Compositions containing fluoroolefins and use thereof

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a composition of refrigerant agent or heat-transfer liquid, containing at least one compound selected from a group consisting of fluoroolefins of formula E- or Z-R1 CH=CHR2 , in which R1 and R2 independently denote a C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl groups, and where the said compound has at least 5 carbon atoms.

EFFECT: disclosed fluoroolefin compositions can be used to replace existing compositions of refrigerant agents or heat-transfer liquids, which have higher global warming potential; furthermore, compounds used in the composition are non-flammable.

34 cl, 11 ex, 17 tbl

 

LINK (LINKS) TO RELATED APPLICATION (s)

This application has a priority based on provisional application U.S. No. 60/732581, filed November 1, 2005, and patent application U.S. No. 11/486791, filed July 13, 2006.

The SCOPE of the INVENTION

The present invention relates to compositions for use in artificial cooling, air conditioning or heat pump systems where the specified composition contains at least one pterolepis. Compositions of the present invention are useful as heat transfer fluids in the methods of production of cold or heat, and in various other applications.

The prior art INVENTIONS

The refrigeration industry in the last two decades working on finding a refrigerant, replacing ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), gradually reducing as a result of the Montreal Protocol. For most manufacturers of refrigeration agent solution consists in industrial implementation hydrotherapeutic (HFC) refrigerants. Currently, the most widely used new cooling agents HFC, HFC-134a, which has zero ozone destroying potential and, thus, do not fall under the current regulatory reduction agreements of the Montreal Protocol

Additional environmental regulation, ultimately, could cause a global reduction of certain refrigerants HFC. Currently in the automotive industry set norms concerning the possibility of global warming due to refrigerants used in automobile air conditioners. Therefore, at present there is a great need to identify new cooling agents with reduced global warming potential for market conditioning hire. If in the future the specified regulation would be applied more widely, more urgent needs will be cooling agents which can be used in all areas of industrial air conditioning and refrigeration.

We currently offer the refrigerating agents designed to replace HFC-134a, include HFC-152a, pure hydrocarbons, such as butane or propane, or natural cooling agents, such as CO2. Many of the proposed substitutes are toxic, flammable and/or have low energy efficiency. In this regard, there is a search for new alternative refrigerants.

The present invention is to provide new compositions of refrigerating agents and compositions of heat transfer fluids, to the which, compared with the existing cooling agents are provided with unique properties that meet the demands of low or zero ozone destroying potential and lower global warming potential.

The INVENTION

The present invention relates to the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of:

(i) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group and in which the total number of carbon atoms in the compound is at least 5;

(ii) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F and n is an integer from 2 to 5; and

(iii) farolatino selected from the group consisting of:

2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CF=CH2); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (CH3CF=CF2); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCF=CF2); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCH=CF2); 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CH=CHF); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (CF3CF=CFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-acceptor-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4-heptathlon-2-the Utena (CHF 2CF=CFCF3); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CHF); 1,1,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CHF2); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CH2); 1,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4-hexamer-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CH2F); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene (CH2=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCH2F); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CF3CF2CH=CH2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CH=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3-pendaftar-2-butene (CH3CF=CFCF3); 2,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CF=CHCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-butene (CH3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,2,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCHF2); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-methyl-1-propene (CF2=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2-(di is tormentil)-3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH 2=C(CHF2)(CF3)); 2,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCH2CF3); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCHFCF3); 1,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CHF2); 1,2,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,4,4-titrator-1-butene (CH2=CHCF2CHF2); 1,1-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CF2=C(CHF2)(CH3)); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-methyl-1-propene (CHF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 3,3-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)2); 1,1,1,2-titrator-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (CH3CF=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CHCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CHF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CFCFCF 3)2); 1,1,2,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CF3CH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCF(CF3)2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3CF2CF3); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCF(CF3)2); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 3,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene ((CF3)2CFCH=CH2); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CH2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,3,3,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CH2CF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-3-methyl-2-butene (CF3CF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH2FCH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH3CF=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHC 3); 3,4,4,5,5,5-hexamer-2-pentene (CF3CF2CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-methyl-2-butene (CF3C(CH3)=CHCF3); 3,3,4,5,5,5-hexamer-1-pentene (CH2=CHCF2CHFCF3); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-1-hexene (CF3(CF2)3CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHC2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CHCF3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF2CH=CH2); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CHC(CF3)3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-methyl-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CH3)(CF3)); 2,3,3,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-3-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=C(CH3CF2CF3); 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (CF3CH=CHCH(CF3)2); 3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-acceptor-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF=CHCH3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-acceptor-1-hexene (CH2=CHCF2CF2 CF2CHF2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHCF2CH3); 4,4,5,5,5-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2C2F5); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2C(CH3)=CH2); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CHCH3); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-1-hexene (CH2=CHCH2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4-heptathlon-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFC2H5); 4,5,5,5-titrator-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CHCH2CF(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,5,5,5-heptathlon-4-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCH(CF3)(CH3)); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CFC2H5); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CH=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CHCF2C2F5); CF2=CFOCF2CF3(PEVE) and CF2=CFOCF3(PMVE).

The present invention further is about relates to compositions, containing: (i) at least one compound of Ferreira and (ii) at least one flammable refrigerant, in which the specified pterolepis selected from the group consisting of:

(a) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group;

(b) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F and n is an integer from 2 to 5; and

(c) farolatino selected from the group consisting of:

1,2,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CF=CHF); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CH=CF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CHF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (CF3CF=CFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-acceptor-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCF3); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CHF); 1,1,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CHF2); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CH2); 1,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCF3); 12,3,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCF 2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4-hexamer-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CH2F); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene (CH2=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CHCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CHF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CFCF(CF3)2); 1,1,2,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CF3CH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-BU is s (CF 2=CHCF(CF3)2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3CF2CF3); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCF(CF3)2); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 3,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene ((CF3)2CFCH=CH2); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CH2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,3,3,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CH2CF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-3-methyl-2-butene (CF3CF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH2FCH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH3CF=C(CF3)2); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-1-hexene (CF3(CF2)3CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifter ethyl)-2-pentene ((CF 3)2CFCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHC2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CHCF3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF2CH=CH2); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CHC(CF3)3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-methyl-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CH3)(CF3)); 2,3,3,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-3-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=C(CH3CF2CF3); 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (CF3CH=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CH=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CHCF2C2F5).

The present invention additionally relates to a method of applying the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid for cooling, is additionalone air or in the devices of the heat pump, moreover, this method includes the introduction of a specified composition in the specified device is equipped with (a) a centrifugal compressor; (b) multi-stage centrifugal compressor, or (c) one-way heat exchanger with a single plate; where the specified device is specified the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, thereby heating or cooling; and where specified the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid contains at least one pterolepis selected from the group consisting of:

(i) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group;

(ii) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F and n is an integer from 2 to 5; or

(iii) farolatino selected from the group consisting of:

1,2,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CF=CHF); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CH=CF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CHF2CF=CF2); 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CF=CHF); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CF3CF=CH2); 1,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CF3CH=CHF); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (CH2FCF=CF2); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CH=CF2); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF CF=CH2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CF3CH=CH2); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (CH3CF=CF2); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCH=CF2); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCF=CHF); 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CH=CHF); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (CF3CF=CFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-acceptor-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCF3); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CHF); 1,1,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CHF2); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CH2); 1,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4-hexamer-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CH2F); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene (CH2=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4-pendaftar-2-buta is a (CF 3CH=CFCH2F); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CF3CF2CH=CH2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CH=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3-pendaftar-2-butene (CH3CF=CFCF3); 2,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CF=CHCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-butene (CH3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,2,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCHF2); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-methyl-1-propene (CF2=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2-(deformity)-3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)(CF3)); 2,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCH2CF3); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCHFCF3); 1,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CHF2); 1,2,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,4,4-titrator-1-butene (CH2=CHCF2CHF2); 1,1-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CF2=C(CHF2)(CH3)); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-methyl-1-propene (CHF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2-deformity-3,3-debtor-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)2); 1,1,1,2-titrator-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (CH3CF=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF3); 11,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF 3CH=CFCF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CHCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CHF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CFCF(CF3)2); 1,1,2,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CF3CH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCF(CF3)2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3CF2CF3); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCF(CF3)2); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 3,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene ((CF3)2CFCH=CH2); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CH2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,3,3,5,5,5-hepcat the EOS-1-butene (CF 2=CHCF2CH2CF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-3-methyl-2-butene (CF3CF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH2FCH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH3CF=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCH3); 3,4,4,5,5,5-hexamer-2-pentene (CF3CF2CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-methyl-2-butene (CF3C(CH3)=CHCF3); 3,3,4,5,5,5-hexamer-1-pentene (CH2=CHCF2CHFCF3); 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4,4,4-Cryptor-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-1-hexene (CF3(CF2)3CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHC2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CHCF3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF2CH=CH2); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CHC(CF3)3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-GE is safter-3-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF 3)2C=C(CH3)(CF3)); 2,3,3,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-3-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=C(CH3CF2CF3); 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (CF3CH=CHCH(CF3)2); 3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-acceptor-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF=CHCH3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-acceptor-1-hexene (CH2=CHCF2CF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHCF2CH3); 4,4,5,5,5-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2C2F5); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2C(CH3)=CH2); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CHCH3); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-1-hexene (CH2=CHCH2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4-heptathlon-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFC2H5); 4,5,5,5-titrator-4-trifluoromethyl-1-pentene (CH2=CHCH2CF(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,5,5,5-heptathlon-4-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCH(CF3)(CH3)); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-trifluoromethyl-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CFC2H5); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CH=CFCF 2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CH=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CHCF2C2F5); CF2=CFOCF2CF3(PEVE); CF2=CFOCF3(PMVE), and combinations thereof.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

The present invention relates to compositions containing at least one pterolepis. The term pterolepis means any compound containing carbon, fluorine and, optionally, hydrogen or oxygen, which also contains at least one double bond. These pterolepis can be linear, branched or cyclic.

Compositions of the present invention have a number of applications in the working fluids, which include using them as a foaming agent, a pore-forming substances, extinguishing agents, heat transfer media (such as heat transfer fluid and cooling agents for use in cooling systems, refrigeration equipment, air conditioning systems, heat pumps, molds and the like) and many other applications.

Heat transfer fluid (also referred to in the present invention as a heat transfer composition of the sludge is the composition of the heat transfer fluid is the working fluid, used to transfer heat from the heat source to the solar heaters.

The refrigerating agent is a compound or mixture of compounds acting as heat transfer fluid in the cycle in which the fluid undergoes a phase transition from liquid to gas and back again.

The present invention relates to fluoroolefins having the formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2(formula I)in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group. Examples of groups R1and R2include, but are not limited to, CF3C2F5, CF2CF2CF3, CF(CF3)2, CF2CF2CF2CF3, CF(CF3CF2CF3, CF2CF(CF3)2C(CF3)3, CF2CF2CF2CF2CF3, CF2CF2CF(CF3)2C(CF3)2C2F5, CF2CF2CF2CF2CF2CF3, CF(CF3CF2CF2C2F5and C(CF3)2CF2C2F5. In one embodiment, pterolepis formula I have at least about 3 carbon atoms in the molecule. In another embodiment, pterolepis formula I have at least about 4 carbon atoms in the molecule. In another embodiment, pterolepis formula I have at least the least about 5 carbon atoms in the molecule. Examples of compounds of formula I, do not limit the present invention, are presented in table 1.

TABLE 1

The compounds of formula I can be obtained by contacting performancerelated formula R1I perftorpolietilena formula R2CH=CH2,with the formation of trihydroxyanthracene formula R1CH2CHIR2. Specified trihydroxyanthracene then you can dihydroiodide with the formation of R1CH=CHR2. Alternatively, the olefin R1CH=CHR2can be obtained by dihydrocodeinone trihydroxyanthracene formula R1CHICH2R2in turn, formed by the interaction of performancerelated formula R2I perftorpolietilena formula R1CH=CH2.

Specified the contacting of performancerelated with perftorpolietilena can occur in periodic mode by combining the reactants in a suitable reaction vessel, able to function under the autogenous pressure of the reactants and products at the reaction temperature. Suitable reaction vessels include vessels, made of stainless steels, in particular of the austenitic type, and from well-known high-Nickel alloys, such as Nickel-copper alloys, Monel®, Nickel-based alloys Hastelloy® Nickel-chromium alloys Inconel®.

Alternatively, the reaction can be carried out in properities the mode in which the reactant performancedriven when the reaction temperature is added to the reagent to performalite adds via a suitable device, such as a pump.

The ratio of performancerelated to performancedriven should be from about 1:1 to about 4:1, preferably from about 1.5:1 to 2.5:1. The relationship is less than 1.5:1 can result in adduct of more than 2:1 ratio, as reported in the publication Jeanneaux, et. al. in Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Vol. 4, pages 261-270 (1974).

The preferred temperature for the contact specified performancerelated with the specified perftorpolietilena preferably are in the range of from about 150°C to 300°C, preferably from about 170°C to about 250°C and most preferably from about 180°C to about 230°C. the time of contact for interaction performancerelated with perftorpolietilena is from about 0.5 hours to 18 hours, preferably from about 4 to about 12 hours.

Trihydrochloride obtained by interaction of performancerelated with perftorpolietilena, you can IP alsowhat directly under dihydrocodeinone, or, preferably, before the stage of dihydrocodeinone it is possible to isolate and purify by distillation.

Stage dihydrocodeinone carried out by contacting trihydroxyanthracene the original substance. Suitable source materials include hydroxides of alkali metals (e.g. sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide), oxides of alkali metals (e.g. sodium oxide), hydroxides of alkaline earth metals (e.g. calcium hydroxide), oxides of alkaline earth metals (e.g. calcium oxide), alkoxides of alkali metals (e.g. sodium methoxide or ethoxide sodium), aqueous ammonia, sodium amide or a mixture of original substances, such as soda lime. Preferred the original substances are sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. The specified contact trihydroxyanthracene the original substance can occur in the liquid phase, preferably in the presence of a solvent capable of dissolving at least part of both reagents. Solvents suitable for the stage of dihydrocodeinone include one or more polar organic solvents, such as alcohols (e.g. methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, Isobutanol and tertiary butanol), NITRILES (e.g. acetonitrile, propionitrile, butyronitrile, benzonitrile or adiponitrile), Dima is insulted, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide or sulfolane. The choice of solvent may depend on the boiling point of the product and the ease of separation of traces of solvent from the product during purification. Generally good solvents for this reaction include ethanol or isopropanol.

Usually the reaction dihydrocodeinone can be done by adding one of the reactants (or substances, or trihydroxyanthracene) to another reagent in a suitable reaction vessel. The specified reaction vessel can be made of glass, ceramics or metal, and preferably shaken by a mechanism for mixing or stirring.

Temperature suitable for the reaction of dihydrocodeinone range from about 10°C to about 100°C, preferably from about 20°C to about 70°C. the Reaction dihydrocodeinone can be carried out at ambient pressure or under reduced or increased pressure. Known reactions dihydrocodeinone, in which the compounds of formula I is distilled off from the reaction vessel as their education.

Alternatively, the reaction dihydrocodeinone can be conducted by contacting an aqueous solution of the specified source substance with a solution trihydroxyanthracene in one or more organic solvents of lower polarity, such the AK alkanes (for example, hexane, heptane or octane), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. toluene), halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride or perchlorethylene) or ethers (e.g. diethyl ether, methyl tert-butyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dioxane, dimethoxyethane, diglyme or tetralin), in the presence of a catalyst phase transfer. Suitable catalysts phase transfer include Quaternary ammonium halides (e.g., tetrabutylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium hydrosulfate, chloride of triethylenediamine, chloride of dodecyltrimethylammonium and chloride of tricaprylate), the halides of the Quaternary phosphonium (e.g., bromide triphenylethylene and chloride tetraphenylporphine) or cyclic polyether compounds known in the art as crown-ethers (for example, 18-crown-6 and 15-crown-5).

Alternatively, the reaction dihydrocodeinone can be carried out in the absence of solvent by adding trihydroxyanthracene to solid or liquid source material.

A suitable reaction time for reaction dihydrocodeinone is from about 15 minutes to about six hours or more, depending on the solubility of the reagents. Usually, the reaction of dihydrocodeinone is quick and requires to complete from about 30 m is the gram to about three hours. The compound of the formula I can be isolated from the reaction mixture of dihydrocodeinone separation of phases after adding water, by distillation or by a combination of these methods.

In another embodiment, the present invention pterolepis containing cyclic pterolepis (cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-] (formula II)in which:

X1Y1Z and W is independently selected from H and F, and n is an integer from 2 to 5. Examples of cyclic farolatino formula II are listed in table 2.

TABLE 2

In another embodiment, pterolepis may contain compounds listed in table 3.

TABLE 3

The compounds listed in table 2 and table 3 are commercially available or can be obtained by methods known in the art, or as described here.

1,1,1,4,4-Pendaftar-2-butene can be obtained from 1,1,1,2,4,4-geksaftorpentan (CHF2CH2CHFCF3by dihydropteridine over solid KOH in the gas phase at room temperature. Synthesis 1,1,1,2,4,4-geksaftorpentan described in U.S. patent 6066768 included in the present invention by reference.

1,1,1,4,4,4-Exept the R-2-butene can be obtained from 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-iodobutane (CF 3CHICH2CF3) by reaction with KOH using a catalyst phase transfer, at a temperature of about 60°C. the Synthesis of 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-idbutton can be performed by the reaction of performativity (CF3I) and 3,3,3-triptocaine (CF3CH=CH2) at a temperature of about 200°C under autogenous pressure for about 8 hours.

3,4,4,5,5,5-Hexamer-2-penten can be obtained by dihydropteridine 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptapteridae (CF3CF2CF2CH2CH3)using solid KOH, or on carbon catalyst at a temperature of 200-300°C. Can be obtained 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptadecene the hydrogenation of 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CH2).

1,1,1,2,3,4-Hexamer-2-butene can be obtained by dihydropteridine 1,1,1,2,3,3,4-getattributens (CH2FCF2CHFCF3) using solid KOH.

1,1,1,2,4,4-Hexamer-2-butene can be obtained by dihydropteridine 1,1,1,2,2,4,4-getattributens (CHF2CH2CF2CF3) using solid KOH.

1,1,1,3,4,4-Hexamer-2-butene can be obtained by dihydropteridine 1,1,1,3,3,4,4-getattributens (CF3CH2CF2CHF2) using solid KOH.

1,1,1,2,4-Pendaftar-2-butene can be obtained by dihydropteridine 1,1,1,2,2,3-geksaftorpentan (CH2FCH2CF2CF3) using solid KOH.

1,1,1,3,4-Pendaftar-2-buta is possible to obtain dehydrocorydaline 1,1,1,3,3,4-geksaftorpentan (CF 3CH2CF2CH2F) using solid KOH.

