Method to form ordered nanostructures on substrate
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of nanotechnologies and may be used to make ordered nanostructures, used in micro- and nanoelectronics, optics, nanophotonics, biology and medicine. The proposed method may be used to manufacture single-layer and multilayer nanostructures, also the ones containing layers of different composition, and also two-dimensional, three-dimensional ordered structures of various materials. According to the method, the substrate and the initial substrate, containing nanoparticles, are arranged to form a space between them. The substrate is sprayed in the specified space in the form of a cloud of drops, every of which contains at least one nanoparticles. Creation of a substrate in the form of a sprayed cloud of drops is done by means of ultrasound exposure, when the source of ultrasound effect is located relative to the substrate with the possibility to arrange a sprayed cloud of drops in the specified space. Control of motion in the specified space and drops deposition onto the substrate is carried out through their exposure to external electric and/or magnetic fields.
EFFECT: wider class of materials, which could be used to form ordered nanostructures, higher accuracy of nanoobjects reproduction, stability of nanostructures formation process in one technological space.
The invention relates to the field of nanotechnology and can be used for the fabrication of ordered nanostructures used in micro - and nanoelectronics, optics, including nanophotonics, biology and medicine.
More specifically, the method relates to a method of forming a complex mosaic paintings of the nanoparticles on the substrate.
It is known that the substance may have a brand new property, if you take this substance in very small part. Carefully purified nanoparticles can be arranged with the formation of ordered structures, and such strictly organized nanostructures often exhibit properties that are unusual for this substance. Type of organization of nanoparticles and formed the structure depend on the synthesis conditions, the diameter of the particles, the type of external influence on the structure.
Currently in electronics one of the main technologies for the production of nanostructures - lithography. For industrial purposes at the present time the most widely used method of microlithography, which allows to form on the surface of the flat substrate nanostructured objects ranging in size from 50 nm. This method is widely used in modern microelectronics. Known methods of forming the structures in microlithography, comprising applying to the substrate a positive electronicist, conduct exposed the I picture, manifestation, the additional layer of material, removal of the resist with a regulated process parameters (RU 2072644 C1, 27.01.1997, H05K 3/06) . The method allows to reduce the dimensions of the elements forming nanostructures and allows you to fabricate nanostructures with dimensions of elements or gaps between them is 0.1-0.5 μm due to it is regulated in the way of options, the process of lithography.
However, the process of microlithography requires high temperatures, high vacuum and chemical processing. This immediately eliminates the use of biological and organic materials (due to their damage and destruction), which is important not only in biology and medicine, but also in areas of technology that have used only inorganic materials. Today the market of organic LEDs is about $ 3 billion and, according to experts, the market for organic nanophotonics by 2015 will increase 10 times. This shows a very broad and rapidly growing segments of the market of new technologies whose development the implementation of this method can be very effective. Thus, one of the major objectives of development of modern technologies before nanotechnology is the development of new, low-impact methods of creating micro - and nanostructures, excluding the application of high temperature and aggressive environments.
The technical result, which directed the present invention, is that the proposed method allows to extend the class of materials from which to form ordered nanostructures (including, but not limited to, organic materials and biological tissues and objects) to ensure fidelity nanostructures on the substrate is higher than or comparable to existing methods. The claimed method allows stably carry out the process of forming in the same process space. While the inventive method can be made of single layer and multilayer nanostructures (two-dimensional or three-dimensional), including those containing layers of different composition materials.
This technical result is achieved in that the substrate and the source substrate containing nanoparticles have with the education space between them, in that space spray the substrate in the form of cloud droplets, each of which contains at least one nanoparticle, and the establishment of a substrate in the form of a diffuse cloud of droplets is realized by means of ultrasound exposure in the placement of the source of ultrasonic influence on substrate with diffuse cloud droplets in the specified space, and control of the movement of the decree is " a space and droplet deposition on a substrate is performed by exposure to an external electric and/or magnetic fields.
