Method of producing anti-caking ammonium nitrate (ammonium saltpeter)

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of producing mineral fertiliser. The method of producing anti-caking ammonium nitrate involves treatment with powdered additives. The anti-caking additive used is a mixture of metal fluorides and aerosol in amount of not less than 0.1% of the weight of ammonium nitrate.

EFFECT: method enables to obtain anti-caking ammonium nitrate for producing industrial explosives.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of production of ammonium nitrate, in particular ammonium nitrate with anti-caking additives for its use as a major component of industrial explosives.

There is a method of reducing the caking when using small additives of coloring agents (0.1 to 0.03% of the mass of salt) upon receipt of ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate). However, the dyes though and reduce caking, give the ammonium nitrate fragility, and the effectiveness of their significantly decreases with increasing the amount of absorbed moisture (M.Hashi Rawa, oth, Chem, Soc, Japan. And Chem. Soc, 62 No. 1.38 (1959)).

In domestic practice against caking of ammonium nitrate are widely used conditious supplements - nitric acid salt of calcium and magnesium obtained by dissolving in nitric acid, dolomite, products, nitric acid decomposition of phosphate - solution of phosphate or Apatite concentrate. They are added into the solution of ammonium nitrate to its crystallization. Granular ammonium nitrate with the addition of 0.4-0.6% of the nitrates of calcium and magnesium is practically not deformed during 3 months of storage under different climatic conditions. But in the presence of additives change the shape of the crystals. So, the addition of magnesium nitrate, which increases the viscosity of the solution contributes to the crystallization of NH4NO3as den is RIT. The crystals of this form fragile and not capable of firmly cement the previously formed crystals. In addition, additives facilitate the transfer of moisture from the surface to the inside of the particles, which also reduces caking. The report Chirchik elektrokombinat, INTI, 1953, Goskomizdat, 1957; Magidovich, Pavlicko, NCCAM, Proceedings of GIAP 10, 1959, str (Analogues).

Closest to the proposed invention is a method of reducing the caking, which is achieved by dusting particles of salt powdered additives, gypsum or talc, magnesite. The method is quite simple in execution. Really additives reduce the caking of ammonium nitrate by reducing the free moisture content in the particles (U.S. Patent 3190775) (prototype). However, these pripudrivayut supplements gradually migrate from the surface to the inside of the particle, and the ability of the latter to adsorb and decarbonate moisture again restored. Thus, the effect of these prepodavaemyh additives may be viewed as temporary.

A method of obtaining crystalline non-caking of ammonium nitrate by dusting him granules with a mixture of Aerosil with finely dispersed ammophos in the ratio of Aerosil:map = (1-6):(99-94) (AU No. 912722 from 15.03.82 year). When this map is used to increase the amount of nutrients. It should be noted that the obtained is thus crystalline non-caking ammonium nitrate is used in granular form as a fertilizer in agriculture.

Object of the present invention to provide a crystalline non-caking of ammonium nitrate for the production of industrial explosives. The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that the crushed ammonium nitrate add finely ground mixture of metal fluorides and Aerosil in the amount of not less than 0.1% by weight of ammonium nitrate.

The process of mixing is conducted as follows. Typical experience 10 g of finely ground ammonium nitrate, sifted through sieve No. 15, is dried according to GOST 2-85 until constant weight, and then cooled in a desiccator to room temperature. In the dried ammonium nitrate added 0.01 g of a mixture of shredded metal fluoride and Aerosil. The mixture is stirred.

The thus treated ammonium nitrate is tested for caking. The study of caking was performed in a thick-walled collapsible aluminum parallelepiped height of 10 cm with an inner cross section of 6×6 see Inside of the box is aluminum platform height 2.5cm, seamed metal rod with a platform, on which were placed the cargo. Various samples of nitrate was loaded in the apparatus, which was there under the load pressure of 1.5 kg/cm2for two weeks at 20°C, resulting in ammonium nitrate were compacted in a die, which was crushed in the press. For crushing the hypoxia samples nitrate required a different force, the value of which depended on the degree of caking of ammonium nitrate.

The table shows the data for the study of caking NH4NO3depending on the content of additives.

The number of experienceSamples nitrateLoad, kg/cm2
123
1Ammonium nitrate according to GOST 2-85 without additives16
The ammonium nitrate with additives
20,01% (LiF + Aerosil)5,5
30,025% (LiF + Aerosil)1,7
40.05% of (LiF + Aerosil)0,7
50,075% (LiF + Aerosil)0,2
60.1% of the (LiF + Aerosil) rasip.
70.5% of the (LiF + Aerosil)rasip.
80,75% (LiF + Aerosil)rasip.
90,1% (KF + Aerosil)rasip.
100,1% (NaF + Aerosil)rasip.
110,1% (MgF2+ Aerosil)rasip.
120,1% (CaF2+ Aerosil)rasip.
130,1% (SrF2+ Aerosil)rasip.
140,1% (BaF2+ Aerosil)rasip.
150.05% of (Na2SiF6+ Aerosil)0,6
160,075% (Na2SiF6+ Aerosil) 0,1
17of 0.1% (Na2SiF6+ Aerosil)rasip.
180,1% (K2SiF6+ Aerosil)rasip.

The table shows that the sample of ammonium nitrate according to GOST 2-85 without additives bridge, harden, clog and crushing it took the pressure of 16 kg/cm2(experiment 1).

Samples of the same nitrate content anti-caking additives from 0.01% to 0.075% (experiments 2-5, 15 and 16) bridge, harden, clog much less, and with increasing content of additives pressure required for crushing, decreases sharply.

Samples of ammonium nitrate according to GOST 2-85 with the content of anti-caking additives of 0.1% and above after testing remained crumbly (experiments 6-14, 17 and 18).

It should be noted that handling of ammonium nitrate a mixture of the metal fluoride and Aerosil content not less than 0.1% improves anti-caking effect by binding water metal fluorides and thereby increases the validity of Aerosil on the surface of particles of ammonium nitrate and also prevents phase transitions of ammonium nitrate, in particular at a temperature of 32°C, at which the deformation of particle nitrate, leading ultimately to caking PR the product.

These figures are significantly higher than those achieved in the known source SU 912722 from 15.03.1982,

Thus, the proposed method of obtaining anti-caking of ammonium nitrate by treating it with a mixture of the metal fluoride and Aerosil content not less than 0.1% by weight of ammonium nitrate allows to obtain ammonium nitrate, can not cake and stay loose.

The method of obtaining anti-caking of ammonium nitrate by treating the powdered additives, characterized in that as an anti-caking additives, a mixture of metal fluorides and Aerosil in the amount of not less than 0.1% by weight of ammonium nitrate.



 

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7 cl, 16 ex

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3 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex

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EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of volume of self-contained pores and accordingly a decrease of the volumetric bulk density.

20 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl

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