Method of producing new fuel
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of fuel production. Fuel is produced in mixing lignin with metallurgy wastes. Note here that lignin moisture content may vary. Chips of steel and foundry iron parts and scale are used as metallurgy wastes. Said mix comprises lignin in amount of 70-90 wt % and scale in amount of 10-30 wt %.
EFFECT: universal high-energy fuel.
The invention relates to a fuel, and more particularly to a waste hydrolytic production from waste and mechanical production.
There are many copyright certificates and patents for briquetting and use of lignin as fuel. A.S.№229450, №958467, №1544789, №1286613.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed method is a method of producing fuel briquettes from peat, coal, lignin. A.S. No. 1286613.
The known method has several disadvantages: it briquetting, drying, grinding, mixing.
Peat - 45-55; coal - 20-30; lignin 20-30. As the USSR №1286613, MKI C10F 7/06 - 1987
Waste mechanical production include: chips from steel, cast iron parts, as well as scale. Try to compress and re-melted, but the cost of pressing very significant, and when remelting lost up to half of the weight as if the wastes are not extruded.
The problem underlying the claimed process is the establishment of a simple and economical way by avoiding operations briquetting, drying, grinding. There is only one operation - mixing.
The purpose of the invention is to create a universal energy-dense fuel, as the shaving waste metalloproizvoditeli plays a role in the combustion of thermite mixture. Thermite mixture consists of 70-85% scale and allia is newago powder almost 15-30% and is caused by burning thermomete at a temperature of 2300-2700°C.
The problem is solved in the following way: lignin any moisture is mixed with the waste mechanical production, while the mechanical part of the waste production to be crushed, and this mixture is fed into the furnace of any fired boiler, the combustion temperature increases on average by 200°C testing laboratory analysis.
Lignin - 70-90%; chips and scale of 10-30% by weight.
The calorific value of the dry lignin 5500-6500 cal/kg, wet - 65%, from 1500 to 1650 calories/kg Specific gravity of 1.15.
Humidity from lignin passes for metal shavings in the form of rust (scale), thereby increasing the temperature of combustion, as formed by thermite mixture, the more rust (scale), the higher the combustion temperature.
Listed a set of features allows comparison with the prototype to make the claimed method is easier to implement with reduction operations such as drying, grinding, and with the exception of such costly derivatives, as peat and coal.
The presence of the distinctive features of the prototype of the existing features allows you to admit the new method.
The prior art has identified solutions that would have the signs consistent with the distinctive features of the claimed method, so the latter meets the condition of "inventive step".
Forex is the efficiency of the use of the proposed method in the industry allows us to conclude that it conforms to the criterion "industrial applicability".
The method of obtaining fuel, comprising mixing lignin any moisture from waste mechanical production, representing scraps of steel and iron parts and scale, with a corresponding ratio of mixture components: lignin 70-90%, chips and scale of 10-30%.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to woodworking industry. Proposed method comprises preparing wood particles, drying and sorting them, making modifying carbamide-formaldehyde resin-based binder, mixing it with wood particles, producing carpet and moulding plates. Carbamide-formaldehyde resin modifier is made up of PVAC dispersion-based composition with ratio of components in wt % as follows: carbamide-formaldehyde resin - 67-92; PVAC dispersion - 5-20; carbamide - 1-5: plasticiser - 1-5, and curing agent - 1-3.
EFFECT: reduced toxicity of chipboards.
7 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to using wax water dispersion as oil-wetting agent in producing wood-base materials. Wax dispersion contains soft wax with content of oil exceeding 20% by wt as solid phase or its component. Note here that soft wax is solid at, at least, 10°C and below, and features softening temperature below 65°C, and contains 0.5-10 % by wt of urea per wax dispersion weight. Soft wax-to-urea weight ratio varies from 100:0.3 to 100:6. Wax dispersion is brought in contact with wood chippings or fibers. Invention covers also wood-base material produced in using binders, soft wax and urea, and method of its production.
EFFECT: higher oil-wetting effect and better physical and chemical properties.