In the original substrate may be a filler.
The formation of ordered nanostructures on a substrate can be carried out under vacuum conditions.
The claimed method of the formation of ordered nanostructures on a substrate can be implemented, for example, using the following device. Such a device shall contain a sealed chamber containing either purified gas (including air)or cold (purification or vacuum is determined by the specific objectives, in particular the size of the resulting structures), equipped with a screen for creating an electrostatic protection module forming cloud (mist) drops containing a source of ultrasonic ultrasonic vibrations) for spraying the primary substrate for the coating module, the device for depositing the substrate on the surface of the module and device for coordinate orientation of the substrate in the chamber. When this substrate and containing nanoparticles substrate positioned in the chamber forming a space between them, with the possibility of spraying the substrate with the formation of cloud droplets in this space. Also a device for implementing the inventive method must contain a system of electrodes, providing manipulation (control of movement, moving, deposition) drops in above the space. The electrode system must be equipped with a control signal applied to the electrodes. Through this system of electrodes is the influence of external electric and/or magnetic fields into droplets containing nanoparticles. The location and configuration of the electrodes determine the orientation of the vectors of electric and magnetic field strength. The device for implementing the inventive method must also contain an optical microscope, allowing you to analyze and monitor the process of forming nanostructures on a substrate.
The source parameters of ultrasonic treatment must spraying to ensure a given droplet size. Ultrasonic treatment can be carried out by bulk or surface acoustic wave (ultrasonic wave can be formed, for example, using a piezoelectric transducer). Given the size of the droplets is achieved by setting the frequency of the alternating electric voltage, and the desired speed has been reached, the formation of droplets is achieved by setting the amplitude of the applied voltage. In particular, knowledge of the speed of formation of drops needed to calculate the thickness of the formed nanostructures, and, accordingly, to determine the time of their formation.
The parameters of voltage, p is given to the electrodes, i.e. the characteristics of the generated electric and/or magnetic fields are determined by the desired pattern ordering of nanostructures. Job control signals (voltages)applied to the electrodes, in accordance with the ordering of nanostructures allows you to create in the space of the location of the cloud droplets electric and/or magnetic field with the desired characteristics. The impact of such electric and/or magnetic fields on the drops leads to the flow of droplets containing nanoparticles, deviant and build upon deposition on a substrate in accordance with the orientation in space of the vectors of the electric and/or magnetic fields.
For precise fixation of the nanostructure substrate material must be chemically resistant to the entire substrate.
Various liquid and solid reagents may be introduced into the source substrate to the flow of the necessary chemical reactions with activation of the nanoparticles.
It should be noted that the drops of the source substrate after spraying must have electric charge and/or magnetic moment in order to further control their movement and deposition on a substrate using an electric and/or magnetic fields. The original substrate from which it is fabricated nanostructure, D. who should be able to spray using ultrasonic waves (to be a solution, the suspension or emulsion, including, for example, organic materials and biological tissues or cultures, or, for example, be a molten metal or a semiconductor). Thus, in order to give the substrate the possibility of its sputtering, the substrate may contain in addition to the nanoparticle filler (for example, water and/or alcohol in an arbitrary concentration).
The formation of ordered nanostructures on the claimed method can be carried out as follows. In a given space camera recorded the substrate, the source substrate containing nanoparticles is applied to the surface of module the formation of cloud droplets. When the application of the appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric transducer impacts arising ultrasonic wave to the substrate leads to its spraying with the formation of cloud droplets, each of which may contain one or more (at least one) of the nanoparticles. The camera creates an electric and/or magnetic field with the specified characteristics, which leads to the flow of charged droplets, their deviation and forming by deposition on a substrate in accordance with the orientation in space of the vectors of the electric and/or magnetic fields. For this purpose, the electrode system serves the appropriate opravlyaushi the signals, the parameters which define the desired pattern of ordering of nanostructures. The use of electric and/or magnetic fields into droplets containing nanoparticles to control their movement in space clouds and their deposition on the substrate eliminates the use of a mask during formation of the nanostructures, which, in turn, helps to organize the process of forming in one process chamber in one step, i.e. increases the flexibility of the method (due to the possibility of creating various structures with making new masks, and by changing the parameters of control signals and eliminates the cost of creating the mask). Drops are deposited on a substrate in accordance with the desired pattern of ordered nanostructures. Volatile components of the cloud or are chemically inert relative to the material of the nanostructures and gradually evaporate from the substrate into the surrounding space, or none remains (in the case of molten metals or semiconductors).
