Device to sample gas medium for sorbent and method to prepare it for operation in compartment of manned spacecraft

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device to sample a gas medium for a sorbent in a compartment of a manned spacecraft includes a bellows aspirator with a working volume of around 100 cm3 and a sampler with an absorber, arranged in the form of a sorbent-filled tube body made of stainless steel with the length of around 150 mm and inner diametre of not more than 6 mm, at the ends of which the thread is cut, onto which captive nuts are screwed - as plugs of duraluminium with a Teflon seal, joined with the absorber body by a flexible synthetic thread, and the tube ends are closed with a glass wool with Teflon limiters. Also there is a method provided to sample a gas medium for a sorbent in a compartment of a manned spacecraft by pumping of an examined air in the manned spacecraft through a previously prepared device. Besides, preparation includes thorough degreasing and washing of the inner surface of the tube with subsequent drying in the nitrogen atmosphere at 300°C prior to the sorbent charging into the absorber; removal of substances absorbed by a used sorbent by means of nitrogen blowdown via the sorbent and the sampler sealing.

EFFECT: accuracy and reliability of gas sampling for sorbents when used in conditions of a manned space flight.

4 cl, 1 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the selection of sorbents sample gas environment in conditions of weightlessness in the compartments of manned spacecraft (PKA) and is based on pumping a metered sample of the investigated gas medium through probsably with the sorbent, which captured the trace amounts of organic substances. To identify these substances and their quantitative determination in the laboratory of absorbers using a stream of inert gas and thermal effects of these trace amounts extracted from the sorbent in the form determined by the volume of the gas sample.

The prior art various designs samplers, however, for solving the problem of space research and experiments they are unsuitable due to the impossibility of combining with equipment spacecraft or research experimental module.

Known gas sampler samples SU 1608461, G01N 1/22 for geological purposes. Its design and method of its use cannot be applied due to the nature of design for space research in hermometer.

A device for sampling gases containing gas pipeline, probe, conical chamber, a sampling tube and the analyzer (SU 180411, G01N 1/22, 1966).

The advantages of this device include the ability to use as is analizator analytical filter, sedimentation column and photoelectric counter.

The main disadvantage of this device is that it is not isokinetically gas sampling, since there is no equality between the average velocity of flow in the selected tube in the gas line. In addition, at low speeds the sample gas is the deposition of impurities in the selected tube. All this greatly reduces the reliability of the analysis results and representativeness of the sample.

The known device for sampling gases of high pressure, which can be used for analysis and control of contents mechanical verdadeira particles (impurities) in compressed gases (air, nitrogen, helium, hydrogen, argon, neon, xenon, oxygen, and other gases)used in the rocket-space technology, aviation, automotive and other for Example, a device (EN 2152017, G01N 1/22, 27.06.2000) contains a probe that is connected with him of the sampling tube with a shut-off valve, throttle, conical chamber and sampling pipe and the analyzer samples. The orifice is made in the form of a combined nozzle consisting of series-connected input confused, cylindrical and output cone parts. The conical chamber is integral with the upper part that extends into the diffuser portion of the combined nozzle and the bottom, is covered at the base. The device provides the reliability and accuracy of analysis of mechanical verdadeira particles (impurities) in compressed gases.

The disadvantage of this device is its narrow functionality, which allows to obtain a sample of gas at high pressures and velocities of gas flow. Known, or other similar device for sampling gases containing probe, sampling tube, for example SU 819613, G01N 1/22, 09.04.81, GOST 3022-70, p.4. However, all known devices have a major drawback - they are functionally designed for other studies. In addition, they are characterized by the complexity of operative adjustment costs by maneuvering valves on the bypass and analysisfor lines (opening, closing). In addition to complicating conditions, this fact does not provide the necessary reliability of the device.

A device for sampling the compressed air to a filter device containing a gas pipeline probe shut-off valve, pressure gauge, thermometer, rotameter, regulating valve, filter element and the throttle on the exit fitting (Baibakov FB and other Control impurities in compressed gases, M.: Chemistry, 1989, p.140, RIS).

The advantage of this device is its structural simplicity, but its main drawback is the possibility of changes in the process of sampling not only concentration is AI, but disperse composition, as well as larger particles, as shown by tests, are deposited on the walls of the sample tube, and submicron particles slip through the security filter. Install the throttle on the exit fitting violates the condition isokinetic sampling and reduces the reliability of the results.

The objective of the invention is the provision of representativeness, accuracy and reliability of the sampling gas sorbents for use in the manned space flight.

The selection of sorbents sample gas environment based on pumping a metered sample of the investigated gas medium through probsably with the sorbent, which captured the trace amounts of organic substances. To identify these substances and their quantitative determination in the laboratory of absorbers using a stream of inert gas and thermal effects of these trace amounts extracted from the sorbent in the form determined by the volume of the gas sample.

