Method to identify structure-to-structure distances in collagen

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: when boiling collagen, linear dimensions of leather tissue are measured before and after collagen boiling. The structure-to-structure distance is determined using difference of the sample thickness after boiling and the rated thickness of the sample before boiling, which is produced as a product of the sample thickness before boiling and a coefficient of layers number defined as a quotient from division of a lengthy sample length into the length of the sample after boiling. Invention makes it possible to realise the specified method objective.

EFFECT: method improvement.

4 ex, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used in any production, even in the artisanal processing of collagen containing raw material, to determine the interrelations of structures distances collagen of the dermis.

Known methods of determining the interrelations of structures distances using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and proton magnetic resonance (PMR), which uses precision equipment (see Bverage and other Water disperse systems - M.: Chemistry, 1989. p.88); (see Golovteev A.A. and other Laboratory of chemistry and technology of leather and fur: Textbook. manual for schools. 3rd ed., Rev. and supplementary): Legprombytizdat, 1987. - 312 S. ill.).

Known methods of determining the interrelations of structures distances of various materials, including collagen, using x-ray or electron diffraction and electron microscopy (see Allsides. The collagen structure and its changes during the treatment - M.: 1960, 362 C.); (see Golovteev A.A. and other Laboratory of chemistry and technology of leather and fur: Textbook. manual for schools. 3rd ed., Rev. and supplementary): Legprombytizdat, 1987. - 312 S. ill.).

However, the known methods are difficult to implement, and require precise and expensive equipment.

There is also known a method of determining the temperature of the welding collagen, designed to con the control process of tanning. This is done by using a special device, equipped with a thermometer, the analyzed sample of collagen fix on thermometer and observe the condition of the sample. The heating rate of 1-2 degrees per minute. For the definition of take the temperature of the changes in length of the specimen (see Golovteev A.A. and other Laboratory of chemistry and technology of leather and fur: Textbook. manual for schools. 3rd ed., Rev. and supplementary): Legprombytizdat, 1987. - 312 S. ill.).

However, the known method can only detect the temperature of the welding collagen and interrelations of structures distances in collagen cannot be determined.

A disadvantage of known methods is the use of technically complex and expensive instrument base.

The closest of the present invention to the technical essence and the achieved result of the method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen in scientific and technical literature and patent documents by the authors was not found.

The technical object of the present invention is to develop a simple and affordable way to determine the interrelations of structures distances collagen of the dermis in the process of its manufacture.

The technical result of the invention is the ability to estimate distance interrelations of structures at the molecular level in the collagen of the dermis in the process you are the tree.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that in the method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen, characterized in that, when welding collagen linear dimensions of the leather is measured before and after deposition of collagen, and interrelations of structures a distance determined by the difference of the thickness of the specimen after welding and the estimated thickness of the sample before welding, which is found as the product of the thickness of the sample before joining and the ratio of the number of layers, defined as the quotient of the length of the elongated sample to the sample length after welding.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen due to the fact that during welding of collagen increases its volume in proportion to the linear dimensions of molecules, the volume of which increases when welding by increasing the diameter of the molecule without changing the length of the molecule. And molecules when welding ends are connected, due to which there is shrinkage.