Thus, the establishment of a substrate in the form of a spray or cloud droplets containing at least one nanoparticle, by means of ultrasonic treatment is a gentle and environmentally friendly, allowing you to extend the class of materials from which to form orderly nanostruct the s with high fidelity nanostructures on the substrate. Motion control and droplet deposition the influence of external electric and/or magnetic fields allows you to control the movement and deposition of droplets and, thus, contained nanoparticles bearing an electric charge or magnetic moment. The class of such particles is very wide and includes solutions, suspensions and emulsions of organic and inorganic materials and biological tissues or cultures, including molten metals or semiconductors. The use of electric and/or magnetic fields on drops to control their movement in space clouds and their deposition on the substrate eliminates the use of a mask during formation of the nanostructures, which, in turn, helps to organize the process of forming in one process chamber in one step. The claimed method allows to form a multilayer ordered structure that is made possible with the introduction into the chamber of a substrate coated with a layer of ordered nanostructures for forming the next layer, in this painting the ordering layer of nanostructures may be different. The claimed method can be obtained two-dimensional, three-dimensional ordered structure of various materials.
The claimed method of the formation of ordered nanostructures on a substrate allows to obtain Opera ocenie nanostructures with high-fidelity picture of the ordering of the nanoparticles in the structure.
1. The method of formation of ordered nanostructures on a substrate, wherein the substrate and the source substrate containing nanoparticles have with the education space between them, in that space spray the substrate in the form of cloud droplets, each of which contains at least one nanoparticle, and the establishment of a substrate in the form of a diffuse cloud of droplets is realized by means of ultrasound exposure in the placement of the source of ultrasonic influence on substrate with diffuse cloud droplets in the specified space, and motion control in the specified space and droplet deposition on a substrate is performed by exposure to an external electric and/or magnetic fields.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the source substrate is injected filler.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the source substrate is injected solid and liquid reagents.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the formation of ordered nanostructures on a substrate is carried out in vacuum conditions.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the source substrate injected liquid or solid reagents.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of nanotechnologies and may be used to form nanostructures from evaporated microdrop by exposure to acoustic fields. Complex for formation of nanostructures comprises a nanostructures shaper, an optical microscope, a data display facility and information processing and complex control facility. The nanostructures shaper comprises a foundation and a source of shaping action, at the same time the foundation is formed as piezoelectric with the possibility to apply initial substrate on its surface, and the source of nanostructure-shaping action is represented by surface acoustic waves (SAW), besides, to develop a SAW line, a pair of interdigital transducers (IT) is located on the piezoelectric foundation with the possibility to excite the acoustic field between them, and the shaper is installed in the object area of the optical microscope, at the same time the axis of the microscope sighting is aligned relative to the foundation at the angle φ, besides, the complex also includes a generator of high-frequency oscillations and a wideband amplifier connected to it and to IT.
EFFECT: provision of universality as regards a class of objects exposed to nanostructuring.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in method for growing of silicon-germanium heterostructures by method of molecular-beam epitaxy of specified structures due to silicon and germanium evaporation from separate crucible molecular sources on the basis of electronic-beam evaporators, silicon evaporation is done in automatic crucible mode from silicon melt in solid silicon shell, and germanium is evaporated from germanium melt in silicon insert, which represents a previously spent hollow residue, produced as a result of silicon evaporation in automatic crucible mode, and arranged in crucible cavity of cooled case of crucible unit of electron-beam evaporator used to develop molecular flow of germanium. At the same time process of epitaxy is controlled with account of germanium deposition speed selection, determined from given dependence.