28 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wood material in which a nitrogen-containing compound is distributed, where the said compound forms a cellular structure and is a product of condensation of formaldehyde in form of a cellular structure formed in amount (N) of at least 1 wt % in terms of nitrogen, relative the total weight of the wood material. The coefficient (FA/N) which is expressed as the ratio of extraction of formaldehyde (FA), determined using a method in a closed volume in accordance with EN 717, part 3, to the quantitative content of nitrogen (N) has maximum value of 3.5×10-3, and the hold level of the nitrogen-containing compound is higher than 73%. The method of obtaining the wood material involves a) saturating wood material with an aqueous composition containing i) at east one nitrogen-containing compound which forms a cellular structure and ii) at least one substance which catalyses formation of the cellular structure, b) treating the saturated wood material at high temperature in order to remove water and to form a cellular structure from the nitrogen-containing compound which forms a cellular structure. Step b) of the process involves treatment of the saturated wood material at least once with superheated water vapour, followed by treatment at least once at temperature higher than 110°C and with relative humidity of the gaseous medium surrounding the wood material of not more than 20%. The nitrogen-containing compound which forms the cellular structure is selected from: 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, which is modified by an alkanol with 1-6 carbon atoms, a polyol with 2-6 carbon atoms or oligoalkyleneglycol, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, 1,3-bis(methoxymethyl)urea, 1- hydroxymethyl -3-methylurea, 1- hydroxymethyl-3-methyl-4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, 1- hydroxymethyl -4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-hexahydropyrimidin-2-one, 1,3-bis(methoxymethyl)-4,5- dihydroxyimidazolidin-2-one, tetra(hydroxymethyl)acetylenediurea, low-molecular melamine-formaldehyde resins and low-molecular melamine-formaldehyde resins which are modified with alkanol with 1-6 carbon atoms, polyol with 2-6 carbon atoms or oligoalkyleneglycol, mixtures of said compounds with each other, mixtures of said compound with not less than one compound V', which contains at least one free NH- group, and mixtures of said compounds with at least one compound V" which contains at least one hydroxyl group which is not part of the CH2OH group.
EFFECT: wood material has low release of formaldehyde.
19 cl, 19 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains polyethylene production and/or household wastes, beet pulp and bentonite as a processing additive.
EFFECT: disclosed composition has rheological characteristics which meet requirements for polymeric materials for their possible processing on conventional equipment, as well as required operational characteristics, including biodegradability.
4 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a composition for a wood-polymer composite material containing the following, wt %: furfural-acetone resin 14-20, benzene sulphonic acid 3-5, andesite flour 47-57, technical soot 2.5-5.7, wood chips 16-20, broken glass or loose glass yarn 0.3-0.5, modified low molecular weight styrene-containing copolymer based on still bottoms from distillation of recycled solvent from production of polybutadiene 2.0-6.0 wt % maleic acid 1-5, and polyatomic alcohol 0.3-1.5.
EFFECT: composition enables to obtain wood-polymer composite material with high strength and frost resistance.
2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of vegetable lignocelluloses raw material to produce plate construction materials to be used in construction and furniture production. Vegetable lignocelluloses raw material with high content of lignin and hemicelluloses is treated for 15 s - 10 min by water steam at not over 1 MPa and 150-250°C. Treatment by water steam is instantly terminated. Said vegetable lignocelluloses raw material thus treated is mixed with untreated fibrous vegetable lignocelluloses raw material. Content of vegetable lignocelluloses raw material treated by water steam in produced mix makes 2-60 wt %. Produced mix is formed into mats. Water is extracted from said mats. Vegetable lignocelluloses raw material treated by water steam can be dried to moisture content of 5-10%. Resultant matter is mixed with untreated vegetable lignocelluloses raw material. Mats are produced from obtained mix and subjected to hot pressing. To produced solid plate material.
EFFECT: lower production costs.
5 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of plate materials based on cellulose-containing particles impregnated with glue base on carbamide-formaldehyde resin to be used woodworking industry. Cellulose-containing particles are mixed with glue based on carbamide-formaldehyde resin and acid solidifier. Said cellulose-containing particles represent flax boon. Note here that said glue comprises additionally modifier butanol-1 in amount of 1.4…1.6% of carbamide-formaldehyde resin weight.
EFFECT: production of new structural material with increased physical and mechanical properties.
1 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aqueous solution of the product of reacting a composition used for products made from recycled wood material, essentially consisting of an acid source with pKa in water ranging from 2 to 8, a base source with pKb in water ranging from 2 to 6 and urea, in which the composition contains from 0.1 to 70 wt % acid, from 0.1 to 50 wt % base and from 1 to 55 wt % urea, where the rest is water, is effective for enhancing polymerisation of urea-formaldehyde resin. The composition which is capable of hardening urea-formaldehyde resin can contain urea-formaldehyde resin which is capable of hardening and the above described composition and can be obtained by mixing the resin with the said composition. A panel made from recycled wood material can be made by mixing crushed lignocellulosic material and the said urea-formaldehyde resin which is capable of hardening and hardening the resin. The concentrate for preparing the polymerisation enhancing composition used for products made from recycled wood material contains an acid source with pKa in water ranging from 2 to 8, a base source with pKb in water ranging from 2 to 6 and urea.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking up of the plates during hot piling and further hot pressing.