The method is based on the property of collagen when welding to increase its volume is proportional to the linear dimensions of the basic structural unit of collagen molecules and the movement of molecules relative to each other along the axis of the fibrils before contact with the other end of the molecule and the interaction of the of conduct with them for welding. Moreover, adjoin oppositely charged ends of the collagen molecules, and this causes an increase in strength, the young's modulus increases several times (see A. Mikhailov. Chemistry and physics of collagen of the skin: Monograph.- M: Light industry, 1980, 232 S., Il. p.45, 146). As a result of experiments by the authors revealed an interesting pattern in the welding of collagen samples skins with a predominant horizontal direction of the fibers, which, when welding is compressed along the direction of the fibers so that the shrinkage in value practically does not differ from shrinkage of isolated fibers. And the width is not welded extruded in the direction of the fibers of the sample when welding is practically unchanged. Shrinkage occurs as if the layers of molecules are superimposed on each other during welding and thus increase the thickness of the sample. Moreover, if we compare the thickness of the samples before and after welding, it is as if, when welding is superimposed layers of molecules on each other, and comparing the thickness of the welded samples with the thickness of the sum of the layers are made of collagen of the dermis can be seen that the lack of thickness of the leather of superimposed layers is in percent of the thickness of the welded leather such magnitude, which add to the diameter of the molecule to joining gives interrelations of structures the distance is s made of collagen, in the words of the authors cited next book, ' parent gelatin" is 1.7 nm (17 Å) (see FO Flaherty, Wetrade, Rmiller. Chemistry and technology of leather. Volume 1. - M.: 1960, p.178). The diameter of the collagen molecule in the flooded condition of 1.4 nm (see A. Mikhailov. Chemistry and physics of collagen of the skin: a Monograph. - M: Light industry, 1980, 232 S., Il. p.114); (see Pavlov, S.A., Shestakova I.S., Kasyanov A.A. Chemistry and physics macromolecular compounds in the production of artificial leather, leather and fur. Ed. 2nd, trans. and supplementary Textbook for students of light industry. - M. LEE. 1976, s). According to our calculations, the density of collagen 1047,79 kg/m3corresponds to the diameter of the collagen molecule in flooded condition are 1.4 nm, and the calculated density is almost exactly corresponds to the value found I.G. wood experimentally 1,0475 g/cm3(see Guud. Leather production. Obessolivanie and abating skins. Thought. Petrograd. 1923. 184 S. Il. p.44). Conducted determining the diameter of a molecule using the proposed method also shows close to the specified value of the diameter of the molecule. Therefore, using the present invention it is possible to assess the degree of change of the diameter of the molecules in the chemical materials in the collagen of the dermis in the process of manufacture and to control the processes of manufacture.

For the implementation of the program of the present invention is method for determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen are really measuring the linear dimensions of the samples of the leather by using publicly available measuring instruments such as rulers, calipers or micrometers and gauges.

The method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen performed as follows.

From fresh raw materials or raw material after soaking, or macromolecule raw cut samples with template size 10×1 cm out of phase with the horizontal arrangement of fibres, for example, of the abdomen or flank closer to the line of incision of the skin or paws along the direction of hair growth. The long portion of the sample is strictly placed in the longitudinal direction of the fibers. The cut sample is pulled along the length and measure length in a stretched condition and the width at the narrowest place when pulling. The thickness of the sample is measured with a thickness gauge with a small clamp. The sample was then weld in boiling water, hold for 30-60 seconds with tweezers, fully immersing the sample in boiling water. After welding, measure its linear dimensions. Determine the number of possible layers with the thickness of the leather prior to joining the ratio of the length of the sample in a stretched condition to the length of the welded sample. Next, calculate the distance interrelations of structures, for which the authors provide an example of the calculations is that in General, which take the following notation:

L is the length of the extended sample before welding;

N - the width of the extruded sample in the most narrow place before welding;

H - the thickness of the extruded sample in the most narrow place before welding;

I - length after welding;

n - width after welding;

h is the thickness after welding;

D=1,4 nm (see pages 2 and 3) the diameter of the collagen molecule to welding;

d is the diameter of the collagen molecule after welding;

m is the number of layers with the thickness of the sample before welding is obtained from the ratio of the length of the sample before welding to length after welding, L/l. Consequently, the possible thickness of the skins before joining considering the layers when the length of the sample 1 after welding will be N×m=H1. The value of thickness, missing to the thickness after welding, make h-H1=U. the Missing part of the thickness in percent will make U×100/h=F %. The amount by which increases the thickness (diameter) of the molecule, will be F×D/100=d. Interrelations of structures length after welding will be D+d=J.

Confirm the conclusion can be illustrated by several specific examples of the method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen.

