to 90 degrees, and the amplitude of the field in them is different. This device allows you to receive a beam of heavy ions with high energy rotating around the longitudinal axis with a frequency of the order of 30-60 Hz and used to generate the radiation field in the field of radiation biology and therapy, 1, 2, 3]. The main disadvantage of the prototype is the low frequency of rotation of the beam, due to the high inductance of the deflecting magnets.
To eliminate the disadvantage of the prototype and increasing the frequency of rotation of the beam is proposed to use high-frequency (HF) driver rotating around the longitudinal axis of the beam of heavy ions with high energy, containing two separate RF deflector for vertical and horizontal deflection of ions and focusing system. The device illustrated in the drawing 1, which schematically shows its main elements.
RF deflector consists of a cylindrical casing resonator 1, the end flanges 2 with holes for input and output beam and several pairs of deflecting plates 3, and the radial bearing 4 opposite plates secured along diametrically opposite the forming cylinder, symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis. Each deflector plate has an adjustment tabs 5 which are located on the edges parallel to the longitudinal axis. The total volume of the cavity formed bonded together structurally independent sections. The distance between the centers of the plates along the axis of the resonator is chosen equal to D=V/2f, where V is the velocity of reject ion, a f is the operating frequency of the resonator.
The device operates as follows. In the resonator introduces high is astaty signal, which excites the electromagnetic field. On the desktop as fluctuations deflecting electric field in adjacent cells varies in antiphase, always having a counter direction. At the same time, when performing the resonant conditions D=V/2f time-of-flight of ions from one pair of plates to the other in exactly equal to the half period of the RF oscillations. Because the time span between the cells in the direction of the field reverses, each particle deflecting passes all intervals in the same phase transverse deflecting field. Thus, the resulting deflection of the ions is proportional to the total number of traversed cells and can reach any required size when choosing a sufficient length of deflecting cavity. The electric field in the adjacent deflectors deflecting ions in horizontal and vertical directions, are shifted in phase by 90 degrees. Therefore, after passing through the deflecting system in General, the beam acquires transverse momentum, causing it to rotate around the longitudinal axis, describing a circle in the transverse plane.
1. Wobbler Dosimetry for the Biomedical program at the LBL Bevalac, W.Chu, M.McEvoy, M.Nyman, etc., IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. NS-32, No. 5, 1985.
2. Wobbler Facility for Biomedical Experiments at the Bevalac, W.T.Chu, S.B.Curis, J.Llacer, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. NS-32, No. 5,1985.
3. New Heavy-ion Cancer Treatment Facility at HIMAC, K.Noda, T.Furukaa, T.Inaniwa, etc., EPAC08.
A device for rotating the beam of heavy ions with high energy, consisting of a cylindrical casing resonator, the end flanges with holes for input and output beam source RF power and the focusing system, characterized in that on the inner surface of the cavity has been consistently found several pairs of deflecting plates, and the radial support of the opposite plates secured along diametrically opposite the forming cylinder, symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis and the longitudinal distance between the centers of the plates D is defined as D=V/2f, where V is the velocity of reject ion, a f is the operating frequency of the resonator; along remote from the axis of the external the edges of each of the deflecting plates made the projection that reduces the distance between the plates at the periphery of the deflecting gap; the deflector may include a different number of sections.
SUBSTANCE: anti-scatter device for suppressing scattered radiation comprises a plurality of x-ray absorbing layers and a plurality of spacer layers, such that each spacer layer lies between any two of the plurality of x-ray absorbing layers in order to hold each of the plurality of x-ray absorbing layers in a pre-defined orientation. Furthermore, the spacer layer comprises a plurality of open voids to reduce absorption of x-rays incident on at least part of each spacer layer.
EFFECT: higher image resolution.
9 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling a beam of charged particles in a cyclotron involves focusing the beam in an axial injection system and turning the beam using the electric field of a spiral inflector from the axial direction in the axial injection system to the median plane of the cyclotron. The beam is further focused by the force of the electric field of the spiral inflector, which acts on particles diverging from the central trajectory in the direction across the direction of motion of the central particle on the central trajectory and across the direction of the turning force of the electric field, acting on the central particle moving on the central trajectory. Equipotential lines of the electric field in the inflector in the direction across the beam are concentric arc shaped.