EFFECT: increased stability and expansion of assortment of generated high-quality silicon-germanium heterostructures as a result of improved control of molecular-beam epitaxy of heterostructures due to accurate control of silicon and germanium deposition mode in the optimal range of speed values, reduction of concentration of uncontrolled admixtures in heterostructures produced by proposed method, and reduction of resource expenditures for preparation of process equipment.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in manufacturing organic light-emitting diodes, liquid-crystal displays, plasma display panel, thin-film solar cell and other electronic and semi-conductor devices. Claimed is element, including target of ionic dispersion, where said target includes processed MoO2 plate of high purity. Method of such plate manufacturing includes isostatic pressing of component consisting of more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2 powder into workpiece, sintering of said workpiece under conditions of supporting more than 99% of MoO2 stoichiometry and formation of plate which includes more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2. In other version of said plate manufacturing component, consisting of powder, which contains more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2, is processed under conditions of hot pressing with formation of plate. Method of thin film manufacturing includes stages of sputtering of plate, which contains more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2, removal of MoO2 molecules from plate and application of MoO2 molecules on substrate. Also claimed is MoO2 powder and method of said plate sputtering with application of magnetron sputtering, pulse laser sputtering, ionic-beam sputtering, triode sputtering and their combination.
EFFECT: invention allows to increase work of output of electron of ionic sputtering target material in organic light-emitting diodes.
16 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vacuum technology and the technology of making carbon nanotubes, such as carbon nanotubes at ends of probes, which are used in probe microscopy for precision scanning. The method of making probes with carbon nanotubes is realised by depositing carbon films with nanotubes through magnetron sputtering in a vacuum at direct current of 100-140 mA using a carbon target with a nanotube growth catalyst. Work pieces of the probes are put into a vacuum installation. A carbon film with nanotubes is then sputtered in a residual atmosphere of inert gas.
EFFECT: invention allows for obtaining probes with carbon nanotubes, lying perpendicular the surface of the probe, in required amounts without using explosive substances and complex devices.
FIELD: electronic engineering; materials for miscellaneous semiconductor devices using gallium arsenide epitaxial layers.
SUBSTANCE: intermetallic compounds chosen from group incorporating tin arsenide SnAs, palladium antimonide PdSb, manganese polyantimonide Mn2Sb, nickel stannate Ni3Sn2, nickel aluminate Ni2Al3, nickel germanate Ni2Ge, and cobalt germanate Co2Ge are used as materials of substrates for growing gallium arsenide epitaxial layers.
EFFECT: enhanced structural heterogeneity of gallium arsenide layers being grown.
FIELD: non-organic chemistry, namely triple compound of manganese-alloyed arsenide of silicon and zinc arranged on monocrystalline silicon substrate, possibly in spintronics devices for injection of electrons with predetermined spin state.
SUBSTANCE: electronic spin is used in spintronics devices as active member for storing and transmitting information, for forming integrated and functional micro-circuits, designing new magneto-optical instruments. Ferromagnetic semiconductor hetero-structure containing zinc, silicon, arsenic and manganese and being triple compound of zinc and silicon arsenide alloyed with manganese in quantity 1 - 6 mass % is synthesized on substrate of monocrystalline silicon and has formula ZnSiAs2 : Mn/Si. Such hetero-structure is produced by deposition of film of manganese and diarsenide of zinc onto silicon substrate and further heat treatment of it.
EFFECT: possibility for producing perspective product for wide usage due to combining semiconductor and ferromagnetic properties of hetero-structure with Curie temperature significantly exceeding 20°C and due to its compatibility with silicon technique.