1,1,1,3-Titrator-2-butene can be obtained by the interaction of 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (CF3CH2CF2CH3) with aqueous KOH at a temperature of 120°C.

1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-Acceptor-2-penten can be obtained from (CF3CHICH2CF2CF3) by reaction with KOH using a catalyst phase transfer, at a temperature of about 60°C. Synthesis of 4-iodine-1,1,1,2,2,5,5,5-octafluoropentyl can be performed by the reaction of perforative (CF3CF2I) and 3,3,3-triptocaine at a temperature of about 200°C under autogenous pressure for about 8 hours.

1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-Deceptor-3-hexene can be obtained from 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hodgekin (CF3CF2CHICH2CF2CF3) by reaction with KOH using a catalyst phase transfer, at a temperature of about 60°C. the Synthesis 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hodgekin can be performed by the reaction of perforative (CF3CF2(I) and (3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CF3CF2CH=CH2) at a temperature of about 200°C under autogenous pressure for about 8 hours.

1,1,1,4,5,5,5-Heptathlon-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-penten can be obtained by dihydropteridine 1,1,1,2,5,5,5-heptathlon-4-iodine-2-(trifluoromethyl)pentane (CF3CHICH2CF(CF3)2) using KOH in isopropanol. Getting CF3CHICH2CF(CF3)2the implementation is given by the interaction (CF 3)2CFI with CF3CH=CH2at high temperature, such as about 200°C.

1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-Deceptor-2-hexene can be obtained by interaction of 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CHCF3) with tetrafluoroethylene (CF2=CF2and PENTAFLUORIDE antimony (SbF5).

2,3,3,4,4-Pendaftar-1-butene can be obtained by dihydropteridine 1,1,2,2,3,3-geksaftorpentan above fluorinated aluminum oxide at an elevated temperature.

2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-Acceptor-1-penten can be obtained by dihydropteridine 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nonattorney over solid KOH.

1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-Acceptor-1-penten can be obtained by dihydropteridine 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nonattorney above fluorinated aluminum oxide at an elevated temperature.

Compositions of the present invention may contain a single compound of formula I, formula II or a compound from table 3, or may contain a combination of these compounds. Additionally, many of the compounds of formula I, formula II and table 3 can exist as different configurational isomers or stereoisomers. In the scope of the present invention provides for the inclusion of all single configuration isomers, only one of the stereoisomers or any combination. For example, 1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234ze) is intended to represent the E-isomer, Z-isomer, or any combination or mixture is both isomers in any ratio. Another example is F12E, which represents an E-isomer, Z-isomer, or any combination or mixture of both isomers in any ratio.

Compositions of the present invention have a zero or low potential for ozone depletion and low global warming potential (GWP). Pterolepis of the present invention or a mixture of farolatino of the present invention with other cooling agents will have lower global warming potentials than many currently used gidroftorirovaniya refrigerating agents. In one aspect of the present invention proposed a refrigerant with a global warming potential less than 1000, less than 500, less than 150, less than 100 or less than 50. Another aspect of the present invention is to reduce the actual GWP of refrigerant mixtures by adding to the above mixtures farolatino.

Compositions of the present invention, which are combinations or mixtures, can be obtained in any convenient way by combining the desired amounts of the individual components. The preferred way is to weigh the desired amounts of the components and the consolidation after the components in a suitable vessel. If you prefer, you can use the mix.

Alternative methods for making compositions of the present invented what I include (i) regenerative volume of one or more components of the composition of the cooling agent at least one tank of the cooling agent, (ii) the removal of impurities sufficiently for reuse of the specified one or more of the recycled components, (iii) optionally, combining all the recovered volume of components or part of at least one additional refrigerant composition or component.

The capacity of the cooling agent can be any container for storage of the composition of the mixture refrigerant used in the cooling device, in the device of the air conditioning or heat pump. The specified capacity of the cooling agent may be a cooling device, the device of the air conditioning or heat pump in which a mixture of refrigerants. Additionally, the capacity of the cooling agent may be the capacity to store collected regenerated components of the mixture refrigerant, including, without limitation, pressurized gas cylinders.

Under the residual refrigerating agent understands any number of mixture cooling agents or components of the mixture refrigerant, which can be moved from tank cooling agent by any method known to migrate mixtures refrigerating agents or components of the mixture refrigerant.

Impurities can imagine Soboh is any component which is present in the mixture of cooling agent or component cooling the mixture due to its use in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump. Such impurities include, but are not limited to, lubricating oil for cooling, previously described in the present invention, impurities, solid particles, such as metal or elastomer that can go from the cooling unit, air-handling device or from a device of a heat pump, and any other contaminants that may have adverse effect on the operating parameters of the composition of the mixture refrigerant.

Such impurities can be removed sufficiently for reuse mixture of cooling agent or a component of the mixture refrigerant, without adverse effects on performance parameters or equipment that will be used a mixture of cooling agent or a component of the mixture refrigerant.

It may be necessary to provide additional mixture of cooling agent or a component of a mixture of refrigerant to the residual amount of the mixture of cooling agent or a component of a mixture of cooling agent to obtain a composition that is desired for this product is the Scripture. For example, if a mixture of refrigerant contains 3 components in a specific range of weight percentage, it may be necessary to add a predetermined amount of one or more components to restore the composition to the extent permitted by the description.

Compositions of the present invention, which can be used as refrigerants or heat transfer fluids contain at least one pterolepis selected from the group consisting of:

(i) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group and in which the total number of carbon atoms in the compound is at least 5;

(ii) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F and n is an integer from 2 to 5; and

(iii) farolatino selected from the group consisting of:

1,2,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CF=CHF); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CH=CF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CHF2CF=CF2); 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CF=CHF); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CF3CF=CH2); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (CH2FCF=CF2); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CH=CF2); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CF=CH2); 3,3,3-rifter-1-propene (CF 3CH=CH2); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (CH3CF=CF2); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCF=CF2); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCH=CF2); 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CH=CHF); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (CF3CF=CFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-acceptor-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCF3); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CHF); 1,1,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CHF2); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CH2); 1,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4-hexamer-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CH2F); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene (CH2=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCH2F); 3,3,4,4,4-andafter-1-butene (CF 3CF2CH=CH2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CH=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3-pendaftar-2-butene (CH3CF=CFCF3); 2,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CF=CHCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-butene (CH3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,2,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCHF2); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-methyl-1-propene (CF2=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2-(deformity)-3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)(CF3)); 2,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCH2CF3); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCHFCF3); 1,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CHF2); 1,2,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,4,4-titrator-1-butene (CH2=CHCF2CHF2); 1,1-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CF2=C(CHF2)(CH3)); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-methyl-1-propene (CHF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 3,3-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)2); 1,1,1,2-titrator-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (CH3CF=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CH=CFCF2 CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CHCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CHF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CFCF(CF3)2); 1,1,2,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CF3CH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCF(CF3)2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3CF2CF3); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCF(CF3)2); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 3,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene ((CF3)2CFCH=CH2); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CH2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,3,3,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2 =CHCF2CH2CF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-3-methyl-2-butene (CF3CF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH2FCH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH3CF=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCH3); 3,4,4,5,5,5-hexamer-2-pentene (CF3CF2CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-methyl-2-butene (CF3C(CH3)=CHCF3); 3,3,4,5,5,5-hexamer-1-pentene (CH2=CHCF2CHFCF3); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-1-hexene (CF3(CF2)3CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHC2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CHCF3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF2CH=CH2); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CHC(CF3)3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaf the PR-2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-methyl-2-butene ((CF 3)2C=C(CH3)(CF3)); 2,3,3,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-3-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=C(CH3CF2CF3); 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (CF3CH=CHCH(CF3)2); 3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-acceptor-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF=CHCH3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-acceptor-1-hexene (CH2=CHCF2CF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHCF2CH3); 4,4,5,5,5-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2C2F5); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2C(CH3)=CH2); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CHCH3); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-1-hexene (CH2=CHCH2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4-heptathlon-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFC2H5); 4,5,5,5-titrator-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CHCH2CF(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,5,5,5-heptathlon-4-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCH(CF3)(CH3)); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-trifluoromethyl-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CFC2H5); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3 CH=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CH=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CHCF2C2F5); CF2=CFOCF2CF3(PEVE) and CF2=CFOCF3(PMVE).

The present invention additionally relates to compositions containing at least one pterolepis and at least one flammable refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, in which pterolepis selected from the group consisting of:

(i) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group and in which the total number of carbon atoms in the compound is at least 5;

(ii) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F and n is an integer from 2 to 5; and

(iii) farolatino selected from the group consisting of:

1,2,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CF=CHF); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CH=CF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CHF2CF=CF2); 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CF=CHF); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CF3CF=CH2); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (CH2 FCF=CF2); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CH=CF2); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CF=CH2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CF3CH=CH2); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (CH3CF=CF2); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCF=CF2); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCH=CF2); 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CH=CHF); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (CF3CF=CFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-acceptor-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCF3); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CHF); 1,1,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CHF2); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CH2); 1,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4-hexamer-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CH2F); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene (CHsub> 2=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCH2F); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CF3CF2CH=CH2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CH=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3-pendaftar-2-butene (CH3CF=CFCF3); 2,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CF=CHCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-butene (CH3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,2,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCHF2); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-methyl-1-propene (CF2=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2-(deformity)-3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)(CF3)); 2,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCH2CF3); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCHFCF3); 1,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CHF2); 1,2,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,4,4-titrator-1-butene (CH2=CHCF2CHF2); 1,1-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CF2=C(CHF2)(CH3)); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-methyl-1-propene (CHF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 3,3-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)2); 1,1,1,2-titrator-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (CH3CF=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(triptime the l)-2-butene ((CF 3)2C=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CHCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CHF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CFCF(CF3)2); 1,1,2,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CF3CH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCF(CF3)2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3CF2CF3); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCF(CF3)2); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 3,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene ((CF3)2CFCH=CH2); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CFsub> 3CF2CF2CH=CH2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,3,3,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CH2CF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-3-methyl-2-butene (CF3CF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH2FCH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH3CF=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCH3); 3,4,4,5,5,5-hexamer-2-pentene (CF3CF2CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-methyl-2-butene (CF3C(CH3)=CHCF3); 3,3,4,5,5,5-hexamer-1-pentene (CH2=CHCF2CHFCF3); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-1-hexene (CF3(CF2)3CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHC2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CHCF3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-Huck is s (CF 3CF2CF2CF2CH=CH2); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CHC(CF3)3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)--3-methyl-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CH3)(CF3)); 2,3,3,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-3-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=C(CH3CF2CF3); 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (CF3CH=CHCH(CF3)2); 3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-acceptor-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF=CHCH3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-acceptor-1-hexene (CH2=CHCF2CF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHCF2CH3); 4,4,5,5,5-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2C2F5); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2C(CH3)=CH2); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CHCH3); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-1-hexene (CH2=CHCH2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4-heptathlon-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFC2H5); 4,5,5,5-titrator-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CHCH2CF(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,5,5,5-heptathlon-4-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCH(CF3)(CH3)); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CFC2H5); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-2-Heptene (CF3C=CFCF 2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CH=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CHCF2C2F5); CF2=CFOCF2CF3(PEVE) and CF2=CFOCF3(PMVE).

Particularly useful compositions containing at least one flammable refrigerant and at least one pterolepis are such pterolepis, which in themselves are non-flammable. Flammability of Ferreira, appears to be associated with the number of fluorine atoms and the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. The following equation defines the factor Flammability, which can be calculated as an indicator of expected Flammability:

factor Flammability = F/(F + H)

where:

F = number of fluorine atoms; and

H = number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

Since it was established experimentally that some songs are flammable, they defined the boundaries of the factors for non-flammable Flammability of farolatino. You can determine the best Flammability or flame resistance of farolatino by testing their certain Standard 34-2001 ASHRAE (American society of engineers for heating, refrigeration and air-conditioning), according E681-01 ASTM (American society for testing and materials) with electronic ignition source. Such tests for Flammability carried out with this compound in various concentrations at a pressure of 101 kPa (14.7 psi) and a certain temperature (often 100°C (212°F)) to determine the lower Flammability limit (LFL, LEL) and/or upper Flammability limit (UFL, SVC) of the tested compounds in the air.

Factors Flammability for a number of farolatino are listed in table 4 along with the experimental determination of Flammability or non. Thus, it is possible to predict which of the other farolatino of the present disclosure, which are essentially non-flammable ferreirae will be most useful in combination with flammable refrigerating agents of the present disclosure.

TABLE 4

You can determine the Flammability or flame resistance of farolatino listed in table 4, based on the value of the factor Flammability. If facto identified the Flammability equal to or greater than 0,70, it can be expected that pterolepis is non-flammable. If the factor Flammability less than 0,70, it can be expected that pterolepis is inflammable.

In another embodiment, the present invention pterolepis for use in the compositions of flammable refrigerated agents are pterolepis selected from the group consisting of:

(a) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group;

(b) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F, n is an integer from 2 to 5 and in which the factor Flammability greater than or equal to 0.70; and

(c) farolatino selected from the group consisting of:

1,2,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CF=CHF); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CH=CF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CHF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (CF3CF=CFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-acceptor-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCF3); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CHF); 1,1,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,44,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF 2=CFCHFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CHF2); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CH2); 1,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4-hexamer-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CH2F); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene (CH2=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CHCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CHF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCHFCF ); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CFCF(CF3)2); 1,1,2,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CF3CH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCF(CF3)2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3CF2CF3); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCF(CF3)2); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 3,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene ((CF3)2CFCH=CH2); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CH2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,3,3,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CH2CF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-3-methyl-2-butene (CF3CF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH2FCH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH3CF=C(CF3)2); 1,1,2,33,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-1-hexene (CF 3(CF2)3CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHC2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CHCF3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF2CH=CH2); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CHC(CF3)3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-methyl-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CH3)(CF3)); 2,3,3,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-3-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=C(CH3CF2CF3); 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (CF3CH=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CH=CFCF2C2F and 1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CHCF2C2F5).

In another embodiment, pterolepis of the present disclosure, which may be particularly useful in combination with flammable cooling agents can be represented by at least one Ferreira selected from the group consisting of:

(a) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group and in which the factor Flammability greater than or equal to 0.70; and

(b) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F, n is an integer from 2 to 5 and in which the factor Flammability greater than or equal to 0.70.

Factor Flammability provides the basis for predicting the Flammability of some compounds of farolatino, however, there may be some options, such as the position of hydrogen atoms in the molecule, which will explain the Flammability of some isomers with the molecular formula, while the other isomers are non-flammable. Therefore, the factor Flammability can only be used as a tool for predicting the Flammability characteristics.

Vosplamenyat the existing refrigerating agents of the present invention include any compound, which may be the property of flame propagation in the specified conditions of temperature, pressure and composition when mixed with air. Flammable cooling agents can be identified by testing under the conditions specified by the Standard 34-2001 ASHRAE (American society of engineers for heating, refrigeration and air-conditioning), according E681-01 ASTM (American society for testing and materials) with electronic ignition source. These Flammability tests carried out with cooling agents in different concentrations at a pressure of 101 kPa (14.7 psi) and a certain temperature (often 100°C (212°F)or at room temperature, which is approximately 23°C (73°F) in air, to determine the lower Flammability limit (LFL, LEL) and/or upper Flammability limit (UFL, SVC) of the tested compounds in the air.

In practical terms the refrigerating agent can be classified as flammable if after it leaks from the cooling unit or air-conditioning device and communicating with a source of ignition may cause fire. Compositions of the present invention have a low probability of ignition at the time of such leakage.

Flammable refrigerating agents of the present invention include hydroptere levaditi (HFCs), pterolepis, forevery, hydrocarbon ethers, hydrocarbons, ammonia (NH3), and combinations thereof.

Flammable cooling agents HFC include, but are not limited to: diformate (HFC-32), permatan (HFC-41), 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a), 1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HFC-143), 1,1-differetn (HFC-152a), floridan (HFC-161), 1,1,1-tryptophan (HFC-263fb), 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-365mfc), and combinations thereof. These flammable refrigeration HFC-agents are commercial products available from a number of sources, such as company of chemical synthesis, or they can be obtained by methods of synthesis disclosed in the art.

Flammable refrigerating agents of the present invention optionally contain pterolepis, including, without limitation: 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234ye); 1,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234ze); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234yf); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234yc); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234zc); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243yf); 3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243zf); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243yc); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243zc); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243ye); 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243ze).

Flammable refrigerating agents of the present invention optionally contain forevery, connection, such hydroformylation, which also contain at least one oxygen atom in a simple ether group. the reamers farafirah cooling agents include, without limitation, commercially available C4F9OC2H5.

Flammable refrigerating agents of the present invention optionally contain hydrocarbon refrigeration agents. Examples of hydrocarbon refrigerants include, but are not limited to, propane, propene, cyclopropane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, 2-methylbutane (isopentane), CYCLOBUTANE, cyclopentane, 2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE, 2,2-Dimethylbutane, 2,3-Dimethylbutane, 2,3-dimethylpentane, 2-methylhexan, 3-methylhexan, 2-methylpentane, 3-ethylpentane, 3-methylpentane, cyclohexane, n-heptane, Methylcyclopentane and n-hexane. Flammable hydrocarbon refrigeration agents are readily available from many commercial sources.

Flammable refrigerating agents of the present invention optionally contain hydrocarbon ethers such as dimethyl ether (DME, CH3OCH3) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, (CH3)3COCH3), both available from many commercial sources.

Flammable refrigerating agents of the present invention optionally contain ammonia (NH3commercially available connection.

Flammable refrigerating agents of the present invention can optionally contain a mixture of more than one cooling agent, such as a mixture of two or more of flammable refrigerants (such as the er, two HFC or HFC and one hydrocarbon), or a mixture containing flammable refrigerant and non-flammable refrigerant, so that the mixture as a whole will be considered inflammable cooling agent identified according to the conditions of ASTM described in the present invention, or in practice.

Examples of non-flammable refrigerants, which can be combined with other cooling agents of the present invention, include R-134a, R-134, R-23, R125, R-236fa, R-245fa and HFC mixtures-22/HFC-152a/HFC-124 (known by the ASHRAE designations as R401 or R-401A, R-401B, R-401C), HFC-125/HFC-143a/HFC-134a (known by the ASHRAE designation as R-404 or R-404A, HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a (known by the ASHRAE designations as R407 or R-407A, R-407B, R-407C, HFC-22/HFC-143a/HFC-125 (known by the ASHRAE designation as R408 or R-408A), HFC-22/HFC-124/HFC-142b (known by the ASHRAE designation as R-409 or R-409A), HFC-32/HFC-125 (known by the ASHRAE designation as R-410A and HFC-125/HFC-143a (known by the ASHRAE designation as R-507 or R507A) and carbon dioxide.

Examples of mixtures of more than one flammable refrigerant include propane/isobutane; HFC-152a/isobutane, R32/propane; R32/isobutane; HFC mixtures/carbon dioxide, such as HFC-152a/CO2.