Example 1

From the abdominal part of the skin using a template cut out a sample of size 10×1 cm, pull it. Measure with a ruler the length and width of the sample. The length of the sample p is after the pulling of the L amounted to 117 mm Width at narrowest point N of the extended sample is 5 mm, the thickness of the N - 0.6 mm Measured sample fully immersed in boiling water, hold the tweezers within 30-60 seconds. After welding, the sample is measured with a ruler and a feeler gauge. The specimen after welding - l length 46 mm, n width of 5 mm, h the thickness of 2.0 mm, Then expect interrelations of structures length of the welded sample:

m=L/l is the number of layers with the thickness of the sample before welding is obtained from the ratio of the length of the sample before welding to length after welding 117/46=2,54. Consequently, the possible thickness of the skins before joining considering the layers when the length of the sample l=46 mm will be N×m=H1or to 0.6×2,54 = 1,53 mm Size thickness, missing to the thickness after welding h-H1=U is 2.0-1,53=0,47 mm Missing part of the thickness in percent U×100/h=F % be 0.47×100/2,0=23,69%. The amount by which increases the thickness (diameter) of the molecule, F×D/100=d will be 23,69×1,4/100=0,33 nm. Interrelations of structures length after welding D+d=J-1,4+0,33=1,73 nm.

Similarly, one can calculate the results of the welding value of the diameter of the collagen molecule, taking the reference point distance interrelations of structures items after welding of 1.7 nm.

An example calculation of the interrelations of structures, distances between molecules are not made of collagen. The amount by which it decreases the thickness (diameter) of the molecule, will be 033 nm. Interrelations of structures distance to welding will be 1.7-0,33 = 1,37 nm.

Example 2

From the abdominal part of the skin using a template cut out a sample of size 10×1 cm, pull it. Measure the length of the sample. The length of the sample after extrusion L amounted to 127 mm Width in a stretched state in a narrow place N was 6 mm, the Thickness H of 0.5 mm Measured sample fully immersed in boiling water, hold the tweezers within 30-60 seconds. After welding, the sample is measured with a ruler and a feeler gauge. The specimen after welding - l length 45 mm, n width of 6 mm, h thickness of 1.7 mm, Then expect interrelations of structures length of the welded sample:

m=L/l is the number of layers with the thickness of the sample before welding is obtained from the ratio of the length of the sample before welding to length after welding, equal 127/45=2,822222. Consequently, the possible thickness of the skins before joining considering the layers when the length of the sample I=45 mm is N×m=H1or 0.5×2,822222=1,411111 mm Size thickness, missing to the thickness after welding, h-H1=U will be 1.7-1,411111=0,288889 mm. Missing part of the thickness in percent U×100/h=F % will be 0,288889×100/1,7=16,99347%. The amount by which increases as the welding thickness (diameter) of the molecule, F×D/100=d will be 16,99347×1,4/100=0,2379 nm. Interrelations of structures length after welding D+d=J-1,4+0,2379=1,6379 nm.

Similarly, one can calculate the results is varovanie value of the diameter of the collagen molecule, taking as their starting point interrelations of structures distance elements after welding of 1.7 nm.

An example calculation of the interrelations of structures, distances between molecules are not made of collagen. The amount by which it decreases the thickness (diameter) of the molecule, will be 0,2379 nm. Interrelations of structures distance to welding will be 1.7-0,2379=1,4621 nm.

Example 3

From the abdominal part of the skin using a template cut out a sample of size 10×1 cm, pull it. Measure the length of the sample. The length of the sample after extrusion L was 123 mm Width in a stretched condition N was 7 mm, the Thickness H of 0.5 mm Measured sample fully immersed in boiling water, hold the tweezers within 30-60 seconds. After welding, the sample is measured with a ruler and a feeler gauge. The specimen after welding was 1 length 47 mm n width - 7 mm, h the thickness of 1.75 mm, Then expect interrelations of structures length of the welded sample:

m=L/1 the number of layers with the thickness of the sample before welding is obtained from the ratio of the length of the sample before welding to length after welding, equal 123/47=2,617021. Consequently, the possible thickness of the skins before joining considering the layers when the length of the sample l=47 mm will be N×m=H10,5×2,617021=1,30851 mm Size thickness, missing to the thickness after welding h-H1=U 1.75-1,30851=0,44149 mm. Missing part of the thickness in percent U×100/h=F % will be 044149×100/1,75=25,228%. The amount by which increases the thickness of F × D/100=d (diameter) of the molecule, will be 25,228×1,4/100=0,3531 nm. Interrelations of structures length after welding D+d=J-1,4+0,3531=1,7531 nm.