3 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: semiconductor technology; production of microelectronic devices on the basis of substrates manufactured out of III-V groups chemical element nitride boules.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of microelectronic devices on the basis of substrates manufactured out of III-V groups chemical element nitride boules and may be used in semiconductor engineering. Substance of the invention: the boule of III-V groups chemical element nitride may be manufactured by growing of the material of III-V groups the chemical element nitride on the corresponding crystal seed out of the same material of nitride of the chemical element of III-V of group by epitaxy from the vapor phase at the speed of the growth exceeding 20 micrometers per hour. The boule has the quality suitable for manufacture of microelectronic devices, its diameter makes more than 1 centimeter, the length exceeds 1 millimeter, defects density on the boule upper surface is less than 107 defects·cm-2.
EFFECT: the invention ensures manufacture of the microelectronic devices of good quality and above indicated parameters.
102 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in lightning object with optical radiation, in conversion of reflected signal into autodyne signal and in recording its power. Further the signal is digitised and analysed. Value of object acceleration is determined by solving an inverse problem defining minimum of functional: where a is linear acceleration of an object, Pexsp are experimental values of the autodyne signal, Ptheor are theoretical values of the autodyne signal, θ is phase incursion of the autodyne signal, t is time interval of the autodyne signal. The exact value of global minimum is found by the method of descent along sought-for parametres θ and a.
EFFECT: measurement of acceleration at micro-shifts in wide dynamic range of accelerations and upgraded accuracy of absolute acceleration measurement within limits meeting modern precision devices.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the chemical industry. A solution of silicon-containing material is prepared by adding sodium silicate with silica modulus of 2.8-3.7 to filtered water while stirring thoroughly, heating to 100°C and keeping density of the solution not lower than 1.09 g/cm3. The aqueous solution of the acidifying agent is obtained by adding the acidifying agent to filtered water while thoroughly stirring and keeping density of the solution not lower than 1.02 g/cm3. After reaction of the aqueous solution of the silicon-containing material with the aqueous solution of the acidifying agent, the obtained gel matures in not less than 20 minutes. The ready product is extracted and dried by sharply reducing the pressure in the gel medium.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain nano-dispersed silicon dioxide, which provides good thixotropic properties with low sedimentation effect.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical engineering, particularly to hydrogen sulphide sorbents which can be used for dry purification of gases from hydrogen sulphide. Disclosed is a hydrogen sulphide sorbent, having the main component in form of nanoparticles of a complex of the compound MgCl2·ZnCl2·nEt2O, where n=1-4, placed in form of a layer of thickness (2-100)×10-9 m on a solid support.
EFFECT: sorbent has high activity with respect to hydrogen sulphide.
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of pharmaceutics, namely to method of obtaining capsulated form of antibiotics of rifampicin series for treating tuberculosis. Claimed is method of obtaining liposomal form of antituberculosis medications of rifampicin series rifampicin (RM) or rifabutin (RB) which differs by the fact that antibiotic is dissolved in isotonic solution with medium pH value 2-3, after which on the surface of said solution applied in layers is powder of lipid mixture, which contains 50-70% of glycosphyngolipids, 30-50% phospholipids and 3% of cholesterol and triacetylglicerides with further dispersion with slight mixing at room temperature, pH of dispersion is brought to neutral value by base addition, dispersion is heated for 10-40 min at temperature 60-70°C with further evaluation of degree of antibiotic inclusion by method of spectrophotometry after carrying out gel-filtration.
EFFECT: method ensures obtaining medication antibiotic of rifampicin series with high bioaccessibility.
5 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: procedure for production of modified surface layer in nickelide of titanium with shape memory effect consists in preliminary heating titanium nickelide and in ion implantation made with ions of nickel, chromium, cobalt and copper obtaining thickness of modified surface layer of 300-500 nm depth. At ion implantation of titanium nickelide with shape memory effect in a coarse-grain state preliminary heating is carried out to temperature within the range 200-350°C. At ion implantation of titanium nickelide with shape memory effect in a nano-structure state preliminary heating is performed to temperature within the range 150-200°C.