EFFECT: significant reduction of axial dimensions and beam divergence at the output of the inflector, reduced longitudinal dimensions of the beam, best transmission coefficient of the beam in the cyclotron.
2 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.
EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.
28 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.
EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: application: for nondestructive control methods. Substance consists that a collimator comprises a truncated pyramid provided with a beam pat shaped as a lateral surface of the truncated pyramid. The smaller base of the collimator directly adjoins an outlet channel of a moderating block made of polyethylene and representing a hollow cube. Inside of the moderating block, there is a converter for a fast neuron source. The space between the converter face and internal surface of the moderating block contains the polyethylene layer that forms a cavity formation. The moderating block on its surface comprises series lead converter-reflector, a bismuth gamma-shield layer, a slow and fast neutron absorption layer. Lengthwise the collimator additionally accommodates series lead shield layer, a slow and fast neutron shield layer and gamma-shield layer. Gadolinium and cadmium interlayers are provided between shield layers.
EFFECT: higher slow neuron flux density.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to nuclear technology area, to devices for measurement of the form of gamma radiation microspectrum which are emitted at disintegration of long-lived isomeasured conditions of nuclei, such as an isomeasured 109Ag nucleus condition with 88.03 keV energy and average life time of 57 seconds. In the device for measurement of the form of a gamma resonance of long-lived nuclear isomers, beams of gamma-ray quantums from a source are directed to detectors in parallel to a platform plane. The source is placed in the cryostat, conditioned in a temperature providing Moessbauer conditions and executed in the form of a metal plate from the atoms with the nuclei having an investigated isomeasured condition, with the atoms of a parent nuclide input into it. The cryostat and detectors are installed on a platform. Intensity of gamma lines of basic and auxiliary non-resonant gamma sources is measured depending on a slope of beams concerning horizontal plane. The inclination is carried out by platform turn. In each angular position the measurement can be spent at a natural direction of Earth magnetic field and at the component of a terrestrial magnetic field compensated by an additional magnetic field perpendicular to a direction of registered gamma beams. The pair of Helmholtz rings located coaxially to the cryostat serves for terrestrial field compensation.
EFFECT: invention allows raising resolving power Moessbauer spectrometers.
SUBSTANCE: present group of inventions pertain to physics and acceleration techniques and can be used in accelerator - tandems for cancer neutron capture therapy or for detecting explosive and narcotic substances. The compression gas target for peeling a beam of negative ions has a peeling tube, a gas source and a turbo-molecular pump. The housing of the turbo-molecular pump is completely located in a vacuum, next to the peeling tube. The accelerator-tandem with vacuum insulation comprises the said compression gas target.
EFFECT: peeling a beam of negative ions with current more than 5mA and increased compactness of the device, which allows for using it in an accelerator-tandem with vacuum insulation.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.
EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.
8 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: capillary neutron-optical system consists of in line with the optical axis of the system, a neutron source, input collimator, polycapillary lens, and an output collimator. The input part of the polycapillary lens, directed on the neutron source, has a true focus between the input part of the polycapillary lens and the neutron source. The opening of the input collimator is in form of two flattened cones, the small bases of which coincide and are in the focal plane of the input part of the polycapillary lens. The radius of the opening of the input collimator adjacent to the neutron source is equal to the radius of the neutron source. The radius of the opening of the input collimator, adjacent to the polycapillary lens, is equal to the radius of the input part of the polycapillary lens.
EFFECT: obtaining bunches of thermal neutrons with different configurations with minimum halo of background radiation, wider functional capabilities of the capillary neutron-optical system with smaller dimensions of the device, and increased radiation safety.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is intended for systems that perform energy transfer at long distances. Method includes provision of energy carrier movement to energy recipient inside autonomous flexible vacuum ion guide; in capacity of energy source and recipient linear resonance accelerators are used, and in capacity of energy carrier - electronic bundles in the form of sequence of short clot with the possibility of their movement in both directions, at that vacuum in ion guide is maintained by means of getters, and electrons retention in ion guide is performed by means of quadrupole lenses made of hard-magnetic materials.
EFFECT: provides environmental safety and increases efficiency of energy transfer (up to ≈99 %), the value of which does not depend on the value of transferred power, does not contaminate environment even in case of ion guide damage, besides, specific material intensity and cost of ion guide are reduced.