In one aspect of the present invention proposed a non-flammable refrigerant with a global warming potential less the than 150, preferably less than 50. Another aspect of the present invention is to reduce the Flammability of combustible mixtures of refrigerants by adding to the above mixtures non-flammable farolatino.

It can be shown that despite the fact that some cooling agents are flammable, you can get a non-flammable refrigerant composition by adding to vosplamenyayuschaya refrigerating agent of another compound that is non-flammable. Examples of such non-flammable mixtures of refrigerants include R-410A (HFC-32 is inflammable cooling agent, while HFC-125 is non-flammable) and R-407C (HFC-32 is inflammable cooling agent, while HFC-125 and HFC-134a is non-flammable).

Compositions of the present invention, which is applicable as a refrigerant or heat transfer fluid and contain at least one pterolepis and at least one flammable refrigerant may contain an effective amount of Ferreira to obtain a composition, which is non-flammable, based on the results in accordance with ASTM E681-01.

Compositions of the present invention containing at least one flammable refrigerant and p is at least one pterolepis, can contain from about 1 weight percent to about 99 weight percent of Ferreira and from about 99 weight percent to about 1 weight percent volatile cooling agent.

In another embodiment, compositions of the present invention can contain from about 10 weight percent to about 80 weight percent of Ferreira and from about 90 weight percent to about 20 weight percent of the flammable refrigerant. In another embodiment, compositions of the present invention can contain from about 20 weight percent to about 70 weight percent of Ferreira and from about 80 weight percent to about 30 weight percent volatile cooling agent.

Of particular interest is a variant of implementation of the present invention, in which pterolepis contains HFC-1225ye and flammable refrigerant contains HFC-32 (deformity). It was determined that compositions containing up to 37 weight percent HFC-32, are non-flammable, whereas compositions containing 38 weight percent HFC-32 or more, are flammable, as determined according to ASTM 681-01. In the present invention proposed a non-flammable composition containing from about 1.0 weight percent to about 37,0 weight percent HFC-32 jot about a 99.0 weight percent to about 63 weight percent HFC-1225ye.

Also particularly interesting is the implementation of the present invention, in which the composition comprises HFC-1225ye, HFC-32 and HFC-125. This composition of the present invention contains from about 20 weight percent to about 95 weight percent HFC-1225ye, about 1.0 weight percent to about 65 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 40 weight percent HFC-125. In another embodiment, the composition contains from about 30 weight percent to about 90 weight percent HFC-1225ye, about to 5.0 weight percent to about 55 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 35 weight percent HFC-125. In another embodiment, the composition comprises from about 40 weight percent to about 85 weight percent HFC-1225ye, about 10 weight percent to about 45 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 28 weight percent HFC-125. It is believed that such compositions containing less than about 40 weight percent HFC-32, will be non-flammable compositions. This Flammability limit will vary from less than about 45 weight percent HFC-32 to less than about 37 weight percent HFC-32, depending on the ratio of HFC-1225ye and HFC-125 are present in the composition.

In another VA who ianthe implementation of particular interest, flammable refrigerant contains HFC-1243zf, and it is assumed that non-flammable pterolepis reduces the Flammability of the composition. The composition may contain from about 1.0 weight percent to about 99 weight percent HFC-1243zf and about 99 weight percent to about 1.0 weight percent HFC-1225ye. Alternatively, the composition may contain from about 40 weight percent to about 70 percent HFC-1243zf and about 60 weight percent to about 30 weight percent HFC-1225ye.

In another particularly interesting embodiment, the composition contains from about 1.0 weight percent to about 98 weight percent HFC-1243zf; about 1.0 weight percent to about 98 weight percent HFC-1225ye; and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 50 weight percent HFC-125. Alternatively, the composition comprises from about 40 weight percent to about 70 weight percent HFC-1243zf; about 20 weight percent to about 60 weight percent HFC-1225ye; and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 10 weight percent HFC-125.

In another particularly interesting embodiment, the composition contains from about 1.0 weight percent to about 98 weight percent HFC-1243zf; about 1.0 weight percent to about 98 weight percent of the FU-1225ye; and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 50 weight percent HFC-32. Alternatively, the composition comprises from about 40 weight percent to about 70 weight percent HFC-1243zf; about 20 weight percent to about 60 weight percent HFC-1225ye; and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 10 weight percent HFC-32.

In one particularly interesting embodiment, the composition contains from about 1.0 weight percent to about 97 weight percent HFC-1243zf; about 1.0 weight percent to about 97 weight percent HFC-1225ye; from about 1.0 weight percent to about 50 weight percent HFC-125; and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 50 weight percent HFC-32. Alternatively, the composition comprises from about 40 weight percent to about 70 weight percent HFC-1243zf; about 20 weight percent to about 60 weight percent HFC-1225ye; from about 1.0 weight percent to about 10 weight percent HFC-125; and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 10 weight percent HFC-32.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of reducing the Flammability flammable refrigerant, and this method involves combining the flammable refrigerant with at least one Ferreira. The number of added Ferreira on what should be in order to obtain an effective amount of non-combustible compositions, as determined according to ASTM 681-01.

Compositions of the present invention can be used for cooling, air conditioning or heat pump system in combination with a dehumidifier to help remove the moisture. Dehumidifiers can be composed of activated alumina, silica gel or molecular sieves based on the zeolite. Examples of molecular sieves include sieves MOLSIV XH-7, IG-6, XH-9, XH-11 (UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL). For refrigerating agents, small molecules, such as HFC-32, it is preferable drier XH-11.

Compositions of the present invention can optionally contain at least one lubricating agent. Lubricating agents of the present invention contain substances that are suitable for use with the device of the air conditioning or cooling. These include lubricating agents traditionally used in compression cooling device that uses harperperennial refrigerating agents. Such lubricating agents and their properties discussed in the 1990 ASHRAE Handbook, Refrigeration Systems and Applications, chapter 8, titled "Lubricants in Refrigeration Systems", pages 8.1 through 8.21 included in the present invention by reference. Lubricating agents of the present invention may contain substances, commonly known as "mines the mineral oils" in the field of lubrication compression cooling. Mineral oils contain waxes (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons with straight chain and branched hydrocarbon chain), naphthenes (that is, cyclic paraffins and aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing one or more rings of different alternating double bonds). Lubricating agents of the present invention additionally contain substances, commonly known as "synthetic oils" in the field of lubrication compression cooling. Synthetic oils contain alkylaryl (i.e. linear and branched alkylimidazole), synthetic paraffins and naphthenes, and poly(alpha-olefins). Examples of conventional lubricating agents of the present invention are commercially available BVM 100 N (paraffinic mineral oil sold by BVA Oils), Suniso® 3GS and Suniso® 5GS (naphthenic mineral oil sold by Crompton Co.), Sontex® 372LT (naphthenic mineral oil sold by Pennzoil), Calumet® RO-30 (naphthenic mineral oil sold by Calumet Lubricants), Zerol® 75, Zerol® 150 and Zerol® 500 (linear alkyl benzenes, sold by Shrieve Chemicals) and HAB 22 (branched alkyl benzenes, sold by the company Nippon Oil).

Lubricating agents of the present invention additionally contain substances designed for use with hydroperoxidation Kholodilin the agents, able to mix with the cooling agents of the present invention in operating conditions of the device compression refrigeration and air conditioning. Such lubricating agents and their properties are discussed in "Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Fluids", R. L. Shubkin, editor, Marcel Dekker, 1993. Such lubricating agents include, but are not limited to, complex Paleologue esters (POE), such as Castrol® 100 (Castrol, United Kingdom), polyalkylene glycols (PAG), such as RL-488A from Dow (Dow Chemical, Midland, Michigan), and polyvinyl ether (PVE).

Lubricating agents of the present invention is selected to meet the specific requirements of the compressor and the environment in which to operate a lubricating agent.

The compositions of the present invention is not necessarily possible to add additives traditionally used for the cooling system, if it is desirable to increase lubricity and stability of the system. These additives are well known in the field of lubricating a compression-cooling and include agents against wear, extreme pressure lubricants, corrosion inhibitors and oxidation, decontamination officers of metal surfaces, regulators and foaming defoamers, leak detectors, and the like. Typically, these additives are present only in small amounts relative to the entire lubricating compositions is AI. Usually each additive used in concentrations of from less than about 0.1% up to about 3%. These additives are chosen based on the requirements of specific systems. Some typical examples of such additives may include, but are not limited to, additives that increase the lubricity, such as alkalemia or akrilovye esters of phosphoric acid and thiophosphate. Additionally, the compositions of the present invention can be used dialkyldithiophosphate metals (for example, dialkyldithiophosphate zinc or ZDDP, Lubrizol 1375) and other members of this family of chemicals. Other anti-wear additives include oils of natural origin and asymmetric polyhydroxylated lubricity additives, such as Synergol TMS (International Lubricants). You can also use stabilizers such as antioxidants, acceptors of free radicals and topolitical (dewatering connection). Such additives include, but are not limited to, nitromethane, shielded phenols (such as bottled hydroxytoluene or BHT), hydroxylamine, thiols, phosphites, epoxides or lactones. Topolitical include, but are not limited to, complex orthoepy, such as trimethyl-, triethyl - or reproportioned. You can use a separate additive or a combination of both.

In one embodiment, the present invention relates to the omposition, containing at least one pterolepis and at least one stabilizer selected from the group consisting of thiophosphates, bottled triphenylphosphorane, organophosphates, complex dialkyldithiophosphate ethers, terpenes, terpenoids, fullerenes, functionalized parfocality, polyoxyalkylene aromatic hydrocarbons, epoxides, fluorinated epoxides, oxiteno, ascorbic acid, thiols, lactones, thioethers, nitromethane, alkylsilanes, derivatives of benzophenone, allsolid, diphenylcarbamate, diphenylcarbonate, alkylamines followed, shielded amine antioxidants and phenols. The bonds alkylamines may include triethylamine, tributylamine, Diisopropylamine, triisopropanolamine, triisobutylene and other members of this family of compounds of the alkylamine.

In another embodiment, the stabilizers of the present invention may contain a specific combination of stabilizers. One particularly interesting combination of stabilizers comprises at least one terpene or terpenoid. These terpenes or terpenoids can be combined with at least one compound selected from epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxiteno.

Terpenes are hydrocarbon compounds characterized by structures containing more than one repeating isoprene is the first (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) link. Terpenes can be aliphatic or cyclic. Examples of terpenes include, but are not limited to, MIRCEN (2-methyl-6-letiltotta-1,7-diene), ALLO-racemic limonene, beta-Ozimek, terebin, lemon (or d-limonene), retinal, pinene (or alpha-pinene, menthol, geraniol, farnesol, phytyl side-chain, vitamin a, terpinene, Delta-3-Karen, terpinolene, phellandrene, fenchene, and mixtures thereof. Terpene stabilizers commercially available or can be obtained by methods known in the art, or isolated from natural sources.

Terpenoids are products of natural origin and related compounds differing structures containing more than one repeating isoprene link, and does not contain oxygen. Examples of terpenoids include carotenoids, such as lycopene (registration number CAS [502-65-8]), beta-carotene (registration number CAS [7235-40-7]) and the xanthophylls, i.e. zeaxanthin (registration number CAS [144-68-3]); retinoids such as papaxanthis (registration number CAS [512-39-0]) and isotretinoin (registration number CAS [4759-48-2]); abatan (registration number CAS [640-43-7]); Ambrose (registration number CAS [24749-18-6]); aristole (registration number CAS [29788-49-6]); atisan (registration CAS no [24379-83-7]); Bayern (registration number CAS [2359-83-3]), bisabolol (registration number CAS [29799-19-7]); Bornand (registration number CAS [464-15-3]); Kari who fillan (registration number CAS [20479-00-9]); Cadran (registration number CAS [13567-54-9]); damaran (registration number CAS [545-22-2]); dreman (registration number CAS [5951-58-6]); eremophila (registration number CAS [3242-05-5]); eudesmol (registration number CAS [473-11-0]); fenhann (registration number CAS [6248-88-0]); hammaren (registration number CAS [559-65-9]); germacrene (registration number CAS [645-10-3]); Gibbon (registration number CAS [6902-95-0]); grayanotoxin (registration number CAS [39907-73-8]); guyan (registration number CAS [489-80-5]); himachala (registration number CAS [20479-45-2]); Gopan (registration number CAS [471-62-5]); Humulin (registration number CAS [430-19-3]); kouran (registration number CAS [1573-40-6]); Laban (registration number CAS [561-90-0]); lanostane (registration number CAS [474-20-4]); Lupan (registration number CAS [464-99-3]); p-Menten (registration number CAS [99-82-1]); oleanane (registration number CAS [471-67-0]); ophiobolin (registration number CAS [20098-65-1]); perasan (registration number CAS [35732-97-9]); bimaran (registration number CAS [30257-03-5]); pinan (registration number CAS [473-55-2]); podocarpus (registration number CAS [471-78-3]); protestan (registration number CAS [70050-78-1]); rose (registration number CAS [6812-82-4]); taxon (registration number CAS [1605-68-1]); Tuyen (registration number CAS [471-12-5]); trichothecin (registration number CAS [24706-08-9]); and ursan (registration number CAS [464-93-7]). Terpenoids present invention are commercially available or can be obtained by methods known in the art, or m which may be selected from a source of natural origin.

In one embodiment, terpene or terpenoid stabilizers can be combined with at least one epoxide. Examples of epoxides include 1,2-propylene oxide (registration number CAS [75-56-9]); 1,2-butylenes (registration number CAS [106-88-7]); or mixtures thereof.

In another embodiment, terpene or terpenoid stabilizers of the present invention can be combined with at least one fluorinated epoxide. Fluorinated epoxides of the present invention can be represented by formula 3, in which each of R2-R5represents H, alkyl with 1-6 carbon atoms or foralkyl with 1-6 carbon atoms, provided that at least one of the groups R2-R5is an alkyl fluoride group.

Examples of fluorinated epoxy stabilizers include, but are not limited to, triptorelin and 1,1-bis(trifluoromethyl)oxirane. Such compositions can be obtained by methods known in the art, for example by the methods described in the journals: Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, volume 24, pages 93-104 (1984), Journal of Organic Chemistry, volume 56, pages 3187 to 3189 (1991), Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, volume 125, pages 99-105 (2004).

In another embodiment, terpene or terpenoid stabilizers of the present invention can be combined with at least one oxiteno. kitanova stabilizers of the present invention can be compounds with one or more oxetanone groups and represented by the formula 4, in which R1-R6are the same or different and can be selected from hydrogen, alkyl or substituted alkyl, aryl or substituted aryl.

Examples oxetanone stabilizers include, but are not limited to, 3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethylation, such as OXT-101 (Toagosei Co., Ltd); 3-ethyl-3-((phenoxy)methyl)by l'occitane, such as OXT-211 (Toagosei Co., Ltd); and 3-ethyl-3-((2-ethylhexyloxy)methyl)by l'occitane, such as OXT-212 (Toagosei Co., Ltd.

Another particularly interesting variant implementation is a combination of stabilizers containing fullerenes. Fullerene stabilizers can be combined with at least one compound selected from the group consisting of epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxiteno. Epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxetane for combination with fullerenes described above in the present invention in relation to the combination of terpenes or terpenoids.

Another particularly interesting embodiment is a combination of stabilizers containing phenols. Phenolic stabilizers can be combined with at least one compound selected from the group consisting of epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxiteno. Epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxetane for combination with phenols described above in the present invention in relation to comb the nation with terpenes or terpenoids.

Phenolic stabilizers contain any compound substituted or unsubstituted phenol, including phenols containing one or more substituted or unsubstituted cyclic aliphatic group substituents with a straight or branched chain, such as alkylated monophenol, including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-METHYLPHENOL; 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-ethylphenol; 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol; tocopherol and the like; hydroquinone and alkylated hydrochinone, including tert-butylhydroquinone, other derivatives of hydroquinone and the like; gidroksilirovanii thiodiphenylamine esters, including 4,4'-THIOBIS(2-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol); 4,4'-THIOBIS(3-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol); 2,2'-THIOBIS(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol); and the like; alkalinebattery, including: 4,4'-Methylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol); 4,4'-bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol); derivatives of 2,2'- or 4,4-biphenyldiol; 2,2'-Methylenebis(4-ethyl-6-tert-butylphenol); 2,2'-Methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol); 4,4-butylidene(3-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol); 4,4-isopropylidenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol); 2,2'-Methylenebis(4-methyl-6-Nonylphenol); 2,2'-isobutylidene(4,6-dimethylphenol; 2,2'-Methylenebis(4-methyl-6-cyclohexylphenol), 2,2 - or 4,4-biphenyldiol, including 2,2'-methylenbis(4-ethyl-6-tert-butylphenol); - bottled hydroxytoluene (BHT), bisphenol containing heteroatoms, including 2,6-di-tert-alpha-dimethylamino-p-cresol, 4,4-THIOBIS(6-Tr is t-butyl-m-cresol); and the like; aceraminophen; 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(N,N'-dimethylaminomethylphenol); sulfides including bis(3-methyl-4-hydroxy-5-tert-butylbenzyl)sulfide, bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)sulfide; and the like.

In one embodiment of the present invention, these combinations of stabilizers containing terpenes or terpenoids or fullerenes or phenols with at least one compound selected from the group consisting of epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxiteno may optionally contain additional connection-stabilizer selected from the group consisting of:

areacall bis(benzylidene)hydrazide (registration number CAS 6629-10-3); N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) (registration number CAS 32687-78-8); 2,2'-oxometabolite-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) (registration number CAS 70331-94-1); N,N'-(disalicylidene)-1,2-propandiamine (registration number CAS 94-91-1); ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (registration number CAS 60-00-4) and their salts.

In another embodiment of the present invention, these combinations of stabilizers containing terpenes or terpenoids or fullerenes or phenols with at least one compound selected from the group consisting of epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxiteno can optionally contain at least one alkylamine, abiramy from the group consisting of triethylamine; tributylamine; triisopropanolamine; diisobutylamine; triisopropanolamine; triisobutylene; shielded amine antioxidants.

Compositions of the present invention may optionally contain a compound or composition, which contains a labeled atom and is selected from the group consisting of hydrotherapeutic (HFCs), deuterated hydrocarbons, deuterated of hydrotherapeutic, fluorosurfactants, Ftorafur, brominated compounds, iodized compounds, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, nitrous oxide (N2O) and combinations thereof. Compounds labeled with the atom used in the present invention, represent different compositions from those used as a refrigerant or heat transfer fluid added to the compositions of the cooling agent and heat transfer compositions in predetermined quantities, allowing to detect any dilution, contamination or other alteration of the composition, as described in patent application U.S. No. 11/062044, filed February 18, 2005.

Typical compounds labeled with atom for use in the compositions of the present invention are listed in table 5.