EFFECT: improved mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance of titanium nickelide at maintaining shape memory effect.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to nanotechnology. Reactor is heated. Plasma gas is introduced via an injection device. Magnetic coils arranged in upper and lower parts of the reactor are energised. Volume thermal plasma is generated by rotation of an electric arc with application of the outside applied magnetic field. Condition of plasma arc is monitored and recorded with the help of a video camera via a unit of visual monitoring. Carbon-containing material evaporates and is condensed on electrodes and a subsrate, and is also re-circulated through volume plasma. Carbon nanotubes are withdrawn from the cooled reactor.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase scale of continuous or semi-continuous mass production of carbon nanotubes.
22 cl, 1 tbl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a magnetic resonant and radiopaque diagnostic agent for magnetic resonant tomography (MRT) and X-ray computed tomography (XRCT). Said agent represents complex ferric oxide in a physiologically acceptable carrier which in addition contains citric acid 2.4 mg/l for particle size stabilisation of complex ferric oxide within the range 5-10 nm and sodium citrate 190 mg/ml for compositional stabilisation of the radiopaque agent; the concentration of complex ferric oxide makes 600 mg/ml, while the concentration of water for injections is 460 mg/ml. Also, the invention concerns a method for producing a radiopaque contrast agent which consists in mixing ferric salts, adding ammonium hydrate and citric acid, and then adding water-dissolved sodium citrate with mixing up and further cooling and filtering of undissolved sodium citrate.
EFFECT: invention provides higher diagnostic efficiency, reliable diagnostic data, lower concentration of the introduced contrast agent.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: metal particles from electrolyte are deposited on substrate till the stage of formation of icosahedral micro- and nano-particles is ended. Then, particles are subject to annealing in neutral medium at temperature of 450-500°C with exposure during 25-60 minutes. Heating to annealing temperature is performed with speed of 5-15°C/min. After annealing the conditions for particle destruction are created. Obtained micro- and nanoparticles are separated from substrate prior to annealing or after annealing.
EFFECT: enlarging specific surface area of obtained powders and improving efficiency of their use.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wear-resistant paint for road marking contains an acrylic film-forming agent, a plasticiser, organic solvents, a mixture of pigments and filler materials. The mixture of pigments and filling materials consists of three fractions, the particle sizes D1, D2 and D3 of which satisfy the relationships: D1/D2=2.4-3.3 D1/D3=8.5-8.9, and volume concentration of fractions V1=51-53.0%; V2=7.0-8.0%; V3=0.8-1.2%. The first and third fractions include filler materials, the second fraction includes pigments, and particles of the third fraction are nanosized.
EFFECT: invention increases abrasive wear-resistance of the paint and creates the effect of reinforced structures.
2 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to household and industrial techniques for purifying water from microbiological contaminants, controlling bio-growth in water filtration, storage and supply systems. The method for energy-independent, non-reagent, non-toxic purification of water from microbiological contaminants involves flow a stream of treated water through a bactericidal filter element made from porous polymer material modified with nanostructure particles, immersed in the treated water and placed along the direction of flow of the water stream. The porous polymer material used is polyethylene and the nanostructure particles are silver or copper particles. The flow rate of the treated water is not higher than 2.5 m/s. Geometrical dimensions of the system of filter elements are calculated based on that the time it takes the water to flow through the filter elements is not less than 0.25 s, and the ratio of the cross section of the stream of treated water and the bactericidal filter element is not more than 5:1.
EFFECT: non-reagent purification of water from microbiological contaminants without pre-treatment of the water with efficient use of bactericidal properties of non-toxic nanocomposite materials, preventing migration of nanostructured metals strongly fixed in pores of the bactericidal filter elements.
2 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.
EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.