Thus, taking into account Skopelitis tasks, the technical result - the development of the sampling capacitance and method of sampling for research in weightlessness is achieved by a device for sampling gas environment on the sorbent in the compartment manned spacecraft includes bellows suction pump with a working volume is about 100 m cm 3and probsably absorbent, made in the form of filled with sorbent housing-stainless steel tube with a length of about 150 mm and an inner diameter of not more than 6 mm, the ends of which are threaded, which are screwed nut-caps made of aluminium with Teflon seal connected to the housing of the flexible absorber synthetic thread, and the ends of the tube are covered glass wool with Teflon stoppers.

The task is solved in that the device comprises a polymeric sorbent of Tenax, sorbent Silica gel D-08, or any other sorbent, depending on the analyzed substances.

The task is also solved using the method of sampling of gas environment on the sorbent in the compartments manned spacecraft using the device described above, by pumping the investigated air in manned spacecraft through pre-prepared device, and the training includes a thorough degreasing and washing the inner surface of the tube, followed by drying in nitrogen atmosphere at 300°C before loading of the sorbent in the absorber, removing sorbed on the sorbent substances by blowing through the sorbent nitrogen speeds of 30-60 ml/min for 6-8 hours at a temperature of 250°-300°, and the flow is subjected to at least 0.5 l of the investigated air when the duration is eljnosti one selection about 3 minutes.

The authors of the present invention is not known similar technical solutions, and therefore the claimed set of attributes corresponds to conditions of patentability.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a device for the selection of the sorbent sample gas medium in the compartments manned spacecraft.

The drawing shows a device for the selection of the sorbent sample gas medium in the compartments manned spacecraft, where

1 - bellows hood,

2 - probsably absorbent,

The invention is carried out as follows.

Equipment and materials:

Probsably

Aspirator,

Wardrobe-thermostat with gas line, a rotameter and the on / off valve,

The compressed nitrogen GOST 10157-79,

Sorbent "Tenax TA"

Sorption tube "Gerstel",

Glass wool,

Covers for aspirators and sinks.

For sampling gas medium in the compartments PKA used probsably and manually operated bellows suction pump with a displacement of 100 cm3.

The sink is a stainless steel tube with a length of 150 mm and an inner diameter of 6 mm At the ends of the tubes are threaded, which are screwed nut - caps made of aluminium with a Teflon seal. The tube is filled with sorbent. In order sorbent navyseals and to maintain the density of the packing, the ends of the tube are closed with glass wool with Teflon stoppers. The stub and the body of the absorber are connected by a flexible synthetic thread.

The loaded sorbent sinks preceded by a thorough degreasing and rinsing the inner surface of the tubes, followed by drying in nitrogen atmosphere at 300°C. Before being sent to the manned spacecraft (PKA) absorbers are trained, consisting in the removal of sorbed on the sorbent substances by blowing through the sorbent nitrogen speeds of 30-60 ml/min for 6-8 hours at a temperature of 250°-300°C. Probability undergone heat treatment within the above specified time, removed from the Cabinet-thermostat, seal and send to the object.

Characteristics of probabilitv:

The error of the measured air samples - 5%.

The number of pumped air through a single absorber when sampling for organic trace amounts - 500 cm3.

The number of pumped air through a single absorber when sampling on freon 218-100 cm3.

The degree of concentration of organic trace contaminants -25 times.

The degree of concentration of freon 218 5 times.

Using probabilism:

Remove the aspirator from the case; remove probsably; remove the nut caps with probabiliy; in with the accordance with the marking on probabilite to tightly connect probsably with the aspirator; dramatically compress the bellows aspirator and release (the open end of promotability must be in the desired sampling point air); to wait for the full straightening of the bellows, an aspirator, an operation to compress and flatten bellows aspirator repeat 4 more times (total 5 times); disconnect probsably from the suction pump and to produce sealing its ends by nuts, plugs; to write in your journal: room promotability, sampling location, date of sampling, it is desirable to clarify microclimatic conditions in the compartment PKA during selection probsably to remove the styling, the suction device to remove the case and prepare probsably to return.

Sample preparation for gas chromatographic analysis.

To install probsably in wardrobe - thermostat; to raise the temperature in the Cabinet - thermostat to 200°C; decarbonate organic traces of contaminants from the sorbent probabilita stream of nitrogen or helium with a speed of 30-60 ml/min; the desorbed sample is transferred to the sorption turbo "Gerstel" for subsequent analysis on a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection, to perform the decoding results of the analysis taking into account the degree of concentration on the sorbent.

The invention is intended for the qualitative identification and quantitative determination of trace volatile organic compounds (alcohol is, ketones, esters, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in air, oxygen, nitrogen and helium. Separation of the mixture components is conducted in a conventional gas chromatography on capillary columns coated with a stationary liquid phase. Assessment of the components is carried out using a mass-selective detector (MSD).