Similarly, one can calculate the results of the welding value of the diameter of the collagen molecule, taking the reference point distance interrelations of structures items after welding of 1.7 nm.

An example calculation of the interrelations of structures, distances between molecules are not made of collagen. The amount by which it decreases the thickness (diameter) of the molecule, will be 0,3531 nm. Interrelations of structures distance to welding will be 1.7-0,3531=1,3469 nm.

Example 4

From the abdominal part of the skin using a template cut out a sample of size 10×1 cm, pull it. Measure the length of the sample. The length of the sample after extrusion L was 125 mm Width in a stretched condition N was 6 mm, the thickness of the N - 0.6 mm Measured sample fully immersed in boiling water, hold the tweezers within 30-60 seconds. After welding, the sample is measured with a ruler and a feeler gauge. The specimen after welding - l 50 mm length n a width of 6 mm, h the thickness of 2.0 mm, Then expect interrelations of structures length of the welded sample.

m=L/l number of layers with the thickness of the sample before welding is obtained from the ratio of the length of the sample before welding to length after welding, equal 125/50=2,5. Therefore, vozvratilsya skins before joining considering the layers when the sample length l=50 mm is N×m=H 10,6×2,5=1,5 mm Size thickness, missing to the thickness after welding h-H1=U is 2.0 to 1.5=0.5 mm the Missing part of the thickness in percent U×100/h=F % is 0.5×100/2,0=25,0%. The amount by which increases the thickness of F×D/100=d (diameter) of the molecule, will be 25,0×1,4/100=0.35 nm. Interrelations of structures length after welding D+d=J-1,4+0,35=1,75 nm.

Similarly, one can calculate the results of the welding value of the diameter of the collagen molecule, taking the reference point distance interrelations of structures items after welding of 1.7 nm.

An example calculation of the interrelations of structures, distances between molecules are not made of collagen. The amount by which it decreases the thickness (diameter) of the molecule, will be 0.35 nm. Interrelations of structures distance to welding will be 1.7-0,35=1,35 nm.

Dimensions of welded and not welded samples of test examples 1, 2, 3, 4 are summarized in table 1.

Table 1
The sizes of samples for examples 1, 2, 3, 4
# ExampleBefore joiningAfter weldingThe ratio of length to length to length after welding
Length, mm Width, mmThickness, mmLength, mmWidth, mmThickness, mm
111750,646522,54
212760,54561,72,82
312370,54771,752,61
412560,650622,5

The results of calculations of the interrelations of structures distances in collagen after welding test results and calculations in examples 1, 2, 3, 4 are summarized in table 2.

From polucen the x results table 2 shows, what is the value of the interrelations of structures distances very close to that given in the literature and correspond to reality.

The results of calculations of the interrelations of structures distances in the collagen prior to joining test results and calculations in examples 1, 2, 3, 4 are summarized in table 3.

The proposed method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen simple to use, does not require any complex and expensive equipment, allows to assess the degree of change of the diameter of the molecules in the chemical materials in the collagen of the dermis in the process of its manufacture and control processes. Accurately it can be used to determine the distance interrelations of structures in collagen.

The inventive method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in the collagen can be used in any production (even artisanal type) processing raw material containing collagen.

The method of determining the interrelations of structures distances in collagen, characterized in that, when welding collagen measure the linear dimensions of the leather before and after welding, collagen, and interrelations of structures a distance determined by the difference of the thickness of the specimen after welding and the estimated thickness of the sample before welding, which is found as the product of the thickness of the sample before joining and the K-factor is the number of layers, defined as the quotient of the length of the elongated sample to the sample length after welding.



 

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