Method for production of pectin and food fibres of pumpkin cake

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to food industry, and namely to pectin production. The method involves pumpkin cake washing with water, pressing and hydrolysis extraction, the mixture water duty being 1:(4-5), at a 60-65°C temperature during 60 minutes. The extragent used is anolyte with pH20 = 4.0-4.5. The hydrolysis mass is separated into cake and hydrolysate by way of pressing. The cake is extracted with catholite with pH20 = 7.5-8.0, the mixture water duty being 1:3, at a 60°C temperature during 30 minutes. Then the cake having been extracted is separated from the extract by way of pressing. Cake particles are milled and dried to produce food fibres. The extract is mixed with the hydrolysate and filtered. The mixture is delivered for alcohol precipitation of pectin and its during. The anolyte and the catholyte are produced by way of sodium chloride treatment in an diaphragm electrolyser.

EFFECT: invention enables implementation of a non-waste pumpkin technology due to production of pectin and additional extraction of food fibres, pectin yield increase, production of high quality pectin and food fibres, production process environmental friendliness enhancement.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to food industry, in particular the production of pectin and dietary fiber from the pumpkin pulp.

A known method of producing pectin from pumpkin pulp [A.S. EN 2055484, publ. 10.03.96, bull. No. 7], involving washing the latter with water, the two-stage hydrolysis of the washed raw material at a water ratio somocistas a mixture of 1:(10-30), the pH of the mixture of 0.8-1.1 and the process temperature of 65-70°C, the duration of the first stage of hydrolysis is 1.5-2.0 hours, and the second of 0.5-1.0 hours.

The disadvantage of this method is inefficient use of raw materials, because it only extracts pectin and bipolymers determining the nutritional value of this product, in part goes to waste, and partly destroyed by the action of aggressive environment (strongly acidic environment (pH200,8-1,1). In addition, prolonged acid extraction contributes to the destruction of the molecular chains of pectin, disrupting their structure, reducing the quality and yield of the target product and the technology due to the use of hydrochloric acid is not environmentally friendly.

An object of the invention is the creation of non-waste production technology of pectin due to the additional extraction of the raw material of dietary fiber, increase the quality and yield of the finished products in General intensification and conservation Ecol is cally pure process for their preparation.

The method of producing pectin and dietary fiber from the pumpkin pulp is characterized by the fact that when extracting pectin from pumpkin pulp also get the dietary fiber, which is obtained after juice extraction, the pulp is washed with water, pressed and sent to the hydrolysis-extraction when water ratio mixture of 1:(4-5), 60-65°C and the duration of the process 60 minutes, as extractant use the anolyte with a pH204.0 to 4.5, after the separation of the hydrolysis mass by pressing on the pulp and bagasse hydrolysate extracted by Catolica with pH207,5-8,0 when the water ratio mixture of 1:3, 60°C for 30 minutes, then separated by pressing proektirovanii pulp from the extract of the pulp particles milled and dried to obtain dietary fiber, the extract is combined with the hydrolysate and after filtration direct the mixture to the deposition of pectin with alcohol and drying, and the anolyte and catholyte are treated solution of sodium chloride in the diaphragm cell.

Dietary fiber is a complex biopolymers including polysaccharides including pectin. And pectin and dietary fiber are food additives used, for example, in cooking and baking to increase the water-holding properties of the products. In addition, these additives have the ability adsorbe the SQL radionuclides, heavy metals and other harmful substances. This feature finds application in medicine and clinical nutrition.

The drawing shows the principal vector diagram of the method in the factory.

The method of producing pectin and dietary fiber is as follows.

Pumpkin washed and ground into flakes. From the received chips extracted cell SAP known methods (e.g., by pressing). If necessary, the crop is pressed for a more complete separation of soluble components. Pumpkin pulp is washed with water to remove low molecular weight substances and pressed. The thus prepared pumpkin pulp is directed to the hydrolysis-extraction at a temperature of 60-65°C for a duration of 60 minutes, the water ratio 1:(4-5). As extractant use the anolyte with a pH204.0 to 4.5, obtained by treatment of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride in the anode chamber of a diaphragm electrolyzer. The application of electrochemical activation contributes to the softening of the mode of hydrolysis-extraction and at the same time intensifies this process to ensure the quality and high output.

Further hydrolysis mass is pressed with the Department of pulp and pectin containing hydrolysate. The pulp is extracted by Catolica with pH207,5-8,0 when the temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes and the water ratio mixture of 1:3. Proektirovanii pulp is separated by pressing from the extract, pulverized and dried to obtain dietary fiber. The extract is mixed with the hydrolysate and their mixture is used to produce pectin. For this purpose it is filtered, concentrated and precipitated from it with ethyl alcohol pectin, which is then dried at 60°C. after the drying process, the pectin is crushed, sieved. Exhaust alcohol after distillation can be reused.

The method is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1 (prototype).