TABLE 5

The compositions listed in table 5, commercially available from chemical suppliers) or can be obtained by methods known in the art.

In combination with cooling/heating fluids in the compositions of the present invention can use a separate connection labeled atom or may be combined in any proportion multiple connections labeled with the atom to act as a mixture of labeled compounds. The mixture of labeled compounds can contain multiple compounds labeled with an atom of the same class of compounds or more compounds labeled with atom from different classes of compounds. For example, a mixture of labeled compounds may contain 2 or more deuterated of hydrotherapeutic one or deuterated hydrotherapeutic in combination with one or more fluorosurfactants.

Additionally, some of the compounds in table 4 there are several structural or optical isomers. To obtain compounds labeled with the atom, you can use the isomers separately or more isomers of the same compounds in any proportion. Additionally, only one or more isomers of a particular connection can is about to combine in any proportion with any number of other compounds, so they acted as a mixture of labeled compounds.

The connection labeled atom or a mixture of labelled compounds may be present in the compositions in a total concentration from about 50 parts per million by weight (ppm h/m) to about 1000 hours/million Preferably, the connection is labeled with an atom or a mixture of labeled compounds are present in a total concentration from about 50 hours per million to about 500 hours/million, and most preferably, a compound labeled with an atom or a mixture of labeled compounds are present in a total concentration from about 100 h/m to about 300 hours/million

Compositions of the present invention may further contain ultraviolet (UV) dye and, optionally, a solvent. UV paint is a useful component for leak detection composition refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, giving the opportunity to observe the fluorescence of the dye in the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid leaks or about leaks in the specified device for cooling, air conditioning, heat pump. The fluorescence of the dye can be observed under ultraviolet light. Due to the lack of solubility of these UV inks in some refrigerants and heat transfer fluids may be necessary solvents.

The term "ultravio etova paint" understand UV fluorescent composition, which absorbs light in the ultraviolet or "close" to the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is possible to detect fluorescence produced by the UV fluorescent dye under UV light, which is emitted radiation with a wavelength from about 10 nm to 750 nm. Therefore, if containing such UV fluorescent paint refrigerant or heat transfer fluid flows from a particular point device for cooling, air conditioning or heat pump device, the leak or near the place of leakage can be detected fluorescence. Such UV fluorescent inks include, but are not limited to, naphthalimides, perylenes, coumarins, anthracene, phenantrene, xanthene, tioksantena, nattokinase, fluorescein and derivatives of these dyes or combinations thereof. The solvents of the present invention contain at least one compound selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbons, ethers hydrocarbons, esters polyoxyethyleneglycol, amides, NITRILES, ketones, chloropeta, esters, lactones, arolovich ethers, perepelov and 1,1,1-triptorelin.

Hydrocarbon solvents of the present invention include hydrocarbons, including linear, branched, or cyclic alkanes or alkenes containing 16 or men is more carbon atoms and a single hydrogen atom with no other functional groups. Examples of hydrocarbon solvents include propane, propylene, cyclopropane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, octane, decane and hexadecane. It should be noted that if the cooling agent is a hydrocarbon, a solvent may not be the same hydrocarbon.

Ethers, hydrocarbons, which are the solvents of the present invention include esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, such as dimethyl ether (DME).

Esters of polyoxyethyleneglycol, which are the solvents of the present invention represented by the formula, R1[(OR2)xOR3]ywhere: x is an integer from 1 to 3; y is an integer from 1 to 4; R1selected from hydrogen and aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals having 1-6 carbon atoms and y binding sites; R2choose from aliphatic hydrocarbonrich radicals having from 2 to 4 carbon atoms; R3selected from hydrogen and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms; at least one of R1and R3is the specified hydrocarbon radical; and where these esters polyoxyethyleneglycol have a molecular weight from about 100 to about 300 atomic mass. Used in the present invention, the term "binding sites" means areas glad calow, available for the formation of covalent bonds with other radicals. Hydrocarbonate radicals denote divalent hydrocarbon radicals. In the present invention, the preferred solvents of the ester group polyoxyethyleneglycol represented by the formula, R1[(OR2)xOR3]ywhere x preferably ranges from 1 to 2; y is preferably equal to 1; R1and R3preferably independently selected from hydrogen and aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals having 1-4 carbon atoms; R2preferably selected from aliphatic hydrocarbonrich radicals having from 2 or 3 carbon atoms, most preferably 3 carbon atoms; molecular weight ester polyoxyethyleneglycol is preferably from about 100 to about 250 atomic mass, most preferably from about 125 to about 250 atomic mass. The hydrocarbon radicals R1and R3having 1-6 carbon atoms, may be linear, branched or cyclic. Examples of hydrocarbon radicals R1and R3include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, tert-pentyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl. If free hydroxyl radicals in solvents of the present invention, the ether group polyoxyalkylene the La may be incompatible with some materials or device structures compression cooling (for example, Mylar®), R1and R3preferred are aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals having 1-4 carbon atoms, most preferably 1 carbon atom. Aliphatic hydrocarbonate radicals R2having from 2 to 4 carbon atoms, form a repeating oxyalkylene radicals(OR2)X-that include oxyethylene radicals, oxypropylene radicals and oxybutylene radicals. Oxyalkylene radicals containing R2in one molecule of the solvent of the ester group polyoxyethyleneglycol may be the same or one molecule may contain various oxyalkylene group, R2. The solvents of the present invention, the ester group polyoxyethyleneglycol preferably contain at least one oxypropylene radical. If R1is an aliphatic or alicyclic hydrocarbon radical with 1-6 carbon atoms and y binding sites, the radical can be linear, branched or cyclic.

Examples of aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals R1having two binding site, include, for example, ethylene radicals, propylene radicals, butylene radicals, Panteleeva radical, exelency radical, cyclopentadienyl radical and cyclohexyloxy radical. Examples of the aliphatic hydrocarbon is dikalov R 1with three or four binding site, include residues derived from polyhydric alcohols, such as trimethylolpropane, glycerin, pentaerythritol, 1,2,3-trihydroxytoluene and 1,3,5-trihydroxytoluene by deleting them hydroxyl radicals.

Examples of solvents of the group of esters of polyoxyethyleneglycol include, but are not limited to: CH3OCH2CH(CH3)O(H or CH3) (methyl or dimethyl) ester of propylene glycol), CH3O[CH2CH(CH3)O]2(H or CH3) (methyl or dimethyl) ester dipropyleneglycol), CH3O[CH2CH(CH3)O]3(H or CH3) (methyl or dimethyl) ester tripropyleneglycol), C2H5OCH2CH(CH3)O(H or C2H5) (ethyl (or diethyl) ether of propylene glycol), C2H5O[CH2CH(CH3)O]2(H or C2H5) (ethyl (or diethyl) ether of dipropyleneglycol), C2H5O[CH2CH(CH3)O]3(H or C2H5) (ethyl (or diethyl) ether of tripropyleneglycol), C3H7OCH2CH(CH3)O(H or C3H7) (n-propyl (or di-n-propyl) ether of propylene glycol), C3H7O[CH2CH(CH3)O]2(H or C3H7) (n-propyl (or di-n-propyl) ether of dipropyleneglycol), C3H7O[CH2CH(CH3)O]3 (H or C3H7) (n-propyl (or di-n-propyl) ether of tripropyleneglycol), C4H9OCH2CH(CH3)HE (n-butyl ether propylene glycol), C4H9O[CH2CH(CH3)O]2(H or C4H9) (n-butyl (or di-n-butyl) ether of dipropyleneglycol), C4H9O[CH2CH(CH3)O]3(H or C4H9) (n-butyl (or di-n-butyl)ether of tripropyleneglycol), (CH3)3COCH2CH(CH3HE (tert-butyl ether propylene glycol), (CH3)3CO[CH2CH(CH3)O]2(H or (CH3)3) (tert-butyl - (or di-tert-butyl) ester dipropyleneglycol), (CH3)3CO[CH2CH(CH3)O]3(H or (CH3)3) (tert-butyl - (or di-tert-butyl) ester tripropyleneglycol), C5H11OCH2CH(CH3)HE (n-pentalogy ether of propylene glycol), C4H9OCH2CH(C2H5)HE (n-butyl ether of butyleneglycol), C4H9O[CH2CH(C2H5)O]2H (n-butyl ether dibutylamino), n-butyl ether of trimethylolpropane (C2H5C(CH2O(CH2)3CH3)3) and di-n-butyl ether of trimethylolpropane (C2H5C(CH2OC(CH2)3CH3)2CH2OH).

Amide solvents of the present invention represented by the formula R1C(O)NR R3and cyclo-[R4C(O)N(R5)], where R1, R2, R3and R5independently selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms; R4choose from aliphatic hydrocarbonrich radicals having from 3 to 12 carbon atoms; moreover, these amides have a molecular weight from about 100 to about 300 atomic mass. The molecular mass of these amides is preferably from about 160 to about 250 atomic mass. R1, R2, R3and R5can optionally include substituted hydrocarbon radicals, that is, radicals containing non-substituents selected from halogen (e.g. fluorine, chlorine) and alkoxides (e.g., methoxy). R1, R2, R3and R5can optionally include a heteroatom-substituted hydrocarbon radicals, i.e. radicals which contain nitrogen atoms (Aza), oxygen (oxa-) or sulfur (TIA) in the chain of the radical, otherwise composed of carbon atoms. As a rule, each 10 carbon atoms in R1-3will have no more than three non-substituents and heteroatoms, and preferably not more than one, and the presence of any such non-substituents and heteroatoms must be considered in light of the above ogran the values of molecular weight. Preferred amide solvents consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Examples R1, R2, R3and R5aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, tert-pentyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl and their configurational isomers. In a preferred embodiment, amide solvents are solvents in which R4in the above formula cyclo-[R4C(O)N(R5)-] can be represented hidrocarburos radical (CR6R7)nin other words, the formula: cyclo-[(CR6R7)nC(O)N(R5)-]where: apply the above molecular weight; n is an integer from 3 to 5; R5represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical containing 1-12 carbon atoms; R6and R7independently choose (for each n) the above rules R1-3. In the lactam represented by the formula: cyclo-[(CR6R7)nC(O)N(R5)-], all R6and R7preferably are hydrogen or contain a single saturated hydrocarbon radical, along with the n methylene units, and R5is rich in the hydrocarbon radical, containing 3-12 carbon atoms, for example 1-(saturated hydrocarbon radical)-5-methylpyrrolidine-2-ones.

Examples of the amide solvents include, but are not limited to: 1-octylpyrimidine-2-it, 1-decylpyrimidine-2-it, 1-octyl-5-methylpyrrolidine-2-it, 1-BUTYLCARBAMATE, 1-cyclohexylpiperidine-2-it, 1-butyl-5-methylpiperid-2-it, 1 pentyl-5-methylpiperid-2-it, 1-sexycaracas, 1-hexyl-5-methylpyrrolidine-2-it, 5-methyl-1-pentylbiphenyl-2-he, 1,3-dimethylpiperidin-2-it, 1-methylcaprolactam, 1-butylperoxide-2-it, 1, 5-dimethylpiperidin-2-it, 1-decyl-5-methylpyrrolidine-2-it, 1-dodecylphenol-2-he, N,N-dibutylformamide and N,N-Diisopropylamine.

Ketone solvents of the present invention include ketones represented by the formula, R1C (O)R2in which R1and R2independently selected from aliphatic, alicyclic and aryl hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, and these ketones have a molecular weight from about 70 to about 300 atomic mass. R1and R2in these ketones are preferably independently selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having 1-9 carbon atoms. The molecular mass of these ketones is preferably from about 100 to 200 atomic mass. R1and R2together can form hydrocarb the Lenovo radical, linked to form a five-, six - or semiline ring cyclic ketone such as Cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone and cycloheptanone. R1and R2can optionally include substituted hydrocarbon radicals, that is, radicals containing non-substituents selected from halogen (e.g. fluorine, chlorine) and alkoxides (e.g., methoxy). R1and R2can optionally include a heteroatom-substituted hydrocarbon radicals, i.e. radicals which contain nitrogen atoms (Aza), oxygen (keto-, oxa-or sulfur (TIA) in the chain of the radical, otherwise composed of carbon atoms. As a rule, each 10 carbon atoms in R1and R2will have no more than three non-substituents and heteroatoms, and preferably not more than one, and the presence of any such non-substituents and heteroatoms must be considered in light of the above limitations of molecular weight. Examples R1and R2aliphatic, alicyclic and aryl hydrocarbon radicals of the General formula R1C(O)R2include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, tert-pentyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl and their configurational isomers, and also phenyl, be the ZIL, cumenyl, mesityl, tolyl, xylyl and phenethyl.

Examples of the ketone solvents include, but are not limited to: 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, acetophenone, butyrophenone, hexanophenone, cyclohexanone, cycloheptanone, 2-heptanone, 3 heptanone, 5-methyl-2-hexanone, 2-octanone, 3-octanone, Diisobutylene, 4-ethylcyclohexane, 2-nonanone, 5-nonanone, 2-decane, 4-decane, 2-decalin, 2-tridecanol, digoxigenin and dicyclohexylmethane.

Nitrile solvents of the present invention contain NITRILES represented by the formula, R1CN, in which R1selected from aliphatic, alicyclic or aryl hydrocarbon radicals having from 5 to 12 carbon atoms, and these NITRILES have a molecular weight from about 90 to about 200 atomic mass. R1in the above nitrile solvents preferably selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having 8 to 10 carbon atoms. The molecular weight of the above nitrile solvents is preferably from about 120 to about 140 atomic mass. R1may not necessarily include substituted hydrocarbon radicals, that is, radicals containing non-substituents selected from halogen (e.g. fluorine, chlorine) and alkoxides (e.g., methoxy). R1may not necessarily include g is teracom-substituted hydrocarbon radicals, that is, radicals containing nitrogen atoms (Aza), oxygen (keto-, oxa-or sulfur (TIA) in the chain of the radical, otherwise composed of carbon atoms. As a rule, each 10 carbon atoms in R1will have no more than three non-substituents and heteroatoms, and preferably not more than one, and the presence of any such non-substituents and heteroatoms must be considered in light of the above limitations of molecular weight. Examples R1aliphatic, alicyclic and aryl hydrocarbon radicals of the General formula R1CN include pencil, isopentyl, neopentyl, tert-pentyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl and their configurational isomers, and also phenyl, benzyl, cumenyl, mesityl, tolyl, xylyl and phenethyl. Examples of nitrile solvents include, but are not limited to: 1-canopener, 2,2-dimethyl-4-canopener, 1-cyanogens, 1-canegata, 1-cyanochen, 2-cyanochen, 1-cananean, 1-canadien, 2-canadien, 1-canonical and 1-canadadian.

Organochlorine solvents of the present invention contain chlorinated hydrocarbons represented by the formula RClxin which: x is chosen from the integers 1 or 2; R is selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having 1-12 carbon atoms; and specified the chlorinated hydrocarbons have a molecular weight from about 100 to about 200 atomic mass. The molecular mass of these chlorinated organic solvents is preferably from about 120 to 150 atomic mass. Examples of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals R of General formula RClxinclude methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl tert-pentyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl and their configurational isomers.

Examples of chlorinated organic solvents include, but are not limited to: 3-(chloromethyl)pentane, 3-chloro-3-methylpentane, 1 Jorgensen, 1,6-dichlorohexane, 1-chloroheptane, 1-chlorooctane, 1-chlorononane, 1-Hardeman and 1,1,1-trilogical.

Ester solvents of this invention include esters represented by the General formula R1CO2R2in which R1and R2independently selected from linear and cyclic, saturated and unsaturated, alkyl and aryl radicals. Preferred esters consist essentially of the elements C, H and O and have a molecular weight from about 80 to about 550 atomic mass.

Examples of esters include, but are not limited to: (CH3)2CHCH2OOC(CH2)2-4OCOCH2CH(CH3)2(Diisobutyl ester of dibasic acid), ethylhexanoate, atelephone, n-buildi is peanut, n-propylphosphonate, ethylbenzoic, di-n-propietat, ethoxyethyl ester of benzoic acid, dipropylamine, "Exxate 700" (trade name C7the alkyl acetate), "Exxate 800" (trade name C8the alkyl acetate), dibutyl phthalate and tert-butyl acetate.

Lactonase solvents of the present invention contain lactones represented by the structural formula: [A], [B] and [C]:

These lactones contain the functional group-CO2- in the ring of six (A) or, preferably, five atoms (B), and in structural formulas [A] and [B] the radicals R1-R8independently selected from hydrogen or linear, branched, cyclic, bicyclic, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbonrich radicals. Each of the radicals R1-R8can be connected with the formation of rings with other radicals R1-R8. The lactones can be ekzoticheskuyu alkylidene group as in the structure of [C], where the radicals R1-R6independently selected from hydrogen or linear, branched, cyclic, bicyclic, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbonrich radicals. Each of the radicals R1-R6can be connected with the formation of rings with other radicals R1-R6. Lactonase solvents have a molecular weight in the range from about 80 to when is Erno 300 atomic mass, preferably from about 80 to about 200 atomic mass.

Examples Viktorovich solvents include, but are not limited to, the compounds listed in table 6.

TABLE 6

Lactonase solvents typically have a kinematic viscosity of less than about 7 Centistokes at 40°C. for Example, at 40°C gamma undecalactone has a kinematic viscosity of 5.4 Centistokes, and CIS-(3-hexyl-5-methyl)dihydrofuran-2-he has a viscosity of 4.5 Centistokes. Lactonase solvents may be commercially available or can be obtained by methods described in the patent application U.S. No. 10/910495, filed August 3, 2004, is incorporated into this description by reference.

The solvents of the present invention on the basis of arolovich esters contain akrilovye esters represented by the formula, R1OR2in which: R1selected from aryl hydrocarbon radicals having from 6 to 12 carbon atoms; R2selected from aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; and these akrilovye ethers have a molecular weight from about 100 to about 150 atomic mass. Examples of aryl radicals R1General formula R1OR2include phenyl, biphenyl, cumenyl, Meuse is Teal, tolyl, xylyl, naphthyl and pyridyl. Examples of aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals R2General formula R1OR2include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl and tert-butyl. Examples of the aromatic ether solvents include, but are not limited to: methylphenylene ether (anisole), 1,3-dimethoxybenzil, ailfenergy ether and BUTYLPEROXY ether.

Feraferia solvents of the present invention contain solvents represented by the General formula R1OCF2CF2H, in which R1selected from aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbon radicals having from about 5 to about 15 carbon atoms, preferably primary, linear, saturated, alkyl radicals. Examples farafirah solvents include, but are not limited to: C8H17OCF2CF2H and C6H13OCF2CF2H. it Should be noted that if the refrigerating agent is therafirm, the solvent may not be the same therafirm.