SUBSTANCE: proposed process includes layer-by-layer cross-linking of photopolymerizing molecules by means of focused optical radiation to produce spatially confined X-ray passages disposed within X-ray absorbing material. To this end X-ray absorbing material is added in advance to photopolymerized material, and collimator space, except for X-ray passages, is cross-linked using photochemical method.
EFFECT: enhanced spatial resolution and convergence of spatially confined X-ray passages into single point; reduced cost of process.
FIELD: radiation shielding and masking systems, those producing illumination effects (advertisement, decorative lights), data display systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device that can be used for dissipating electromagnetic radiation, such as light, radio waves, X-rays, as well as for dissipating particle streams is, essentially, multilayer screen some of whose layers are deformable ones. Electric field is built up between two electricity conducting layers due to voltage applied to these layers. In the process conducting layers are split into segments and separate electrodes are brought to respective layers. Voltage applied to separate segments permanently varies with the result that electric field produced is nonuniform and deformable layers are embossed due to nonuniformity of attractive forces between electrodes, this embossed pattern permanently changing its configuration. Radiation (light of different ranges, radio and electromagnetic waves, particle streams) passed through screen or reflected therefrom dissipate due to optical nonuniformity. Kind of dissipation continuously varies due to changes in embossed pattern. Segments of conducting layers can be energized obeying different laws including pseudorandom one.
EFFECT: reduced specific surface power of incident radiation.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: device realizes electric magnet for spectroscopy of decomposition of neutron, with current configuration, providing magnetic field of 1/R type, where R - radial distance from device axis. Magnet includes no iron and field is fully absent at distance of near 25 cm and more from its outer surface. Device has two hollow semi-cylinders which connect through Φ-like flanges. This capability is achieved due to use in construction of each semi-cylinder of two coaxial semi-pipes, supported by their edges by setting grooves of flanges, containing elements for pressurization and centering.
EFFECT: higher trustworthiness, higher reliability, higher durability, higher precision.
FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.
EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: before conversing parallel laser radiation beam of continuous cross-section to circular-section beam, the central round-shaped part is cut out of parallel laser radiation beam for subsequent delivery to specified circular-section beam convergence point. Device has entrance and exit axions that are optically conjugated. One reflecting conic surface of axion is mounted onto ends of hollow rod connected with other reflecting conic surface of axions through pylons. Cavity of rod is divided by partition provided with nozzles for supplying coolant into mentioned compartments. Reflecting surfaces of axions and partition of rod are made with through axial holes. Diameter of axial hole of reflecting conic surface of axions is commensurable with diameter of spot of focused laser radiation. Laser radiation beams can be focused with higher power of density.
EFFECT: increased power density.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medical eqipment.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used for rigging digital X-ray diagnostic apparata. Device has for diaphragming working bunch of medical X-ray diagnostic apparatus has depth diaphragm provided with top and lower group of shutters made of material withhigh atomic number, for example, of plumbum. Shutters are made for movement by mechanism connected with electric engine and disposed between entrance and exit holes of depth diaphragm. Case of diaphragm is tightly connected with optical window of X-ray irradiator. Digital photocamera is fixed inside case of depth diaphragm. Photocamera is connected with computer equipped with display and with electric coordinatographic device connected woth electric engine. Digital photcamera is mounted for bringing phot image together with X-ray image. Camera is has two mirrord, one of which mirrors is disposed within area of direct X-ray from X-ray radiator. Shadow image of internal organs is brought into coincidence with image of skin cover of patient within area of rentgenography.
EFFECT: eased scheduling of surgical operation.
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.
EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.
30 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: radiation engineering; devices for controlling particle flux or electromagnetic radiation using collimator for the purpose.
SUBSTANCE: proposed radiation head has radiation source holder installed in fixed housing made of absorbing material with biological-shield wicket gate joined with its cylindrical sliding surface and labyrinth collimating surface which form ball in closed position; wicket gate pivot is located in center of cylindrical surface of housing. In addition, set of filters separately mounted in stepped spline guides of housing is attached radially relative to common pivot, butt-ends of filters being congruent to housing collimating channel surface; holder is provided with blind pocket in butt-end opposite to source which has through slit to receive telescopic lock damper; the latter is mounted on rod whose spring-loaded flange is loosely mounted inside supporting grip; each filter is separately secured on double-arm positioning lever.
EFFECT: enlarged capabilities of dosing radiation power, enhanced radiation safety in head servicing and storage.
3 cl, 4 dwg