300 g fresh pumpkin pulp filled with water and washed with 0.5 l of water at 55°C for 30 minutes. The washing process in the specified mode is carried out three times, after which the pressed pulp is subjected to hydrolysis in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. The water ratio somocistas a mixture of 1:10, pH of 0.8, the temperature of 65°C, the duration of the first stage of the hydrolysis of 1.5 hours. The hydrolysate is filtered off, pressed pulp is again subjected to hydrolysis under the same conditions, but for 0.5 hours. Connect both of the hydrolysate, the mixture is cooled, precipitated with ethanol and dried. The output of pectin amounted to 7.2%, the content of polygalacturonic acid (PGA) - 49%, the degree of esterification is 65%.

Example 2.

Pumpkin is washed, ground into chips. From the received chip press the cell SAP. Pumpkin pulp in the amount of 300 g was washed with water to remove low molecular weight substances and pressural conduct hydrolysis-extraction at 60°C for 60 min and at a water ratio of 1:4. As extractant use the anolyte with a pH204,0, obtained by treatment of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride in the anode chamber of a diaphragm electrolyzer. Prehydrolyzed mass is pressed with the Department of pulp and hydrolysate. The pulp is extracted with 3 times the number of Catolica with pH20to 7.5 at a temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes Then proektirovanii pulp is separated by pressing from the extract, pulverized and dried to obtain dietary fiber. The extract is mixed with the hydrolysate and their mixture is used to produce pectin. For this purpose, the mixture is filtered, concentrated and precipitated from the pectin ethyl alcohol 96%concentration and dried pectin at 60°C.

Ready pectin and dietary fiber analysis. The data analysis presented in the table.

Example 3.

The method of producing pectin and dietary fiber from the pumpkin pulp is carried out analogously to example 2, but as gidrolizuemye agent use the anolyte with a pH204,5, and the process of hydrolysis-extraction is carried out at a water ratio of the mixture 1:5, 65°C for 60 minutes.

The finished products are analysed. The data analysis presented in the table.

Table
Technological parameters Data examples
1 (prototype)23
The output of pectin, %7,2of 17.0of 17.5
The degree of esterification, %65to 70.270,0
Content polygalacturonic acids, %497771
The water holding capacity of dietary fiber (MF), yoy RO-15,014,2

As can be seen from the table, pectin, obtained by the proposed method, characterized by higher quality: the content polygalacturonic acids increased 1.5 times, the degree of esterification increased by 5% compared to the prototype. The output of pectin increased on average by 10%. Moreover, this method allows the addition of pectin to obtain dietary fiber high quality, that is, contributes to the implementation of waste recycling of secondary raw materials.

The process of hydrolytic cleavage at pH20less than 4.0 leads to the degradation of pectin, following the journey of depolymerization rumeilah and galactocerebroside links, therefore, the output of pectin is sharply reduced, and at pH20less than 2.5 dietary fiber is absolutely not possible to distinguish, in connection with the change in the structure of plant tissue. Hydrolysis-extraction at pH20more than 4.5 does not provide a high yield of the target product are retrieved only pectic substances, mechanically connected through hydrogen bonds, which constitute 5-10% of the amount of pectin.

When the temperature of the hydrolysis-extraction 60-65°C maximum output of pectin. Reducing the temperature below 60°C does not lead to a significant reduction of the structural viscosity of pectin, which affects the mass transfer and reduces the degree of extraction. In addition, at temperatures above 65°C as pectin and dietary fiber significantly reduced.

With increasing duration of hydrolysis-extraction above 60 minutes reduced the yield of pectin and destroyed the structure of the particles of the pulp, which worsen the conditions of separation of the liquid phase in the filtering process, it is difficult to obtain dietary fiber.

When the water ratio less than 1:4 increases the viscosity of the hydrolysis mixture, there is no free mixing and extraction of pectin is complicated. Increasing the water ratio above 1:5 does not lead to a significant increase in the yield of pectin, but leads to higher consumption of chemical Reagan the s and the intensity of production, so is economically unprofitable.

The proposed method of producing pectin and dietary fiber from the pumpkin pulp allows you to:

- organize-waste recycling plant raw material for pectin and dietary fiber;

- to improve the quality and output of finished products;

- to improve the environmental safety of production and to improve working conditions due to the replacement of traditional acid reagent on the reagent, obtained by electrochemical synthesis.

The method of producing pectin and dietary fiber from the pumpkin pulp, characterized by the fact that when extracting pectin from pumpkin pulp also get the dietary fiber, which is obtained after juice extraction, the pulp is washed with water, pressed and sent to the hydrolysis-extraction when water ratio mixture of 1:(4-5), the temperature of 60-65°C. and a process time of 60 min, as extractant use the anolyte with a pH204.0 to 4.5, after the separation of the hydrolysis mass by pressing on the pulp and bagasse hydrolysate extracted by Catolica with pH207,5-8,0, when the water ratio mixture of 1:3, 60°C for 30 min, then separated by pressing proektirovanii pulp from the extract of the pulp particles milled and dried to obtain dietary fiber, the extract is combined with the hydrolysate and after filtration direct the mixture to the deposition of actina alcohol and drying, the anolyte and catholyte are treated solution of sodium chloride in the diaphragm electrolyzer.



 

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