Feraferia solvents can optionally contain esters derived from farolatino and polyols. Pterolepis can be represented by a formula of type CF2=CXY, where X is hydrogen, chlorine or fluorine and Y is chlorine, fluorine, CF3or orfwhere Rfis a CF 3C2F5or C3F7.

Examples of farolatino are tetrafluoroethylene, chlorotrifluoroethylene, HEXAFLUOROPROPYLENE and performatively ether. The polyols can be linear or branched. Linear polyols may have a formula of the type HOCH2(CHOH)x(CRR')yCH2OH, where R and R' represent hydrogen or CH3or C2H5and where x is an integer from 0 to 4, and y is an integer from 0 to 4. Branched polyols may have a formula of the type C(OH)t(R)u(CH2OH)v[(CH2)mCH2OH]wwhere R can be hydrogen, CH3or C2H5, m can be an integer from 0 to 3, t and u can be 0 or 1, v and w are integers from 0 to 4, and where t+u+v+w=4. Examples of polyols are trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, butanediol and ethylene glycol.

1,1,1-Triptoreline solvents of the present invention contain 1,1,1-triptoreline represented by the General formula CF3R1where R1selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having from about 5 to about 15 carbon atoms, preferably primary, linear, saturated, alkyl radicals. Examples of 1,1,1-triptoreline solvents include, but are not limited to: 1,1,1-triptorelin and 1,1,1-cryptonomicon.

The solvents in the present invention may be present as a single compound or may be present in the form of a mixture of more than one solvent. Solvent mixtures can contain two solvent of the same class of compounds, for example, two lactone, or two solvent of two different classes, such as lactone and ether polyoxyethyleneglycol.

In these compositions, containing the refrigerating agent and fluorescent UV paint or containing heat transfer fluid and fluorescent UV dye, from about 0,001 weight percent to about 1.0 weight percent of the composition is UV paint, preferably from roughly 0.005 weight percent to about 0.5 weight percent and most preferably from 0.01 weight percent to about of 0.25 weight percent.

The solubility of these UV fluorescent dyes in the compositions of refrigerant and heat transfer fluid may be insufficient. In this regard, methods of introduction of these colors in a device of the refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump were difficult, expensive and required time. U.S. patent No.'RE 36951 included in the present invention by reference, describes a method that uses pigment powder, solid granules or suspension of paint that can be entered in the unit air-conditioning or cooling. Because the device circulates refrigerant and lubricant, a dye is dissolved or dispersed and carries the I in the entire device. The literature describes many other ways of introducing ink into the cooling or air-handling unit.

Ideally, fluorescent UV dye can be dissolved in the refrigerating agent, thus, does not require any special method of its introduction into the cooling or air-conditioning unit or heat pump. The present invention relates to compositions comprising fluorescent UV paint, which can be entered into the system dissolved in the refrigerating agent, in combination with the solvent. Compositions of the present invention allow the storage and transportation containing paint refrigerant and heat transfer fluid even at low temperatures, and the ink is maintained in a state of solution.

In the compositions of the present invention containing the refrigerating agent, fluorescent UV inks, and solvent or containing heat transfer fluid, fluorescent UV inks, and solvent, from about 1 to about 50 weight percent, preferably from about 2 to about 25 weight percent and most preferably from about 5 to about 15 weight percent of the combined composition is solvent in cooling agent or heat transfer fluid. In the compositions of the present invention fluorescent UV paint prisutstvuet the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid in a concentration of from about 0.001 to percent by weight to about 1.0 weight percent, preferably 0.005 weight percent to about 0.5 weight percent and most preferably from 0.01 weight percent to about of 0.25 weight percent.

Solvents, such as ketones, can have an undesirable odor, which can be disguised by adding agent, a masking scent or fragrances. Typical examples of agents that mask the smell, or fragrances may include perfumes "Evergreen" (Evergreen), "Fresh lemon" (Fresh Lemon), cherry (Cherry), Cinnamon (Cinnamon), "Mint" (Peppermint), Flower (Floral) or "Orange peel" (Orange Peel), all of which are commercially available, as well as d-limonene and pinene. Such agents, masking odors, can be used in concentrations of from about 0,001% up to about 15 wt.% calculated on the total weight of the agent, masking odors, and solvent.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of applying the compositions of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid containing an ultraviolet fluorescent dye to detect leaks in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump. The presence of dye in the compositions can detect the leakage of the cooling agent from the cooling, conditioning device or from a device of a heat pump. The leak detection helps Loka is Itachi, to correct and/or prevent inefficient operation of the device or failure of equipment or system. Detection of leakage also contributes to the preservation of the chemicals used in the operation of the device.

The method includes providing a composition containing a cooling agent, ultraviolet fluorescent paint or containing heat transfer fluid and UV fluorescent dye according to the description of the present invention and optionally a solvent, as described in the present invention, in the cooling, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump and the use of appropriate means of detection refrigerant containing UV fluorescent paint. Appropriate means of detection dye include, but are not limited to, ultraviolet lamps, often called "lamps black light" or "blue light". These UV lamps are commercially available from numerous sources, specifically designed for the detection of UV fluorescent paint. After administration of the composition containing the ultraviolet fluorescent paint, cooling, air-handling unit or in the unit of a heat pump, she was given the opportunity to circulate throughout the system, and you can localize the source of the leak or the region near the point of diversion by the lighting device shown the ultraviolet lamp and observe the fluorescence of paint near any point of leakage.

Mechanical cooling, first of all, consists in the application of thermodynamic characteristics, with a cooling agent, such as refrigerant, passes through a cycle with regeneration for reuse. Traditionally used cycles include vapor compression, absorption, steam jet or steam ejector and air.

System vapor compression cooling include the evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device. In the steam cycle of a compression refrigerating agent is recycled and reused for stages, producing in one stage a cooling effect and thermal effect on another stage. The cycle simply can be described as follows. Liquid refrigerant through the expansion device is in the evaporator and the liquid refrigerant boils in the evaporator at a low temperature with the formation of gas and produces cooling. Gas at low pressure enters the compressor, where the gas is compressed to increase its pressure and temperature. Then, the gaseous refrigerant at a higher pressure (compressed) enters the condenser, where the refrigerant condenses and releases its heat into the environment. Refrigerant is returned to the expansion device through which the liquid is distributed from the higher pressure level in which condensatore to a lower pressure level in the evaporator, thus, the cycle repeats.

There are different types of compressors that can be used for cooling purposes. In General, the compressors can be divided into reciprocating, rotary, jet, centrifugal, scroll, screw or axial, depending on how the mechanical compression of the fluid, or reciprocating compressors (e.g., reciprocating, scroll or screw), or dynamic (e.g., centrifugal or jet), depending on the mechanical elements for compressible fluid.

Compositions of the present invention containing pterolepis, can be useful in any of the above types of compressors. The choice of the cooling agent for any particular compressor will depend on many factors, including, for example, specified boiling point and vapor pressure.

In the methods of the present invention can be used as a reciprocal and dynamic compressors. For some compositions of the cooling agent containing at least one pterolepis, the preferred type of equipment is a compressor of the centrifugal type.

In a centrifugal compressor uses revolving elements to the radial acceleration of the cooling agent, and it usually includes accommodated in the housing, the impeller and diffuser. In centrifugal whom the springs of the liquid usually enters in blade space wheel pump or in the main entrance of the rotating impeller and is accelerated radially outwards. The impeller is a higher static pressure, but more a pressure increase occurs in the diffuser part of the body where the speed is converted into static pressure. Each set of impeller-diffuser is a compressor. Centrifugal compressors are designed with a number of stages from 1 to 12 or more, depending on the desired final pressure and volume filled with refrigerant.

The pressure ratio or compression ratio of the compressor is the ratio of the absolute pressure at the outlet to the absolute inlet pressure. The pressure produced by the centrifugal compressor is virtually constant compared with a relatively wide limits of capacity.

Reciprocating pump steam into the chamber, and the chamber decreases in volume for vapor compression. Being compressed, couples pressed out from the chamber through an additional reduction of the chamber volume to zero or almost zero volume. Reciprocating compressor capable of creating pressure, which is limited only volumetric efficiency and durability of the parts to withstand such pressure.

Unlike the reciprocating compressor, centrifugal compressor is completely dependent on the centrifugal force vysokoskorostnogo the impeller, which compresses the vapor passing through the impeller. Not created any reciprocating displacement, but rather what is called dynamic compression.

The pressure that may develop centrifugal compressor depends on the peripheral speed of the impeller. Peripheral velocity is called the speed of the impeller measured at its tip, and it is related to the diameter of the impeller and the number of revolutions per minute. The capacity of the centrifugal compressor is determined by the amount of flow through the impeller. The size of the compressor in this regard becomes more dependent on the required pressure than the tank.

Due to the high speed centrifugal compressor is a mechanism substantially larger operating at low pressure. Best centrifugal compressor operates with cooling agent low pressure, such as Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) or 1,2,2 trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113). Some of the refrigerant low pressure according to the present invention may be suitable as a reducing replacement for CFC-113 in existing equipment centrifugal type.

Large centrifugal compressors typically operate at speeds from 3000 to 7000 revolutions per minute (rpm). Centrifugal compressors with small turbines (minicontainer compressors designed for high is Karosta, from about 40,000 to about 70000 (rpm), and have small dimensions of the impeller, typically less than 0.15 meters (about 6 inches).

To improve the efficiency of the compressor centrifugal compressor can be used multistage impeller so that when using required less power. When operating a two-stage system, the discharge from the impeller of the first stage is in the suction pipe of the second impeller. Both impeller can operate with a single shaft (or axle). Each stage can create the compression ratio from about 4 to 1; that is, the absolute pressure of the output can be four times greater than the absolute suction pressure. A few examples of two-stage centrifugal compressor systems, especially for use in vehicles, is described in U.S. patent 5065990 and USA 5363674, both included in the present invention by reference.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for production of heat or cooling devices, cooling, air conditioning or heat pump, and this method includes the introduction of a specified composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid at a specified device equipped with (a) a centrifugal compressor; (b) multi-stage centrifugal compressor, or (c) one-way heat is bennekom with the sole plate; moreover, in the specified device is specified the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one pterolepis selected from the group consisting of:

(i) farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group;

(ii) cyclic farolatino formula cyclo-[CX=CY(CZW)n-]in which X, Y, Z and W independently represent H or F and n is an integer from 2 to 5; or

(iii) farolatino selected from the group consisting of:

1,2,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CF=CHF); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CF3CH=CF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-propene (CHF2CF=CF2); 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CF=CHF); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CF3CF=CH2); 1,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CF3CH=CHF); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (CH2FCF=CF2); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (CHF2CH=CF2); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CF=CH2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CF3CH=CH2); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (CH3CF=CF2); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCH=CF2); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2FCF=CHF); 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (CHF2CH=CHF); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (CF3CF=CFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,4-acceptor-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCF32CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCF3); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CHF); 1,1,3,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,4,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CHF2); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF3CF2CF=CH2); 1,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CHF=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CF=CFCHF2); 1,1,1,2,3,4-hexamer-2-butene (CH2FCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CHF2CH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCF2CH2F); 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (CF2=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,3-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene (CH2=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FCH=CFCF3); 1,1,1,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CF3CH=CFCH2F); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CF3CF2CH=CH2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CH=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3-pendaftar-2-butene (CH3CF=CFCF3); 2,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCF2CHF2); 1,1,2,4,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CHF2CF=CHCHF2); 1,1,2,3,3-pendaftar-1-butene (CH3CF2CF=CF2); 1,1,2,3,4-pendaftar-2-butene (CH2FF=CFCHF 2); 1,1,3,3,3-pendaftar-2-methyl-1-propene (CF2=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2-(deformity)-3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)(CF3)); 2,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CH2=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCH2CF3); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCHFCF3); 1,3,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CHCF2CHF2); 1,2,3,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (CHF=CFCHFCHF2); 3,3,4,4-titrator-1-butene (CH2=CHCF2CHF2); 1,1-debtor-2-(deformity)-1-propene (CF2=C(CHF2)(CH3)); 1,3,3,3-titrator-2-methyl-1-propene (CHF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2-deformity-3,3-debtor-1-propene (CH2=C(CHF2)2); 1,1,1,2-titrator-2-butene (CF3CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (CH3CF=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF3); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CHCF2CF2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-1-pentene (CF2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CHF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCF2HF 2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (CF3CF=CFCHFCF3); 1,2,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CFCF(CF3)2); 1,1,2,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CF3CH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,3,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCF(CF3)2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CF3); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-acceptor-1-pentene (CHF=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3CF2CF3); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCF(CF3)2); 1,1,4,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CF2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 3,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene ((CF3)2CFCH=CH2); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CH2); 2,3,3,4,4,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,3,3,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-butene (CF2=CHCF2CH2CF3); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-3-methyl-2-butene (CF3CF=C(CF3)(CH3)); 2,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CFCH(CF3)2); 1,4,4,4-titrator-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CHF=CHCH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,4-titrator-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (CH2FCH=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-(reformer)-2-butene (CH 3CF=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1-Cryptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=CHCH3); 3,4,4,5,5,5-hexamer-2-pentene (CF3CF2CF=CHCH3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-methyl-2-butene (CF3C(CH3)=CHCF3); 3,3,4,5,5,5-hexamer-1-pentene (CH2=CHCF2CHFCF3); 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4,4,4-Cryptor-1-butene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2CF3); 1,1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-1-hexene (CF3(CF2)3CF=CF2); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2CF3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CFCF3); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHC2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2CFCF=CHCF3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CF2CH=CH2); 4,4,4-Cryptor-3,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene (CH2=CHC(CF3)3); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-3-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene ((CF3)2C=C(CH3)(CF3)); 2,3,3,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=CFCF2CH(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-3-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=C(CH3CF2CF3); 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexaplar-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (CF3CH=CHCH(CF3)2); 3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-acceptor-2-hexene (CF3 CF2CF2CF=CHCH3); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-acceptor-1-hexene (CH2=CHCF2CF2CF2CHF2); 1,1,1,4,4-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CHCF2CH3); 4,4,5,5,5-pendaftar-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1-pentene (CH2=C(CF3)CH2C2F5); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (CF3CF2CF2C(CH3)=CH2); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (CF3CF2CF2CH=CHCH3); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-1-hexene (CH2=CHCH2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4-heptathlon-3-hexene (CF3CF2CF=CFC2H5); 4,5,5,5-titrator-4-trifluoromethyl-1-pentene (CH2=CHCH2CF(CF3)2); 1,1,1,2,5,5,5-heptathlon-4-methyl-2-pentene (CF3CF=CHCH(CF3)(CH3)); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-trifluoromethyl-2-pentene ((CF3)2C=CFC2H5); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tetradecanol-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CH=CFCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-2-Heptene (CF3CF=CHCF2CF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CH=CFCF2C2F5); 1,1,1,2,2,3,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-traducator-3-Heptene (CF3CF2CF=CHCF2C2F5); CF2=CFOCF2 CF3(PEVE) and CF2=CFOCF3(PMVE), and combinations thereof.

Method for the production of heat or cooling can be used in stationary air conditioning, heat pumps or mobile air-conditioning and cooling systems. Applications in stationary air conditioning and heat pumps include a window application in rooms with no air flow, tunnel, closed the terminal, refrigeration and commercial applications, including installation on the roof. Applications for cooling include internal, or domestic, or household refrigerators and freezers, machine, ice maker, self-contained coolers and freezers, portable refrigerators and freezers and cooling system on the transport.

Compositions of the present invention can be further used in air conditioning systems, heating and cooling, which are finned and tube heat exchangers, microchannel heat exchangers and vertical or horizontal single tubular or plate heat exchangers.

Conventional microchannel heat exchangers can be ideal for low-pressure cooling agent compositions of the present invention. Low working pressure and density lead to intense flow rate and high friction losses in all e is the elements. In these cases, you can modify the design of the evaporator. Unlike several microchannel plates, connected in series (relative to the path of the cooling agent), you can use a single heat exchanger with a single plate. Thus, the preferred heat exchanger for songs refrigerant or heat transfer fluid of the present invention is a single heat exchanger with a single plate.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for producing cooling comprising evaporation ferreting compositions of the present invention near an object that is cooled, and then condensation of the specified composition.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for producing heat comprising condensing ferreting compositions of the present invention near an object that warm, and then the evaporation of these compositions.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for producing cooling comprising compressing in a centrifugal compressor of a composition containing at least one pterolepis, condensation of specified composition and evaporation after the specified composition near the object, which is cool. Additionally, the centrifugal compressor of the way nastojasih the invention may be a multi-stage centrifugal compressor, and preferably, 2-stage centrifugal compressor.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for producing cooling in the cooling unit, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, where said device comprises at least one single heat exchanger with a single plate, and the method includes condensing the composition of the present invention and evaporation after the specified composition near the object, which is cool.

Compositions of the present invention is particularly useful in centrifugal compressors with small turbines (minicontainer compressors)that you can use in the car and window air conditioning, heat pumps or cooling transport, as well as in other applications. These high-performance minicontainer compressors can be powered by an electric motor, and therefore they can be operated independently of the motor speed. Constant speed compressor allows the system to provide a relatively constant efficiency of the cooling device at all speeds of the engine. This provides the opportunity to improve efficiency, especially at higher motor speeds compared to conventional automotive air conditioning R-134a. The EU is to take into account the cyclic operation of the conventional systems at high speeds, the advantage of these low pressure systems increases.

Alternatively, instead of using electricity, miniantibody the compressor may operate a turbine operating on the exhaust gases of the vehicle, or node switching gears with switchable by a belt. The power available in modern designs of cars, is about 14 volts, but the new miniantibody compressor requires about 50 volts of electricity. So you will have the advantage of using an alternative source of power. The cooling device or cooling device driven turbine in the exhaust gases of the vehicle, is described in detail in patent application U.S. No. 11/367517, filed March 3, 2006. The cooling unit or air-handling unit, which is driven by the node switching gears, described in detail in the patent application U.S. No. 11/378832 filed March 17, 2006.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for producing cooling comprising compression of the composition of the present invention in minicontainer compressor driven by the turbine, working on the exhaust gases of the vehicle; condensation of specified composition; and then evaporation of the specified composition near object, the cat is ing cool.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for producing cooling comprising compression of the composition of the present invention in minicontainer the compressor, which is driven by the node switching gears with switchable belt transfer; condensation of specified composition; and then evaporation of the specified composition near the object, which is cool.

The present invention relates to a method for producing cooling in the cooling unit, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, where said device comprises at least one single heat exchanger with a single plate, and the method includes condensing the composition of the present invention in a centrifugal compressor and evaporation after the specified composition near the object, which is cool.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of substitution or replacement compositions refrigerant with a global warming potential GWP of 150 or more, or refrigerant with a high GWP, the composition having a lower GWP. One method includes providing a composition containing as a replacement of at least one pterolepis of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present image is placed the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid of the present invention, which has a lower GWP compared with replaceable or replaceable composition, is introduced into the cooling device, an air conditioning or heat pump. In some cases, the refrigerating agent with high GWP present in the device will need to be removed from the device prior to administration of the compositions with low GWP. In other cases ferreirola compositions of the present invention can be introduced into the system, which is simultaneously present refrigerant with a high GWP.