19 cl, 6 ex, 9 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in mechanical engineering for fabrication of big size bearing and sliding elements of light and medium loaded friction units operating with organic lubricant. Here is disclosed antifriction wood-polymer material made out of composition containing crumbled wood, polymer binding - mixture of polyethylene and polypropylene, modifier of polymer binding - maleic anhydride, lubricant - mixture of mineral oil and polyethylene wax and additionally - fly ash.
EFFECT: raised impact strength and tribo-resistance at wear, reduced water absorption of antifriction material.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to wood-working, furniture and construction industry. In order to develop non-toxic plate material, it is proposed to use moulding material from plant raw material without using synthetic binders. Moulding material in the form of plant raw material particles containing cellulose, lignine, easy- and difficult-to-hydrolyse polysaccharides and carboxyl groups is obtained by means of cavitation treatment of plant raw material; at that, it contains easy- and difficult-to-hydrolyse polysaccharides 13-18% and 28-37%, correspondingly, cellulose with copper index of 1.7-2.9 g/100 g - 53-58 %, lignine (Komarov) 31-37% and carboxyl groups 0.6-4.9 %.
EFFECT: cheap plate materials having high ecological and physic and mechanical properties are obtained from moulding material.
6 cl, 1 ex, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to igniter compositions for electrical igniters. According to the invention, the composition which contains lead chromate, potassium chromate and lead rhodanate, also contains a metal-ceramic powdered composition based on carbides of group IV-VII transition metals, cemented by an iron subgroup metal in amount of 6-25%.
EFFECT: inclusion of a modifying additive into the composition in amount of 1-10%, over 100%, enables to stabilise particle-size composition of the product, increase accuracy of operation of electrical igniters and increase igniting capacity.
SUBSTANCE: spark-show composition is used in pyrotechnic articles - table fountains for entertainment. The composition contains the following in wt %: ammonium nitrate 82.6±2.0; activated carbon 6.6±1.0; titanium 4.3±1.0; cast iron 2.5±0.5; urotropin 4.1±1.0. The composition is used in form of pressed blocks (specific moulding pressure 750-780 kgf/cm2). Characteristics: height of spark show 520 mm, flameless, burning temperature 600-700°C, show of hot bursting particles in form of a herringbone. Duration of burning of two blocks in cardboard cartridge case with height 40-45 mm, fitted with a nozzle with diameter 8 mm is about four minutes.
EFFECT: absence of falling hot particles when said composition burns, low burning temperature of said composition, absence of specific smell of combustion products and explosion hazardous components in the composition makes use and manufacture of the fountain safe, the spark show in form of a herringbone consisting of bursting particles creates a beautiful effect with duration of more than three minutes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to small-scale heat-power engineering, particularly thermite fuel compositions which, during initiation, can undergo chemical conversion with release of a large amount of heat, and mainly to such compositions which do not detonate and in which redox reactions take place in air in combustion mode without a special oxidising agent and without formation of a liquid phase. Aluminium oxide and aluminium are added to the thermite fuel composition in form of nanopowder in the following ratio in wt %: aluminium oxide nanopowder 1.5-3.0; aluminium powder - the rest. During combustion of the disclosed thermite, a liquid phase does not form and there is no fusion with the substrate.
EFFECT: high heat-liberation value of the thermite fuel and low content of liquid phase in combustion products of this fuel.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of various-purpose pyrotechnical compositions. Proposed method comprises subjecting components of composition powder redoxides and mixes thereof to intensive percussive-abrasive mechanical effects to form sintered particles of initial components and/or increase deficiency of crystalline structure of reagents, namely, to broadening of individual X-ray diffractograms spots by, at least, 10% compared to initial values. Mechanical processing of composition components may be conducted both simultaneously and separately with subsequent mixing.
EFFECT: higher rate and stability of combustion, improved firing characteristics.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: fuel composition contains 50-60% chromium oxide, 20-25% aluminium powder and alumina (aluminium oxide) powder - the rest. The metallothermic fuel burns without atmospheric oxygen and without formation of harmful emissions, i.e. is environmentally safe. The combustion wastes are not toxic. When burning a mixture with such composition, ambient temperature rises to 1200°C in 50 seconds, which is very suitable for hearths.
EFFECT: fuel is 5-7 times cheaper than the hydrocarbon equivalent.
2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pyrotechnics. The amber light pyrotechnic composition contains 45-47.5 wt % magnesium powder, 21-23.5 wt % sodium nitrate, 23.5-25 wt % silicate lumps and 5-10 wt % calcium stearate.
EFFECT: increased light intensity, specific light sum and combustion strength of the pyrotechnic composition.
1 tbl, 3 ex