Method of measuring gas humidity

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of measuring gas humidity involves conversion of the measured quantity to a parametre of an electrical signal transmitted over a measurement channel and periodic correction of the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre. Gas, whose humidity is being measured, is isobarically cooled to temperature lower than the dew point, determined from previous measurement results. The obtained gas with precisely known humidity is used to correct the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre. After cooling the gas to temperature lower than the dew point and before feeding the gas onto the hygrometre sensor, temperature of the gas is raised to an initial value. Also, after isobaric cooling of the gas in order to measure humidity, cooling the gas continues until a second value of humidity is obtained at a precisely known temperature of the gas and correction of the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre is carried out based on the obtained two measurement values of humidity.

EFFECT: automation of correction of the graduated characteristic of the hygrometre during measurement and providing long-term stability of measurement errors.

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The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in the process control humidity of gases, especially in industries in which it is difficult or impossible access to humidity sensors, for example, in high-power turbo-generators or nuclear power plants.

The main requirement for hygrometers used in diagnostic systems humidity gas powerful turbogenerators or diagnosing leakage of fluid into the contours of reactor installations of nuclear power plants, is the long-term stability of its metrological characteristics.

There are several ways to achieve long-term stability characteristics of hygrometers. According to one patent of the Russian Federation№№2184369 [1], 2369863 [2] periodically, instead of the capacitive humidity sensor is connected exemplary capacitor, instead of thermistor is exemplary resistance. According to the results of measurements of the parameters of the model elements are introduced amendments to the calibration characteristic of the hygrometer. This method solves the problem of increasing long-term stability error hygrometers to a small extent, because the calibration is subjected to only a portion of the measuring channel associated with the conversion of the electrical measurement signal. As such converters (change is sustained fashion transformers, amplifiers, ADC) is very stable. The main source of instability is the humidity sensor is not subjected to calibration, and the measurement error increases in time.

According to the patent of Russian Federation №2268509 [3] proposed, in addition to the measurement of humidity in air ducts of ventilation of the premises of the nuclear reactor installation, measure the humidity additional reference channel. According to the invention the sensors measuring channels controlled premises connected with the computer means alarm triggered when the corresponding difference of the readings of any of the measurement channels with the reference" [3, p.4]. To assume that the error of the measurement method under consideration contains an error equal to or less than the error of a single channel measurements, only if:

- systematic components of the basic error of all channels are equal in magnitude and of the same sign;

- random components of the basic error correlated with a correlation coefficient close to 1;

- error from the influence functions are the same;

- time drift errors of all channels is identical.

Because there are no prerequisites to fulfill the above requirements, there is no reason to assume that the error of the difference in readings of the two channels of the hygrometer will be less than ommanney composition of their individual errors. Thus, the stated aim of improving long-term stability of readings is reached.

The closest technical solution is a way of measuring the humidity of gases contained in the description of sorption-frequency hygrometer "Wave 5" [4]. According to the description in [4, section 14] hygrometer shall not less than once every 1.5 months to be aligning. If the temperature of the gas during operation of the device other than (20±5)°C, then the frequency adjustment should be determined by the consumer". The alignment procedure, as described, is as follows.

Sensor hygrometer is disconnected from the sampling point gas and connected to an exemplary generator wet gas "Spring 2".

- Exemplary generator set when the gas temperature (20±2)°C sequentially relative humidity 35% to 85%; measurement values at specified moisture serve as baseline data for the correction of the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer.

In the absence of a model generator "Spring-2" to the sensor hygrometer sequentially connect the supplied delivery hygrometer of the shutter glasses relative humidities, respectively, 33% and 85% at a temperature of (20±2)°C; adjustment process of calibration characteristics is similar to the previous case.

The disadvantages of assmotrena method of measurement and correction of calibration characteristics is the need for periodic disassembly of the sensor hygrometer with object in which the measured humidity of the gas; not taking into account the real properties of the medium (gas pressure, the magnitude of consumption, real temperature, etc.); the need to create a normalized temperature regime procedures, alignment, namely (20±2)°C.

The technical problem solved by the invention is the automation of the adjustment of the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer in the measurement process and ensuring long-term stability of the measurement errors.

This object is achieved in that in the method of measuring the moisture content of the gas, including the conversion of the measured value in the parameter of the electrical signal transmitted by the measuring channel and periodic adjustment of the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer, more gas whose humidity is measured, cooled isobarically to a temperature below the dew point, which is determined by the results of previous measurements, and the resulting gas with accurately known humidity is used to adjust the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer.

The drawing shows an example implementation of the method.

Subject to the measurement gas is supplied to the refrigerator comprising a heat exchanger 1, a cooling element (e.g., Peltier element) 2 and thermometer (for example, a resistance thermometer) 3. The output of the refrigerator is isodine through the tube to the measuring chamber 4, where are the sensors of humidity and temperature. The sensors are connected to plate 5 containing intermediate transducers (resistive and capacitive bridges, amplifiers, filters, detectors, ADC). Pay outs converters 5 is connected to the computer 6, the signals of which are fed to the controller 7 and are presented to the user of the measuring information in the form of numbers on the display or electrical signals (digital, current, etc.); device view information on the drawing, not shown conventionally. The controller 7 is also connected thermometer 3 and the cooling element 2.

In measurement mode the wet gas flows through the heat exchanger 1 in the chamber 4, in which the humidity and temperature of the gas is converted by the sensor into corresponding electrical signal. Refrigerator does not have the passing gas no influence is retained, its temperature, pressure, flow value. Therefore, sensors, transducers and the transmitter is operating in the mode of hygrometer and display the output of the transmitter results of measurements of humidity and (if necessary) gas temperature.