The global warming potential (GWP) is an index to estimate the relative contribution to global warming due to emission of one kilogram of a particular greenhouse gas compared with the emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide. GWP can be calculated for different periods of time, which shows the effect of the existence in the atmosphere for a given gas. Common reference data GWP for 100-year time period.

Refrigerant with high GWP will be any connection capable of operating as a cooling agent or heat transfer fluids with GWP over a period of time 100 years to about 1000 or more, alternatively, 500 or more, 150 or more, 100 or more or 50 or more. Cooling agents and heat transfer fluids that are in need of replacing the e on the basis of the GWP, published by the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC)include, without limitation, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane).

The present invention is to provide compositions which have zero or low potential for ozone depletion and low global warming potential (GWP). Pterolepis of the present invention or a mixture of farolatino of the present invention with other cooling agents will have a lower global warming potential than many of the currently used hydroperoxidation refrigerating agents. It is assumed that usually pterolepis of the present invention will have a GWP less than about 25. One aspect of the present invention is the provision of the cooling agent with a global warming potential less than 1000, less than 500, less than 150, less than 100 or less than 50. Another aspect of the present invention is to reduce the overall GWP of refrigerant mixtures by adding farolatino to these mixtures.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of reducing GWP refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, and the method includes combining the specified refrigerant or heat transfer fluid at least one Ferreira of the present invention. In another embodiment, the SP is a way to reduce global warming potential includes the combination of the specified first composition with the composition, containing at least one pterolepis, receiving the second composition suitable for use as a refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, and the specified second composition has a lower global warming potential, in contrast to the specified first song. You can specify that the GWP of a mixture or combination of compounds is calculated as weighted average number of GWP for each of the pure compounds.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of applying the compositions of the present invention containing at least one pterolepis, to reduce the global warming potential of the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the method includes combining the specified source compositions refrigerant or heat transfer fluid composition of the present invention containing at least one pterolepis, receiving the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, where specified the second refrigerant or heat transfer fluid has a lower global warming potential than the specified initial composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of reducing GWP source is th song refrigerant or heat transfer fluid in the cooling, the air-conditioning device or the device, a heat pump, where indicated, the original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid has a GWP of 150 or higher; moreover, this method includes the introduction of the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid of the present invention with a lower GWP at a specified cooling, air-conditioning unit or heat pump.

This method of reducing GWP source of the cooling agent may additionally include removing the original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid from the specified cooling, air-handling unit or device of the heat pump before the introduction of the second refrigerant or heat transfer fluid with a lower GWP.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer liquid of the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, which includes the provision of a composition of the present invention in the form of a second composition refrigerant or heat transfer fluid. The original refrigerant may be any refrigerant used for cooling devices, air-conditioning or heat pump device, to the that need to be replaced.

Needed to replace the original refrigerant or heat transfer fluid can be any of hydroperoxidation refrigerating agents, chargerbulletin refrigerating agents, hydrochlorothiazide refrigerating agents, farafirah cooling agent or a mixture of compositions refrigerating agents.

Hydroperoxidation refrigerating agents of the present invention, which may need to be replaced include, but are not limited to: CHF3(HFC-23), CH2F2(HFC-32), CH3F (HFC-41), CHF2CF3(HFC-125), CHF2CHF2(HFC-134), CH2FCF3(HFC-134a), CHF2CH2F (HFC-143), CF3CH3(HFC-143a), CHF2CH3(HFC-152a), CH2FCH3(HFC-161), CHF2CF2CF3(HFC-227ca), CF3CFHCF3(HFC-227ea), CHF2CF2CHF2(HFC-236ca), CH2FCF2CF3(HFC-236cb), CHF2CHFCF3(HFC-236ea), CF3CH2CF3(HFC-236fa), CH2FCF2CHF2(HFC-245ca), CH3CF2CF3(HFC-245cb), CHF2CHFCHF2(HFC-245ea), CH2FCHFCF3(HFC-245eb), CHF2CH2CF3(HFC-245fa), CH2FCF2CH2F (HFC-254ca), CH3CF2CHF2(HFC-254cb), CH2FCHFCHF2(HFC-254ea), CH3CHFCF3(HFC-254eb), CHF2CH2CHF2(HFC-254fa), CH2FCH2CF3(HFC-254fb), CF3CH2CH3(HFC-263fb), CHsub> 3CF2CH2F (HFC-263ca), CH3CF2CH3(HFC-272ca), CH3CHFCH2F (HFC-272ea), CH2FCH2CH2F (HFC-272fa), CH3CH2CF2H (HFC-272fb), CH3CHFCH3(HFC-281ea), CH3CH2CH2F (HFC-281fa), CHF2CF2CF2CF2H (HFC-338pcc), CF3CH2CF2CH3(HFC-365mfc), CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3(HFC-43-10mee). These hydroperoxidation cooling agents are available commercially or can be obtained by methods known in the art.

Hydroperoxidation refrigerating agents of the present invention may further comprise azeotrope, such azeotropic and non-azeotrope blends songs, including HFC-125/HFC-143a/HFC-134a (known by the ASHRAE designations as R404 or R404A), HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a (known by the ASHRAE designations as R407 or R407A, R407B, or R407C), HFC-32/HFC-125 (R410 or R410A) and HFC-125/HFC-143a (known by the ASHRAE designations as R507 or R507A), R413A (mixture R134a/R218/isobutane), R423A (a mixture of R134a/R227ea), R507A (mixture of R125/R143a) and others.

Harperperennial refrigerating agents of the present invention, which should be replaced include R22 (CHF2Cl), R123 (CHCl2CF3), R124 (CHClFCF3), R502 (which is a mixture of CFC-115 (CClF2CF3and R22), R503 (which is a mixture R23/R13 (CClF3)and others.

Hydrochlorothiazide of the present invention, which is, may need to be replaced include R12 (CF2Cl2), R11 (CCl3F), R113 (CCl2FCClF2), R114 (CF2ClCF2Cl), R401A or R401B (which are mixtures of R22/R152a/R124), R408A (a mixture of R22/R125/R143a) and others,

Feraferia refrigerating agents of the present invention that you want to replace, may contain compounds similar to hydrohlorothiazide, which also contain at least one oxygen atom in the ether group. Feraferia cooling agents include, but are not limited to, C4F9OCH3and C4F9OC2H5(both commercially available).

The original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid of the present invention, which may need to be replaced, can optionally further comprise a combination of cooling agents, which contain up to 10 weight percent dimethyl ether, or at least one C3-C5hydrocarbon, such as propane, propylene, cyclopropane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, cyclopentane and neopentane (2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE). Examples of cooling agents containing such C3-C5hydrocarbons are compositions, such azeotrope. CFC-22/HFC-125/propane (known by the ASHRAE designation as R402 or R402A and R402B), CFC-22/OCTAFLUOROPROPANE/propane (known by the ASHRAE designation as R403 or R403A and R403B), OCTAFLUOROPROPANE-134a/isobutane (known by the ASHRAE designation as R413 or R413A), CFC-22/CFC-124/CFC-142b/isobutane (known by the ASHRAE designation as R414 or R414A and R414B), HFC-134a/CFC-124/n-butane (known by the ASHRAE designation as R416 or R416A), HFC-125/HFC-134a/n-butane (known by the ASHRAE designation as R417 or R417A), HFC-125/HFC-134a/dimethyl ether (known by the ASHRAE designation as R419 or R419A) and HFC-125/HFC-134a/isobutane (known by the ASHRAE designation as R422, R422A, R422B, R422C, R422D).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R134a (HFC-134a, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CF3CH2F), where the method includes replacement of R134a on the second track of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R152a (HFC-152a, 1,1-differetn, CHF2CH3), where the method includes replacement of R152a on W is the ROI the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze), 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf), 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf) and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing R227ea (HFC-227ea, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane, CF3CHFCF3in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, and the method includes providing as a substitute compositions containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze), 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf), 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf) and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents R113 (CFC-113, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFCl2CF2Cl), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one connection, wybir is my group, consisting of 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-152-11mmyyz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFC-152-11mmtz); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (HFC-151-12mcy); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (HFC-1354mzy); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-151-12mmtt); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-decapitacion (FU-C151-10y); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (HFC-1567fts); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (PFBE); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (HFC-1567szz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-2-hexene (F13E); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFC-151-12mmzz); and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents R43-10mee (HFC-43-10mee, 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decipherments, CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-152-11mmyyz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFC-152-11mmtz); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (HFC-151-12mcy); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (HFC-1354mzy); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(Tr is permitil)-2-butene (HFC-151-12mmtt); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-decapitacion (FU-C151-10y); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (HFC-1567fts); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (PFBE); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (HFC-1567szz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-2-hexene (F13E); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFC-151-12mmzz); and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a C4F9OCH3(performatively ether), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-152-11mmyyz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFC-152-11mmtz); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (HFC-151-12mcy); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (HFC-1354mzy); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-151-12mmtt); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-decapitacion (FC-C151-10y); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (HFC-1567fts); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexene (PFBE); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (HFC-1567szz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-2-hexene (F13E); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFC-151-12mzz); and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R365mfc (HFC-365mfc, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane, CF3CH2CF2CH3), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,3,4,5,5,5-acceptor-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-152-11mmyyz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFC-152-11mmtz); 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,6,6-dogcatcher-3-hexene (HFC-151-12mcy); 1,1,1,3-titrator-2-butene (HFC-1354mzy); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexaplar-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-151-12mmtt); 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-decapitacion (FU-C151-10y); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-2-methyl-1-pentene (HFC-1567fts); 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nomatter-1-hexane (PFBE); 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptathlon-2-hexene (HFC-1567szz); 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-2-hexene (F13E); 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,5,5-nomatter-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentene (HFCs-151-12mmzz); and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition, cooling the m device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents R11 (CFC-11, Trichlorofluoromethane, CFCl3), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluorocyclopentene (FU-C1418y); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (FC-141-10myy); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (HFC-1429myz); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (HFC-1429mzy); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (HFC-1447fz); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (F11E); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-1429mzt); and 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-pentene (F12E).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents R123 (CFC-123, 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane, CF3CHCl2), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluorocyclopentene (FC-C1418y); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-deceptor-2-pentene (FC-141-10myy); 1,1,1,2,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (HFC-1429myz); 1,1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-nomatter-2-pentene (GF who is 1429mzy); 3,3,4,4,5,5,5-heptathlon-1-pentene (HFC-1447fz); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (F11E); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-butene (HFC-1429mzt); and 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-pentene (F12E).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R245fa (HFC-245fa, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane, CF3CH2CHF2), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 2,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243yf); 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (F11E); 1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234ze); 1,1,1,2,4,4,4-heptathlon-2-butene (HFC-1327my); 1,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234ye); and pentafluoroethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PEVE).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents R114 (CFC-114, 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CFCl2CF2Cl), where the method includes as a replacement for the second kom is ositio refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (FU-1318my); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexabenzocoronene (FC-C1316cc); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (HFC-1336yf); and 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (HFC-1345fz).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R236fa (HFC-236fa, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexaferrite, CF3CH2CF3), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-acceptor-2-butene (FU-1318my); 1,2,3,3,4,4-hexabenzocoronene (FC-C1316cc); 2,3,3,4,4,4-hexamer-1-butene (HFC-1336yf); and 3,3,4,4,4-pendaftar-1-butene (HFC-1345fz).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R401A, where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer the second fluid, containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze); 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye); 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf); 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf); and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE). R401A is the ASHRAE designation for a mixture of refrigerant containing about 53 weight percent HCFC-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane, CHF2Cl), about 13 weight percent HFC-152a (1,1-differetn, CHF2CH3and about 34 weight percent CFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CF3CHClF).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R401B, where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze); 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye); 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf); 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf); and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE). R401B is the ASHRAE designation for a mixture of refrigerant containing about 61 weight percent HCFC-22 (chloroform the Tang, CHF2Cl), about 11 weight percent HFC-152a (1,1-differetn, CHF2CH3and about 28 weight percent CFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CF3CHClF).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R409A, where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze); 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye); 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf); 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf); and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE). R409A is the ASHRAE designation for a mixture of refrigerant containing about 60 weight percent CFC-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane, CHF2Cl), about 25 weight percent CFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CF3CHClF) and about 15 weight percent CFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-differetn, CF2ClCH3).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device is TBE, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R409B, where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze); 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye); 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf); 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf); and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE). R409B is the ASHRAE designation for a mixture of refrigerant containing about 65 weight percent CFC-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane, CHF2Cl), about 25 weight percent CFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CF3CHClF) and about 10 weight percent CFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-differetn, CF2ClCH3).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R414B, where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze), 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye), 2,3,3,3-those whom afterbrain (HFC-1234yf), 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf) and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE). R414B is the ASHRAE designation for a mixture of refrigerant containing about 50 weight percent CFC-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane, CHF2Cl), about 39 weight percent CFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CF3CHClF), about 1.5 weight percent isobutane (R600a, CH3CH(CH3)CH3and about a 9.5 weight percent CFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-differetn, CF2ClCH3).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R416A, where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (E-HFC-1234ze); 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye); 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf); 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf); and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE). R416A is the ASHRAE designation for a mixture of refrigerant containing about 59 weight percent HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CF3CH2F)), approximately 39.5 weight percent CFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, CFsub> 3CHClF) and about 1.5 weight percent n-butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents R12 (CFC-12, DICHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE, CF2Cl2), where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye); 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf); 3,3,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf); and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R500, where the method includes as a replacement for the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-1225ye); 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf); 33,3-triptocaine (HFC-1243zf); and trifluoromethyl-triftorbyenzola ether (PMVE). R500 is the ASHRAE designation for azeotropic mixture refrigerant containing approximately 73,8 weight percent R12 ((CFC-12, DICHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE, CF2Cl2and about to 26.2% by weight of R152a (HFC-152a, 1,1-differetn, CHF2CH3).

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, where the specified source composition in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump represents a R134a or R12 and where specified R134a or R12 replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing from about 1.0 weight percent to about 37 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 99 weight percent to about 63 weight percent HFC-1225ye. In another embodiment, the second refrigerant or heat transfer fluid may contain from about 1.0 weight percent to about 10 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 99 weight percent to about 90 weight percent HFC-1225ye.

The present invention relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, where the original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid performance is to place a R22, R404A or R410A and where specified R22, R404A or R410A replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing from about 1.0 weight percent to about 37 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 99 weight percent to about 63 weight percent HFC-1225ye. In another embodiment, the second refrigerant or heat transfer fluid may contain from about 20 weight percent to about 37 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 80 weight percent to about 63 weight percent HFC-1225ye.

The present invention additionally relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, where the original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid is a R22, R404A or R410A and where specified R22, R404A or R410A replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing from about 20 weight percent to about 95 weight percent HFC-1225ye, about 1.0 weight percent to about 65 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 40 weight percent HFC-125. In another embodiment, the second refrigerant or heat transfer fluid contains from about 30 weight percent to about 90 weight percent HFC-1225ye, about what about to 5.0 weight percent to about 55 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 35 weight percent HFC-125. In another embodiment, the second refrigerant or heat transfer fluid contains from about 40 weight percent to about 85 weight percent HFC-1225ye, about 10 weight percent to about 45 weight percent HFC-32 and from about 1.0 weight percent to about 28 weight percent HFC-125.

The present invention relates to a method for replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, where the original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid is a R134a or R12 and where these R134a or R12 replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing:

HFC-1243zf, HFC-1225ye;

HFC-1243zf, HFC-1225ye and HFC-125;

HFC-1243zf, HFC-1225ye and HFC-32; or

HFC-1243zf, HFC-1225ye, HFC-125 and HFC-32.

In all the previously described methods of replacement refrigerants can be used pterolepis to replace the refrigerant in existing equipment. Additionally, you can use pterolepis to replace the refrigerant in existing equipment designed for use specified refrigerant.

Additionally, you can use pterolepis to replace the refrigerant in existing equipment without the need for replacement or substitution of grease.

This izopet the tion relates to a method of reducing the risk of fire in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, and this method includes the introduction of the compositions of the present invention at a specified cooling device or cooling device.

The main reason regarding Flammability is a refrigerant that may leak from the cooling device of the air conditioning or heat pump device. If the leak occurs in the cooling device or the air-conditioning device of the system can be released cooling agent and possibly a small amount of lubricant. If the resulting substances are in contact with an ignition source, it may be a fire. Under the fire risk implies the risk of fire as in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, and near them. You can reduce the risk of fire in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump when using a refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, which are considered non-flammable, as defined and specified by the methods and standards described above in the present invention. Additionally, you can add non-flammable floral the fins of the present invention to vosplamenyayuschaya cooling agent or heat transfer fluid in the device, and before you add them to your device. Non-flammable pterolepis of the present invention reduce the likelihood of fire in the event of a leak and/or reduce the degree of fire hazard by reducing the temperature or volume of any arisen flame.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of reducing risk in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, or near them, and the method includes combining at least one non-flammable Ferreira with inflammable cooling agent and introducing the combination into the cooling unit, air-handling unit or heat pump.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of reducing risk in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, or near them, and the method includes combining at least one non-flammable Ferreira with lubricating agent and introduction of this mixture in the cooling unit, air-handling unit or in the unit of a heat pump containing flammable refrigerant.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of reducing risk in the cooling device, conditionyou who eat the device or the device, a heat pump or near them, moreover, this method includes the introduction of at least one Ferreira in the specified device.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of use of a flammable refrigerant in the cooling unit, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump, and the method includes combining the specified flammable refrigerant with at least one Ferreira.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of reducing the Flammability flammable refrigerant or heat transfer fluid, and the method includes combining flammable refrigerant with at least one Ferreira.

The present invention additionally relates to a method of heat transfer from the heat source to solar heaters, in which the composition of the present invention act as heat transfer fluids. This method of heat transfer includes the transfer compositions of the present invention from a heat source to the solar heaters.

Heat transfer fluid is used to transfer, move, or remove heat from one space, location, object or subject in another space, location, object, or entity through radiation, conduction or convection. Heat transfer fluid may act as a secondary cooler by providing funds transfer for cooling (or heating) from the remote system cooling (or heating). In some systems during the transfer process heat transfer fluid can remain in a permanent state (i.e. not evaporate or condense). Alternatively, the heat transfer fluid can also be used in the methods of cooling by evaporation.

The heat source can be defined as any space, location, object, or subject, from which the desired transfer, move, or remove heat. Examples of heat sources can be space (open or closed), which require refrigeration or cooling, such as, for example, refrigerators or freezers in the supermarket, areas requiring cooling, or passenger cabin in the car, requiring air-conditioning. The solar heaters can be defined as any space, location, object, or subject, is able to absorb heat. The system of the vapor compression cooling is one example of such telopeptides.