The invention is based on extracting probabilism organic trace contaminants from pumped through the sorbent studied air, the subsequent extraction of trace and transfer on the sorption tube "Gerstel with subsequent recovery system Gerstel thermal desorption for HP 6890 (TD) and injector Gerstel CIS 4 cryogenic cooling for HP 6890 for automatic injection (DRI) concentrated organic substances in the capillary column gas chromatograph HP 6890 (GC), which is part of the system 6890/5973N (GC/MSD). Substances emerging from the capillary column in a specific sequence, proceed in the mass-selective detector (MSD), which is conducted qualitative and quantitative identification of trace contaminants. For accurate identification of trace contaminants in the samples library is used NIST-98 (BMS), containing in the computer's memory 130,000 mass spectra and including structural formulas 275000 compounds. Calibration / mass spectrometer for subsequent number of the quality assessment of target component concentration when performing analyses of samples is carried out using certified sources mikropotokami in a dynamic setting "Microgap". Method / mass spectrometric determination of the concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric air approved by the Russian State sanitary and epidemiological regulation of the Russian Federation in the "Methodological guidelines on / mass spectrometric determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air". The results of these analyses are used by the Russian toxicologists to assess the quality of the air environment of manned space germopulse, including orbital space stations.

The claimed device enables the sampling of air on Board the orbital station for further analysis of trace contaminants in the laboratory using GC/MSD method. So when pumping has not come leakage through the sorbent concentration, the volume of the pumped air is limited to 500 cm3. The duration of one selection is 3 minutes.

For promotability AK-IM the selected sorbent of Tenax, which is particularly effective for the concentration of toxic contaminants from the air. This polymer sorbent (poly-2,6-diphenyl-p-phenyleneoxy) has a low polarity, non-specific adsorption surface and has a very high thermal stability. The polymer based on poly-2,6-dispel-p-phenyleneoxy can be applied at 320°C, and the term is gravimetricheskie studies have shown, that at 400°C is not observed appreciable loss in mass of Tenexa, and only at 450°C weight begins to decrease. Tenax does not react with most organic substances even at temperatures above 300°C, and the efficiency of adsorption and desorption of trace organic compound is more than 90%. The advantages of this polymer include the possibility of high-speed sampling, the sample can be selected for 10-20 seconds) and high adsorption capacity for compounds with different molecular weight, and efficiency of sorption of trace contaminants on Tenace remains at the level of 90% and air velocity of up to 9 liters per minute. Higher adsorption characteristics of Tenax TA (AllTech catalog. 1997, p. 210).

Performed laboratory tests on the collection and analysis of samples containing organic compound classes of aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated and halogenated hydrocarbons, esters order to determine the possibility of leakage of substances through probsably and determine modes of desorption for the most complete extraction with sorbent. For testing conditions for the extraction of trace contaminants from air Tanakam and complete extraction were selected substances, making the main contribution to the pollution of obite what's hermozamente areas with long service lives. Tests have shown that to prevent leakage of substances through Tenax when sampling through probsably need to pump 0.5 liters of the investigated air. It is found experimentally that for substances with low volume retention, such as freon, you need to use stronger adsorption properties of the sorbents. Therefore, for sampling the freon 218 are used probability AK-1M, filled with Silica gel D-08.

Tests conducted on the retention of trace contaminants in probabilitic AK-IM for a long time (6 months) period in a regular microclimatic conditions. The test results showed that sample integrity is within 91-97%, tightness of probabilitv saved.

Tests conducted on the impact on sample integrity and efficiency of the sorbent Tenax transport and climatic effects. The result is positive, the tightness of probabilitv saved.

1. Device for sampling gas environment on the sorbent in the compartment manned spacecraft, including bellows suction pump with a displacement of about 100 cm3and probsably absorbent, made in the form of filled with sorbent housing-stainless steel tube with a length of about 150 mm and an inner diameter of not more than 6 mm, the ends of which Nara is Ana thread, which are screwed nut-caps made of aluminium with Teflon seal connected to the housing of the flexible absorber synthetic thread, and the ends of the tube are covered glass wool with Teflon stoppers.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises a polymeric sorbent of Tenax.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the sampling on freon 218 it contains a sorbent Silica gel D-08, or any other sorbent, depending on the analyzed substances.

4. Method of sampling of gas environment on the sorbent in the compartment manned spacecraft using a device according to any one of claims 1 to 3 by pumping the investigated air in manned spacecraft through pre-prepared device, and the training includes a thorough degreasing and washing the inner surface of the tube, followed by drying in nitrogen atmosphere at 300°C before loading of the sorbent in the absorber, removing sorbed on the sorbent substances by blowing through the sorbent nitrogen speeds of 30-60 ml/min for 6-8 hours at a temperature of 250°-300° and sealing promotability, and pumping is subjected to at least 0.5 l of the investigated air when the duration of one selection about 3 minutes



 

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