Periodically through programmed in the calculator intervals mode correction calibration features. In this mode, the transmitter according to the latest measured results relative authorities the particular calculates the dew point of vapor in gas.

For explanation of operations will review the operation of the device in the correction mode for example. The last measurement of gas parameters given values: the gas temperature t=20°C, relative humidity φ=30%. The transmitter according to the formula Magnus, the equation of the world meteorological organization or hygrometric tables [5, p.10-19] translates relative humidity vapor dew point. For the considered example, the dew point τ=2°C. the result differs from the actual values of humidity on the magnitude of measurement errors. If the hygrometer has the characteristics of a prototype (hygrometer "Wave-5"), then the limit basic error limit is 2.5% and the limit of the variations in the readings well as 2.5%. In the limiting case, the maximum error can be argued that the actual value of the relative humidity is between 25% to 35%.

The transmitter 5 takes on thermostat control signal to set the humidity corresponding to the lower limit of the measurements, i.e. to set the refrigerator temperature corresponding to the temperature of the dew point at 25% relative humidity or with some reserve, at 24%. The dew point at 24% relative humidity under hygrometric tables is equal to minus 1°C.

The controller 7 supplies current to the cooling element 2 up until thermometer 3 is not in tanovic, the gas temperature decreased from 20°C to minus 1°C. the Excess steam in the heat exchanger as lowering the temperature of the gas is condensed into liquid water and the nominal humidity of the gas at the outlet of the refrigerator (the accuracy of thermostat is usually not more than 0.2%) will be equal to minus 1°C dew point.

The controller 7 outputs a signal in the transmitter 5 of the desired temperature of the gas and the beginning of the measurements in the correction mode. Measuring accurately known values of moisture content of the gas (in this example, the relative humidity is equal to 24%). The result of the measurement is to develop corrective amendments calibration characteristics of the hygrometer. For example, in the measurement result obtained value of the moisture content of 25.5%. Amendment summed with subsequent measurements are equal, therefore, Δφ=-1,5%.

After determining the magnitude of the amendment, the evaluator submits a command to shut down the refrigerator (or accelerated warming up for evaporation of condensed moisture formed in the heat exchanger), and after the transition process of restoring the original gas temperature hygrometer goes into measurement mode until the next cycle adjustments.

To accelerate the transition process to return to the measurement mode it is possible to supply gas to the hygrometer in two lines: the main and by-pass, in what toroi install refrigerator. In this case, in the measurement mode, the gas will be supplied directly to the hygrometer on the main highway. The gas flow through the bypass prevents the locking valve. In the adjustment mode, the gas flow in the main line is stopped (locked valve main line), and the cooled gas flows through the bypass line. After adjusting the valve of the bypass line is locked, the main offer, and immediately restored the standard measurement mode.

Measurement error can be further reduced if the gas with an exemplary value of humidity during corrective measurements to warm up after the refrigerator up to the equilibrium temperature of the gas in the measuring chamber 4 of the hygrometer. In this case, the correction signal is obtained not only on the working gas at operating pressures, but at its operating temperature. Any modification of the device specified condition does not require, enough to make the tube between the output of the cooler and the inlet of the measuring chamber of sufficient length for the heating of the gas during the flow through it.

Adjustment of the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer can be performed with greater accuracy, if the rate of change of humidity of the gas is low, as is the case in high-power turbo-generators or reactor zones of nuclear power plants, tens of minutes or hours. E is th case after receiving corrective humidity values φ 1it is recorded in the memory of the computer and serves the second team on thermostat to lower the temperature to lower values (by 2-3 degrees). While getting gas with the second accurately known value of the dew point, moisture measurement which gives the second precise value of the relative humidity φ2. Two obtained values of relative humidity is calculated not just an amendment to the calibration feature, but its real tangent of an angle; in fact in finding current gas humidity built the exact local calibration feature.

Introduction to the method of humidity measurement gas, comprising the conversion of the measured value in the parameter of the electrical signal transmitted by the measuring channel and periodic adjustment of the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer, additional operations Isobaric cooling the gas to a temperature below the dew point, which is determined by the results of previous measurements, and the use of the resulting gas with accurately known humidity to adjust the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer can be corrected calibration characteristic of the hygrometer without dismantling the device, using the working gas with its real characteristics (pressure, flow, temperature). Specify the s circumstances dramatically increase long-term stability of metrological characteristics of hygrometers and accurate measurement of moisture content of gases, and also simplify the operation of hygrometers.

Sources of information

1. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2184369, CL G01N 25/56, the Device for measuring the humidity of the air.

2. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2369863, CL G01N 25/56, the Device for measuring the humidity of the air.

3. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2268509, CL G21C 17/07, registration System leaks coolant 1 loop reactor installations of nuclear power plants (CPT).

4. Hygrometer Wave-5. Passport C PS.

5. Runners A.A. Theoretical foundations and technical means of pyrometry. ): Standards, 1988, s.

1. The method of measuring the moisture content of the gas, including the conversion of the measured value in the parameter of the electrical signal transmitted by the measuring channel and periodic adjustment of the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer, characterized in that the gas whose humidity is measured, cooled isobarically to a temperature below the dew point, which is determined by the results of previous measurements, and the resulting gas with accurately known humidity is used to adjust the calibration characteristics of the hygrometer.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein after cooling the gas to a temperature below the dew point and before its submission to the sensor hygrometer temperature of the gas increases to the initial value.

3. With whom persons according to claim 1, characterized in that after Isobaric cooling gas according to claim 1 and measuring the humidity of the gas continues to cool to obtain a second value of humidity at precisely known temperature gas and correction calibration features hygrometer spend two obtained values of measurements of humidity.



 

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