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1

Performance

In table 7 compounds of the present invention shown such characteristics of cooling the Oia, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared to CFC-113, HFC-43-10mee, C4F9OCH3and HFC-365mfc. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4.4°C (40,0°F)
The temperature of the condenserto 43.3°C (110,0°F)
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C (10,0°F)
The temperature of the return gas23,8°C (75,0°F)
Compressor efficiency is70%

TABLE 7

EXAMPLE 2

Performance

In table 8 compounds of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared to CFC-11 and CFC-123. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature 4.4°C (40,0°F)
The temperature of the condenserto 43.3°C (110,0°F)
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C (10,0°F)
The temperature of the return gas23,8°C (75,0°F)
Compressor efficiency is70%

TABLE 8

EXAMPLE 3

Performance

In table 9 compounds of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared to HFC-245fa. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4.4°C (40,0°F)
The temperature of the condenserto 43.3°C (110,0°F)
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C (10,0°F)
The temperature of the return gas23,8°C (75,0°F)
E is the efficiency of the compressor is 70%

TABLE 9

EXAMPLE 4

Performance

In table 10 for the compounds of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared with CFC-114, HFC-236fa. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4.4°C (40,0°F)
The temperature of the condenserto 43.3°C (110,0°F)
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C (10,0°F)
The temperature of the return gas23,8°C (75,0°F)
Compressor efficiency is70%

TABLE 10

EXAMPLE 5

Performance

In table 11 for the compounds of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (the NT.), compared to HFC-134a, HFC-152a and HFC-227ea. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4.4°C (40,0°F)
The temperature of the condenserto 43.3°C (110,0°F)
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C (10,0°F)
The temperature of the return gas23,8°C (75,0°F)
Compressor efficiency is70%

TABLE 11

EXAMPLE 6

Flammability

Flammable compounds could be identified by testing according to the requirements of ASTM (American society for testing and materials) E681-01 with electronic ignition source. These Flammability tests were conducted on the compositions of the present invention at a pressure of 101 kPa (14.7 psi), 50% relative humidity and at a specified temperature in various concentrations in air, in order to determine whether Flammability and, if so, to calculate the lower Flammability limit (LFL). The results are shown in table the e 12.

TABLE 12

The results indicate that HFC-1234yf and HFC-134ze are flammable, whereas HFC-UE, HFC-1429myz/mzy and F12 - non-flammable. For mixtures of HFC-UE and HFC-32 (known Flammability in a pure state), it was shown that 37 weight percent HFC-32 is the maximum present number, which may persist properties of non. Such compositions containing non-flammable pterolepis represent the most appropriate options as refrigerants and heat transfer fluids.

EXAMPLE 7

Circumferential speed of the pressure increasing

It is possible to estimate the operating speed, making for cooling equipment that uses centrifugal compressors, some calculations on the fundamental equations. Torque impeller, reported in the ideal gas is defined as:

T=m·(v2·r2-v1·r1) Equation 1,

where

T = torque, ft Newton;

m = weight flow rate, kg/s;

v2= tangential velocity of refrigerant at the exit of the impeller (circumferential speed), m/s;

r2= radius of the exit of the impeller, m;

v1= tangential velocity of the cooling agent at the entrance to impel the EP, m/s;

r1= radius of the entrance of the impeller meters.

Considering that the refrigerant fed into the impeller essentially in the axial direction, the tangential component of the velocity v1= 0, so

T=m·v2·r2Equation 2

The required shaft power is derived from torque and speed

P=T·ω, Equation 3,

where

P = power, W;

ω = angular velocity, rad/s,

thus,

P=T·w=m·v2·r2·ω Equation 4

At low velocities of flow of the cooling agent peripheral speed of the impeller and the tangential velocity of the cooling agent are almost identical; therefore,

r2·ω=v2Equation 5

and

P=m·v2·v2Equation 6

Another expression of the ideal power is a derivative of the weight flow rate and isentropic work of compression:

P=m·Hi·(1000 j/kJ), Equation 7,

where

Hi= the difference of the enthalpy of the refrigerant of the vapor at the conditions of evaporation and saturated conditions condensation, kJ/kg

Combining these two expressions, equations 6 and 7 gives:

v2·v2=1000·HiEquation 8

Although equation 8 is based on some fundamental assumptions, it provides a good assessment of the peripheral speed of the impeller and provides an important way to compare the environment and the Noah speed cooling agents.

In table 13 below shows theoretical circumferential speed calculated for 1,2,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113) and compositions of the present invention. For this comparison, we have adopted the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4.4°C (40,0°F)
The temperature of the condenserto 43.3°C (110,0°F)
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C (10,0°F)
The temperature of the return gas23,8°C (75,0°F)
Compressor efficiency is70%

Given normal conditions of operation of centrifugal compressors with a small turbine.

TABLE 13

These examples show that the compounds of the present invention have a circumferential speed in the range of about 15 percent of the CFC-113 and can be an effective replacement for CFC-113 with minimal changes to the design of the compressor. The most preferred compounds have a circumferential speed in the range of about 10 percent of the CFC-113.

EXAMPLE 8

Performance cooling

In table 14 for the s compositions of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared to HFC-134a. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4.4°C (40,0°F)
The temperature of the condenser54,4°C (130,0°F)
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C (10,0°F)
The temperature of the return gas15,6°C (60,0°F)
Compressor efficiency is100%

Note: overheating is included in the heat of the cooling.

TABLE 14

Some songs have even higher energy efficiency (COP) compared to HFC-134a, supporting lower or equivalent to the pressure and temperature at the outlet. The heat capacity of the compositions listed in table 14, also similar to R134a, indicating that these compositions can serve as cooling agents in replacement for R134a applications for Oh is ardenia and conditioning and, in particular, in the automotive air conditioning. The results also show that the cooling performance of HFC-1225ye can be improved by adding other compounds such as HFC-32.

EXAMPLE 9

Performance cooling

In table 15, for different compositions of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared to R404A and R422A. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperatureabout 17.8 mln°C
The temperature of the condenser46,1°C
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C
The temperature of the return gasthe 15.6°C
Compressor efficiency is70%

Note: overheating is included in the heat of the cooling.

TABLE 15

Some songs are the odds of effective the particular energy (EER), comparable with the highest levels of R404A and R422A. The outlet temperature is also lower than that of R404A and R507A. The heat capacity of the compositions listed in table 15, also with similar characteristics R404A, R507A and R422A, indicating that these compositions can serve as cooling agents replacement for R404A, R507A or R422A in refrigeration and air-conditioning.

EXAMPLE 10

Performance cooling

In table 16 for different compositions of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared to CFC-22 and R410A. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4°C
The temperature of the condenser43°C
Temperature hypothermia6°C
The temperature of the return gas18°C
Compressor efficiency is70%

Note: overheating is included in the heat of the cooling.

TABLE 16

Some songs have coefficients of energy efficiency (EER), comparable with the highest levels of R22 and R410A, while maintaining an acceptable temperature. The heat capacity of the compositions listed in table 16, is also similar to the characteristics of R22, indicating that these compositions can serve as cooling agents replacement for R22 in refrigeration and air-conditioning. Additionally, in table 16 lists the composition with heat, or a close equivalent heat capacity R410A, indicating that these compositions can be refrigerated agents replacement R410A cooling and air-conditioning.

EXAMPLE 11

Performance cooling

In table 17 for the various compositions of the present invention shown such characteristics cooling, as the pressure in the evaporator (Spanish) and the condenser (con), outlet temperature (T o.), energy efficiency (COP) and the enthalpy (ENT.), compared to CFC-22, R410A, R407 and R417A. The data listed under the following conditions:

The evaporator temperature4.4°C
The temperature of the condenser54,4°C
Temperature hypothermia5.5°C
The temperature of the return gasthe 15.6°C
Compressor efficiency is100%

Note: overheating is included in the heat of the cooling.

TABLE 17

Some songs have coefficients of energy efficiency (EER), comparable with the highest levels of R22, R407, R417A and R410A, while maintaining a low temperature. The heat capacity of the compositions listed in table 17, also similar to the characteristics of R22, R407 and R417A, indicating that these compositions can serve as cooling agents replacement for R22, R407 and R417A in refrigeration and air-conditioning.

1. The composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group, and where the specified connection has at least 5 carbon atoms.

2. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one flammable refrigerant.

3. the song according to claim 2, in which flammable refrigerant selected from the group consisting of fluorocarbons, perepelov, hydrocarbon ethers, hydrocarbons, ammonia, and combinations thereof.

4. The composition according to claim 3, in which the specified flammable refrigerant selected from the group consisting of: deformity (HFC-32); formestane (HFC-41); 1,1,1-triptorelin (HFC-143a); 1,1,2-triptorelin (HFC-143); 1,1-differetn (HFC-152a); floridana (HFC-161); 1,1,1-tryptophan (HFC-263fb); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc); 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-UE); 1,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234z); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-u); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-UE); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234zc); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-u); 3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243zf); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-us); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243z); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-UE); and 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243z) C4F9OC2H5; propane; propylene; cyclopropane; n-butane; isobutane; n-pentane; 2-methylbutane; 2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE; cyclopentane, CYCLOBUTANE; 2,2-Dimethylbutane; 2,3-Dimethylbutane; 2,3-dimethylpentane; 2-methylhexane; 3-methylhexane; 2-methylpentane; 3-ethylpentane; 3-methylpentane; cyclohexane; n-heptane; Methylcyclopentane; n-hexane; dimethyl ether; methyl tert-butyl ether, ammonia and combinations thereof.

5. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing smatyvayus the agent, selected from the group consisting of mineral oils, paraffins, naphthenes, synthetic paraffins, alkyl benzenes, poly-alpha-olefins, polyalkylene glycols, polyvinyl ethers, esters of polyols and mixtures thereof.

6. The composition according to claim 1, further containing an additive selected from the group consisting of (i) silica gel and (ii) agent, masking the smell.

7. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing a compound with a labeled atom, in which the specified labeled compound capable of detection and it is chosen from the group consisting of fluorocarbons, deuterated hydrocarbons, deuterated of fluorocarbons, fluorosurfactants, perepelov, brominated compounds, iodine compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, nitrous oxide (N2O) and combinations thereof, and in which the specified connection with the labeled atom differs from the specified refrigerant or heat transfer fluid.

8. The composition according to claim 7, in which the specified labeled compound selected from the group consisting of CD3CD3, CD3CD2CD3CD2F2, CF3CD2CF3, CD2F-CF3, CD3-CF3, DF2-CF3, CF3-DF-CF3, CF3-CF2CDF2, CDF2CDF2, CF3CF2CD3, CF3CD2-CH3, CF2-CH 2CD3, CF3CF3, cyclo-CF2CF2CF2-, CF3CF2CF3, cyclo-CF3CF2CF2CF2-, CF3CF2CF2CF3, CF3CF(CF3)2, cyclo-CF(CF3)CF2CF(CF3)CF2-, TRANS-cyclo-CF2CF (CF3) CF (CF3CF2-, CIS-cyclo-CF2CF(CF3)CF(CF3CF2-, CF3F2, CF3Och2F, CF3Och3, CF3FF3, CF3Och2CF3, CF3Och2F2, CF3CH2OF2CH3F2CF3CH3CF2OF3CF3CF2CF2OFF3, CF3CF2CF2OCF (CF3CF2OCHFCF3, F3CH2F3, F3CH3, CHF2CHF2, CF3FF3, CF3CF2F2, CF3CF2CH2F, CHF2CHFCF3, CF3CH2CF3, CF3CF2CH3, CF3CH2F2, F2CF2CH3, CF3F3, CF3CH2CH3CH3CF2CH3CH3F3CH2F2CH3, F2CF2CF2CF3, (CF3)2F3F3CH2CF2CF3, CHF2CF2CF2CHF2CH3CF2 2CF3, CF3FFF2CF3, performancetramontana, performatilicious, perftorgeksilsilanami (ortho-, meta - or para-), performcalculation, pertarungan, performtransaction and their isomers, performportalclose, CIS-performanceline, TRANS-performanceline, CIS - or TRANS-performatively and their isomers, CH3VG, CH2FBr, CHF2Br, CHFBr2, ADHD3CH2Vgsn3, ADHD=CH2CH2BrCH2Br, CFBr=CHF, CF3I, CHF2I, CH2FI, CF2ICH2F, CF2ICHF2, CF2ICF2I, C6F5I, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, acetone, n-propanal, n-butanal, methyl ethyl ketone, nitrous oxide and combinations thereof.

9. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one ultra-violet fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of naphthalimides, perylenes, coumarins, anthracenes, fenantrolinom, xantinol, thioxanthenes, nattokinase, fluorescein and derivatives specified colors and their combinations.

10. The composition according to claim 9, further containing at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbons, dimethyl ether, esters of polyoxyethyleneglycol, amides, ketones, NITRILES, chloropeta, esters, lactones, arolovich esters, forepi the s and 1,1,1-triptorelin.

11. The composition according to claim 10, in which the specified solvent selected from the group consisting of:
a) esters of polyoxyethyleneglycol represented by the formula, R1[(OR2)xOR3]yin which: x is an integer from 1 to 3; y is an integer from 1 to 4; R1selected from hydrogen and aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals having 1-6 carbon atoms and the binding sites; R2choose from aliphatic hydrocarbonrich radicals having from 2 to 4 carbon atoms; R3selected from hydrogen and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms; at least one of R1and R3choose from these hydrocarbon radicals; and in which the mentioned esters of polyoxyethyleneglycol have a molecular weight from about 100 to about 300 atomic mass;
b) amides represented by the formula R1C(O)NR2R3and cyclo-[R4CON(R5)-], where R1, R2, R3and R5independently selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms and at most one aromatic radical having from 6 to 12 carbon atoms; R4choose from aliphatic hydrocarbonrich radicals having from 3 to 12 carbon atoms; and in which these amides have a molecular the second weight from about 100 to about 300 atomic mass;
c) ketones represented by the formula, R1C(O)R2in which R1and R2independently selected from aliphatic, alicyclic and aryl hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, and in which these ketones have a molecular weight from about 70 to about 300 atomic mass;
d) NITRILES represented by the formula, R1CN, in which R1selected from aliphatic, alicyclic or aryl hydrocarbon radicals having from 5 to 12 carbon atoms, and in which these NITRILES have a molecular weight from about 90 to about 200 atomic mass;
e) chloropeta represented by the formula RClxin which: x is 1 or 2; R is selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms; and in which these chloropeta have a molecular weight from about 100 to about 200 atomic mass;
f) arolovich esters represented by the formula, R1OR2in which R1selected from aryl hydrocarbon radicals having from 6 to 12 carbon atoms; R2selected from aliphatic hydrocarbon radicals having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; and in which the mentioned akrilovye ethers have a molecular weight from about 100 to about 150 atomic mass;
g) 1,1,1-trichoroethane, not only is the R formula CF 3R1in which R1selected from aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon radicals having from about 5 to about 15 carbon atoms;
h) foreverhow represented by the formula, R1OCF2CF2H, in which R1selected from aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbon radicals having from about 5 to about 15 carbon atoms; or in which the specified forevery obtained from farolatino and polyols, where these forevery have a structure type CF2=CXY, where X is hydrogen, chlorine or fluorine and Y is chlorine, fluorine, CF3or orfin which Rfis a CF3With2F5or3F7; and these polyols are linear or branched, and these linear polyols are of the type structure HOCH2(CHOH)x(CRR')yCH2OH, in which R and R' are hydrogen, CH3or2H5, x is an integer from 0 to 4, y is an integer from 0 to 3, and z is equal to or zero or 1, and these branched polyols have a structure of the type C(OH)t(R)u(CH2OH)v[(CH2)mCH2OH]win which R may be hydrogen, CH3or2H5m is an integer from 0 to 3, t and u are equal to 0 or 1, v and w are integers from 0 to 4, and also to the th t+u+v+w=4; and
i) lactones represented by structures [B], [C] and [D]:

where R1-R8independently selected from hydrogen, linear, branched, cyclic, bicyclic, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbonrich radicals; and the molecular weight is from about 100 to about 300 atomic mass; and
j) esters represented by the General formula R1CO2R2in which R1and R2independently selected from linear and cyclic, saturated and unsaturated, alkyl and aryl radicals; and in which these esters have a molecular weight from about 80 to about 550 atomic mass.

12. Cooling method, comprising condensing a composition according to claim 1 and thereafter evaporating the specified composition near the object that you want to cool.

13. The method of heating, including the evaporation of the composition according to claim 1 and then condensation of the specified composition near the object that you want to warm.

14. The method of use of the composition according to claim 9 in compression refrigeration, air-conditioning or in the devices of the heat pump, including the introduction of a specified composition in the specified device, use the appropriate tools to determine ultraviol the postal fluorescent paint on site or near the point of leakage in these devices.

15. Method for the production of heat or cold in devices for cooling, air conditioning or in the devices of the heat pump, including the introduction of the composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid at a specified device equipped with (a) a centrifugal compressor; (b) multi-stage centrifugal compressor, or (C) one-way heat exchanger with a single plate; in which the specified composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid contains at least one pterolepis selected from the group consisting of farolatino formula E - or Z-R1CH=CHR2in which R1and R2independently represents a C1-C6performanceline group, where the specified pterolepis has at least 5 carbon atoms.

16. The method according to clause 15, which includes the compression of the specified composition in a centrifugal compressor, condensing the specified composition and then evaporation of the specified composition near the object that you want to cool.

17. The method according to clause 15, where the specified centrifugal compressor is a multistage centrifugal compressor.

18. The method according to clause 15, where the specified centrifugal compressor is a two-stage centrifugal compressor.

19. The method of applying the composition according to claim 1, for reducing the risk phosgore the Oia in the cooling device, the air-conditioning unit or heat pump in which the specified device contains a flammable refrigerant, comprising the introduction of a specified composition in the specified device and, optionally, adding a lubricating agent is added to this composition.

20. The method according to claim 19, wherein said flammable refrigerant is chosen from the group consisting of the following agents: diformate (HFC-32); permatan (HFC-41); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a); 1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HFC-143); 1,1-differetn (HFC-152a); floridan (HFC-161); 1,1,1-tryptophan (HFC-263fb); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc); 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-UE); 1,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234ze); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234yf); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234yc); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234zc); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243yf); 3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243zf); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-us); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243zc); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-UE); and 1,3 .3m-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243ze); C4F9OC2H5; propane; propylene; cyclopropane; n-butane; isobutane; n-pentane; 2-methylbutane; 2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE; cyclopentane, CYCLOBUTANE; 2,2-Dimethylbutane; 2, 3-Dimethylbutane; 2,3-dimethylpentane; 2-methylhexan; 3-methylhexan; 2-methylpentane; 3-ethylpentane; 3-methylpentane; cyclohexane; n-heptane; Methylcyclopentane; n-hexane; dimethyl ether; methyl tert-butyl ether; s the FCC and their combinations.

21. The method of applying the composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid according to claim 1 for reducing the Flammability flammable refrigerant, comprising the combination of a specified flammable refrigerant with a specified composition.

22. The method according to item 21, wherein said flammable refrigerant selected from the group consisting of fluorocarbons, perepelov, hydrocarbon ethers, hydrocarbons, ammonia, and combinations thereof.

23. The method according to item 22, wherein said flammable refrigerant is chosen from the group consisting of the following agents:
deformity (HFC-32); permatan (HFC-41); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a); 1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HFC-143); 1,1-differetn (HFC-152a); floridan (HFC-161); 1,1,1-tryptophan (HFC-263fb); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc); 1,2,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-UE); 1,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234z); 2,3,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234yf); 1,1,2,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-us); 1,1,3,3-titrator-1-propene (HFC-1234z); 2,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243yf); 3,3,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243zf); 1,1,2-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-us); 1,1,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243z); 1,2,3-Cryptor-1-propene (HFC-1243yc); and 1,3 .3m-trifter-1-propene (HFC-1243z);4F9OS2H5; propane; propylene; cyclopropane; n-butane; isobutane; n-pentane; 2-methylpentane; 2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE; cyclopentane, CYCLOBUTANE; 2,2-Dimethylbutane; 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2,3-dimethylpentane; 2-methylhexan; 3-methylhexan; 2-methylpentane; 3-ethylpentane; 3-methylpentane; cyclohexane; n-heptane; Methylcyclopentane; n-hexane; dimethyl ether; methyl tert-butyl ether; ammonia, and combinations thereof.

24. The way to replace the refrigerant with a high global warming potential, including the provision of a composition according to claim 1 for cooling, the air-handling unit or device of a heat pump or instead of the refrigerant with a high global warming potential or in combination with them in the specified device.

25. The method of applying the composition according to claim 1 for reducing the global warming potential of the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, comprising the combination of the specified source compositions refrigerant or heat transfer fluid composition according to claim 1, obtaining the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, and specified the second refrigerant or heat transfer fluid has a lower global warming potential than the specified initial composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid.

26. The way to reduce the GWP of the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid for cooling, the air-handling unit or device heat is on pump, where specified, the original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid has a GWP of 150 or above; including the introduction of the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid with a lower GWP according to claim 1 or 2 in the specified cooling, air-conditioning unit or heat pump.

27. The method according to p, additionally including removing the original composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid from the specified cooling, conditioning device or from a device of a heat pump before the introduction of the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid with a lower GWP.

28. The method of replacing the original composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer liquid of the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid, comprising providing a composition according to claim 1 as the second composition of the cooling agent or heat transfer fluid.

29. The method according to p where specified initial composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid selected from the group consisting of:
(i) 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-triptorelin (R113), and wherein said R113 replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-d is the Caphtor-2-hexene (F13E); and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E);
(ii) 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decipherments (R43-10mee), and wherein said R43-10mee replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-2-hexene (F13E) and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E);
(iii)4F9Och3and in which a specified With4F9Och3replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-2-hexene (F13E) and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E);
(iv) 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (R365mfc), and wherein said R365mfc replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-2-hexene (F13E) and 1,1,1,2,2,5,5,6,6,6-deceptor-3-hexene (F22E);
(v) ferrichloride (R11), and wherein said R11 replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (F11E) and 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-pentene(RE);
(vi) 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-triptorelin (R123), and wherein said R123 replace the second composition, cooling the Ghent or heat transfer fluid, containing at least one compound selected from the group consisting of 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (F11E) and 1,1,1,4,4,5,5,5-acceptor-2-pentene(F12);
(vii) 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R245fa), and wherein said R245fa replace the second composition of the refrigerant or heat transfer fluid containing 1,1,1,4,4,4-hexamer-2-butene (F11E).

30. The method of applying the composition according to claim 1 as a composition of a heat-transfer fluid, including the transfer of the specified composition from the heat source to the solar heaters.

31. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing stabilizer selected from the group consisting of:
A. at least one terpene or terpenoid in combination with at least one substance selected from the group consisting of epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and exitnow;
b. at least one fullerene in combination with at least one substance selected from the group consisting of epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and exitnow;
C. at least one phenol in combination with at least one substance selected from the group consisting of epoxides, fluorinated epoxides and oxiteno.

32. The composition according to p in which the specified stabilizer selected from the group consisting of:
A. d-limonene and at least one substance selected from the group consisting of triptorelin and 3-ethyl-3-hydroxyatomoxetine;
b. alpha-pinene and at least one substance selected from the group consisting of triftormetilfullerenov and 3-ethyl-3-hydroxyatomoxetine;
C. fullerene and at least one substance selected from the group consisting of triftormetilfullerenov and 3-ethyl-3-hydroxyatomoxetine;
d. tocopherol and at least one substance selected from the group consisting of triftormetilfullerenov and 3-ethyl-3-hydroxyatomoxetine;
that is, hydroquinone and at least one substance selected from the group consisting of triftormetilfullerenov and 3-ethyl-3-hydroxyatomoxetine; and
f. bottled hydroxytoluene and at least one substance selected from the group consisting of triftormetilfullerenov and 3-ethyl-3-hydroxyatomoxetine.

33. The composition according to p, optionally containing at least one additional stabilizer selected from the group consisting of:
areacall-bis(benzylidene)hydrazide;
N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate);
2,2'-oxometabolite-(3,5-d-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate)
N,N' -(disalicylidene)-1,2-propandiamine and
ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and its salts.

34. The composition according to p, optionally containing at least one alkylamine selected from the group consisting of triethylamine; tributylamine; triisopropanolamine; diisobutylamine;triisopropanolamine; triisobutylene and difficult amine antioxidants.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to compositions of a cooling agent or liquid heat carrier, which contain: approximately 1-99 wt % HFC-1234yf, approximately 99-1 wt % ammonia. The invention also relates to methods of producing heat, coldness, replacing cooling agent with large value of GWP using said composition, as well as a method of using said composition as a liquid heat carrier.

EFFECT: disclosed composition can be used as heat carrier.

7 cl, 6 ex, 14 tbl

Heat pump // 2382295

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering, and namely to heat pump devices. Heat pump includes evaporator, capacitor, throttle shutoff and control valves and vacuum pump, which are in-series included in closed circulation circuit of cooling agent. Vacuum pump is made with possibility of pumping cooling agent vapours with speed of 350 l/s within pressure range of 133 to 0.53·105 Pa. Invention provides the possibility of using a wide range of high-boiling matters as heat carriers with Tboiling >273°K at atmospheric pressure of matters. The most preferable is ethanol and its water solutions.

EFFECT: developing compact heating systems which do not require fuel margins and special communications, advantageous as to power and economy, and environmentally safe.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment for residential and industrial room heating. Compression heat pump consists of an evaporator, compressor, condenser, restrictor and liquid separator. The evaporator and condenser are represented with the enclosing vortex heat exchangers containing working agent supply and discharge nozzle and, respectively, low potential and high potential coolant supply and discharge nozzles, helical manifold with guiding unit and end walls. Micro channels are made on the internal and external surface of end walls. The enclosure is installed from the external surface side.

EFFECT: small-sized and high-capacity heat pump.

2 dwg

Heat pump // 2301382

FIELD: heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat pump comprises compression cylinders, cylinder for adjacent tank with separating piston provided with individual heat exchangers, valving members, and high-pressure hydraulic pump connected in the closed circuit. Two additional cylinders interconnected through the valving members are connected in parallel between the inlets of the vertically oriented compression cylinders. The first additional cylinder is provided with a baffle. The pistons are interconnected with the rod passing through the opening made in the baffle. Two spaces formed by the walls of the baffle, pistons, and wall of the cylinder are provided with openings connected with the outlets of the three-way hydraulic switch whose inlets are connected with the inlet and outlet of the high-pressure hydraulic pump. The piston of the second additional cylinder is connected with the separating piston of the cylinder of the adjacent tank through the rod, rocking lever provided with hydraulic drive, and second heat insulated rod. The pistons of the compression cylinders are provided with displacers. The surfaces of displacers and inner surface of the compression cylinders adjacent to the air outlet of the cylinders are heat-insulated by means of solid heat insulator.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 cl, 3 dwg

Heat pump // 2285872

FIELD: heat engineering.

SUBSTANCE: heat pump comprises compressor, condenser, expander, evaporator, and heat exchanger. The inlet of the first space of the heat exchanger is connected with the outlet of the evaporator, and the outlet of the heat exchanger space is connected with the compressor. The inlet of the second space of heat exchanger is connected with the circuit between the condenser and expander through the control valve, and the outlet of the second space is connected with the circuit between the three-position control valve and expander. The expander is made of a throttle. The heat pump is provided with the temperature gauge mounted between the compressor and first space of the heat exchanger and is connected with the three-position control valve through controller.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and stability of operation.

1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering, in particular, technology for transformation of heat by means of heat pumps, used in heating, conditioning and water supplying systems.

SUBSTANCE: device has circulation contour of working body, which includes serially connected compressor, capacitor, regenerative heat exchanger and first evaporator, and also line of second consumer, output of capacitor via heated substance is connected to line of first consumer. Input of ejector via active substance is connected to output of regenerative heat exchanger. Output of ejector is connected to input of first evaporator and through throttling valve is connected to input of second evaporator. Input of ejector via passive electronic substance is connected to line of second consumer. Output of second evaporator via separator is connected to line of third consumer.

EFFECT: extended functional capabilities of heat supplying systems and water supplying systems, namely, to receive in one apparatus both heat for heat supply system and cold at average temperature level for conditioning system and at low temperature level for cooling systems.

1 dwg

Heat pump // 2238488
The invention relates to a heat pump, that is, to devices that use low-temperature heat sources of natural or artificial origin to obtain water suitable for heating and hot water with a temperature of 50-70°C.

Heat pump // 2223454
The invention relates to a process of converting thermal energy and can be used in the development of heat pumps, refrigerators and heat transformers

The invention relates to air conditioning systems and can be used in refrigeration and heat pumps

The invention relates to a power system, in particular to the process of converting thermal energy of a relatively low temperature level of the thermal energy of high temperature level, and can be used for heat and cooling

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in method of control the stator winding of the asynchronous generator driven by wind, hydraulic or thermal engine, is connected in parallel to the grid via the secondary windings of the booster transformer, which, by means of transformer transformation ratio adjustment, maintains voltage at the stator of the asynchronous generator within the range of (93-100)% from the rated voltage in function of active power of asynchronous generator. The booster transformer transformation ratio is controlled by switching taps at the primary winding by optoelectronic AC relays, which are switched in active power function of the asynchronous generator.

EFFECT: improved power parametres.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: cooling or heating system contains at least compressor (2), condenser (4), adjusting device (17A), evaporator (20) and control device (7A). Control device (7A) receives liquid from condenser (4) and has an outlet orifice into pipeline (9) for condensate and inlet facilities coming into signal channel (6, 10). Pipeline (9) for condensate is coupled with adjusting device (17A). Control facilities (12, 13) are connected to the signal channel for control over adjusting device (17A) opening. The system is equipped with evaporating facilities (8, 11, 18, 34) for evaporation of liquid coming into signal channel (6, 10). Control device (7A) is installed in the condenser or near inlet orifice of condenser (4), owing to which the said control is actuated with amount of liquid evaporated in signal channel (6, 10).

EFFECT: reduced losses of power.

17 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: air cooling method consists in the fact that cooling agent vapours circulating via closed circuit are concentrated, cooled, condensed and throttled. Then, heat is supplied to cooling agent and it is converted to gaseous state so that cooling agent vapours are formed with the specified minimum temperature. Air is cooled by means of accumulator which is pre-cooled during the cooling agent circulation by means of heat exchange with circulating cooling agent to the temperature which is lower than the specified minimum temperature of air cooling. Then, cooling agent circulation is stopped and air is cooled by heat removal from cooled air to the accumulator. Air cooling device includes closed circuit having the device for increasing the cooling agent concentration, condenser, throttling device and device for heat supply to cooling agent. Device for heat supply to cooling agent is located in upper part of closed cavity with cooled air and represents heat accumulator and is made from metal with high heat conductivity. Finning is made on outer surface of accumulator.

EFFECT: reducing electric energy consumption.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to compositions of a cooling agent or liquid heat carrier, which contain: approximately 1-99 wt % HFC-1234yf, approximately 99-1 wt % ammonia. The invention also relates to methods of producing heat, coldness, replacing cooling agent with large value of GWP using said composition, as well as a method of using said composition as a liquid heat carrier.

EFFECT: disclosed composition can be used as heat carrier.

7 cl, 6 ex, 14 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: installation consists of cooled object (1), source of cooling (2), pump (3) of cooling agent, evaporator (4) with throttle (5), steam compressor (6) with driving device (7), pump (8) of condenser, condenser (9), throttle (10), control valves (11) and (12), and of device for water injection (12) and (13). At water inlet and outlet evaporator (4) is communicated correspondingly with the outlet and via pump (3) with the cooling water inlet of cooled object (1). The evaporator corresponds to an expanding reservoir with the throttle installed at the water inlet of the expanding reservoir of the evaporator. Steam compressor (6) with drive device (7) is coupled at a steam inlet with a steam outlet of the expanding reservoir of the evaporator. Condenser (9) is connected at the steam inlet with the steam outlet of the steam condenser (6), at the water outlet - with the cooling water inlet of the cooling source (2) via pump (8) of the condenser. Condenser (9) corresponds to a steam condenser of mixing type and is communicated also at the injected cooling water inlet with cooling water outlet of the cooling agent (2). Expanding reservoir of evaporator (4) at the water inlet is connected also with the water outlet of condenser pump (8) by means of a hydraulic link additionally equipped with throttle (10) and control valve (11).

EFFECT: reduced metal and power consumption for compressor drive.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: cryostat has a housing with a cooled platform and a unit for cryostating the cooled platform. The cryostating is in form of a container which can be filled with liquefied gas and has a filler neck, on whose outer surface of which there is a cooled platform, or is docked with a micro-cryogenic cooling system in form of hands of the cryostat on which the cooled platform is placed. The filler neck or cryostat hands consist of three thin-walled coaxially arranged stainless steel pipes with a gap in between. The cooled platform made from copper is joined to the housing by suspending elastically stretched strings.

EFFECT: reduced heat leakages and high resistance to external mechanical effects.

11 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: thermal-pipe steam-ejector cooling machine includes evaporation chamber of high pressure, which is connected to nozzle inlet of ejector. Receiving chamber of ejector is connected to evaporation chamber of low pressure. Diffuser is connected to condensation chamber equipped with wick. Evaporation chambers of high and low pressure are placed coaxially in one housing, their side walls are covered from the inside with wicks covered in their turn with casings with gaps at upper and lower edge walls. Evaporation chambers are divided between each other as to steam with horizontal partition connected to casing of evaporation chamber of high pressure. Inside evaporation chamber of high pressure there located is entrainment trap and receiving pipeline connected to distributing pipeline located in evaporation chamber of low pressure. After horizontal partition, the housing is equipped on the lateral side with vertical partitions after which there placed are condensing chambers covered from the inside with their wicks separated between each other with a partition into high-pressure segment and low-pressure segment. Ejectors are mounted into vertical partitions of condensing chambers and connected with their nozzle inlets to evaporation chamber of high pressure through distributing and receiving pipelines.

EFFECT: increasing efficiency of thermal-pipe steam-ejector cooling machine.

5 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves processes of compression and expansion - throttling of working medium-freon, freon heat exchange with environment at its condensation in condenser and freon heat exchange with low temperature heat source at its evaporation in evaporator; and according to the invention, freon compression process both in the area of gases, and in two-phase wet vapour area is performed in compressor by force interaction of unipolar charged freon flow with electric field owing to viscous interaction of charged particles-ions with neutral working medium molecules. Freons are not dissolved either in mineral, or in synthetic oils, and operating mode and its control is performed by changing the voltage of power supply which changes freon flow rate, its pressure and condensation temperature.

EFFECT: high heat transfer coefficient in condenser and evaporator at small heat exchange surface.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: combined electric energy, heat and cold generation method involves compression of atmospheric air and/or fuel with further being burnt in combustion chamber and conversion of heat of combustion products to mechanical energy by means of heat engine, conversion of mechanical energy to electric in electric generator, supply of some part of heat energy removed from heat engine to be converted in absorption cooling machine to cold energy. Some part of heat energy removed from heat engine is used for heat supply to consumers. Heat energy converted in absorption cooling machine to cold energy is used for cold supply to consumers. If excess cold energy appears during partial loading of absorption cooling machine, it is used for cooling of atmospheric air prior to compression.

EFFECT: increasing efficiency and electric power of the unit owing to using free capacity of cooling machine.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: thermal chemical reactor for cooling and/or heating device includes a reactant unit, has the capability of absorbing the gas by means of chemical reaction, which comes from gas reservoir, and desorbing that gas by means of counter chemical reaction under action of heating so that gas can return to gas reservoir. Reactant unit is located in the container connected to gas reservoir by means of a connection tube and having the walls of which at least some have diffusion devices provided with possibility of passing the gas in one or the other direction between reactant unit and gas reservoir. Reactant unit is provided with possibility of increasing its dimension during gas absorption and decreasing it during gas desorption and is connected to heating device. Some of the above walls are movable and have the shape of plates provided with possibility of following longitudinal movements of reactant unit when its dimension is being changed inside container which is made in the form of a tube, each edge of which is equipped with a covering device, at least one of which is made in the form of semi-sphere. Diametre of the above tube ensures the possibility of introducing the reactant unit to the container without a gap. Reactant unit is made in the form of cylinder and arranged between two plates which can slide in longitudinal direction so that subsequent deformations of reactant unit are provided at increase of its dimension and original form is recovered at decrease of its size.

EFFECT: increasing reactant volume and providing use of reactant without any risk of its being damaged due to explosion.

11 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a coolant or heat carrier composition which contains an azeotropic or nearly azeotropic component, which contains 1-99 wt % HFC-1234yf and approximately 99-1 wt % HEC-134a and, optionally, at least one compound selected from a group consisting of propane, n-butane, isobutene and dimethyl ether. The coolant or heat carrier composition optionally contains at least one more component selected from lubricant substances, isotopic indicators, compatibility agents, dyes which are fluorescent in UV light, soluble agents, stabilisers, water absorbers and deodorant agents. The composition is used in refrigerator installations, air conditioners and heat pumps, for cooling or heating, as liquid heat carriers, foaming agents, aerosol propellants and agents for suppressing or extinguishing fire.

EFFECT: composition with low global warming potential and low ozone layer depletion potential.

29 cl, 14 ex, 6 ex

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