Suspended well stem
SUBSTANCE: suspended well stem is arranged in the form of a solid cylinder, diametre of which is approximated and comparable to the well diametre to the maximum. The cylinder is installed at the depth of the massif with intensive cracking. Between a charge and a stem there is an air gap. The upper and lower ends of the cylinder are arranged as truncated in parallel to each other, besides the length L of the large axis of the formed ellipse equals 1.15-1.25 of the well diametre, besides, the upper end is fixed to the crosspiece arranged above the well head with a rope fixed near the lower edge of the truncated part of the stem.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to use the energy of explosion products to the maximum, to intensify the process of rocks grinding, to reduce the specific weight of explosives, to increase quality of rock mass grinding, to increase reliability of the well stem, to simplify its manufacturing.
The invention relates to mining, to the field of drilling and blasting operations in rocks and can be used in a variety of industries, using blasting in rock masses, in particular when the open development of mineral resources.
Known borehole stemming from rock stuff, etc. that increase the duration of the expanding gaseous products of the explosion to destroy the array (Kutuzov BN. Blasting operations. M.: Nedra, 1988, p.223).
Also known borehole stemming having the form of a cylinder, the outer diameter commensurate with the diameter of the hole (patent RF №2229684, IPC 7 F42D 1/20, publ. 27.05.2004,).
A disadvantage of the known borehole stemming is the complexity of manufacturing and installation.
Known suspension borehole stemming (RF patent No. 2371671, IPC F42D 1/08, publ. 27.10.2009, bull. No. 30), made in the form of a solid cylinder, the diameter of which is closest to and less than the diameter of the hole, the cylinder is installed to a depth of array-intensive fracturing, between the charge and the stemming there is an air gap, the lower end of the cylinder is made thick and the top rope attached to the lintel above the mouth of the well.
A disadvantage of the known tamping is that at the moment of explosion stemming not always sticking well and is unreliable when used is lovanii it in hard rocks. When the walls of the well on top of it without stabbing, smooth, crashes stemming from wells not performing its function.
The technical result of the proposed technical solution is the intensification of the process of rock crushing, improving the reliability of tamping, the reduction of specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES, improving the quality crushing of the rock mass, simplify and cheapen the construction, improving the efficiency and lowering the cost of blasting borehole method by locking the detonation products in the charging cavity to the complete destruction of the array.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that the false borehole stemming, made in the form of a solid cylinder, the diameter of which is closest to and less than the diameter of the hole, the cylinder is installed to a depth of array-intensive fracturing, between the charge and the stemming there is an air gap, the lower end of the cylinder is made thick and the top rope attached to the lintel above the mouth of the well, according to the invention the upper and lower ends of the cylinder are made beveled parallel to each other, and the length L of the major axis formed by the ellipse is equal to 1.15-1.25 times the diameter of the hole, the upper end attached to the lintel above the mouth of the well by a rope fastened to the lower edge of the beveled portion of the tamping.
The inventive suspension borehole stemming illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the structure of an outboard well tamping and its position at the time of lowering it into the well; figure 2 is suspended downhole stemming in the well in the working position; figure 3 - dimensions of the cylinder.
Hanging borehole stemming made in the form of cylinder 1 (Fig 1), the diameter DZabwhich is 0.75-0.85 diameter of the hole. The top side 2 and bottom 3 are cut parallel to each other, and the length L of the major axis formed by the ellipse is equal to 1.15-1.25 times the diameter of the hole (figure 3). If the length L is less than 1.15 m, suspended borehole stemming will fly out of the well during the explosion, and if L is more than 1.25 m, then suspended the borehole stemming will not reclinic in the well. Parallel beveled edges made to simplify the manufacture of the suspension borehole stemming (e.g., a log is cut into cylinders with the bevel made at the same angle). The cylinder 1 at a distance of 2-3 cm from the edge of the upper end is attached by ropes 4 and 5 to the crossbar 6, above the mouth of the well.
The inventive suspension borehole stemming works as follows. After drilling unit produce charging of wells, installation of the detonating circuit, then in the well to a depth of array-intensive fracturing (secondary is residualist, formed from the impact of the previous explosion - 1.5-2.5 meters) lower cylinder 1 (Fig 1), made for example of wood, beveled upper end 2 up, holding his rope 4 and 5, so that the wall of the cylinder 1 are parallel to the borehole walls. Lowering the cylinder 1 at the desired depth, the lower edge of the beveled end face 2 use rope 5 is fixed to the crossbar 6, above the mouth of the well, and then the cylinder 1 will jam in the hole in the working position (figure 2)and the rope 4 is freely released. Between the explosive charge 7 and suspended borehole stemming, made in the form of a cylinder 1, a blank space well. For sealing gaps, increase the area of friction between the cylinder and the wall of the well, increasing the resistance to the release of suspended borehole stemming from the well when the explosion of the charge, on the top beveled end 2 of the cylinder 1 fill drilling detail (rubble or small breed), which under the action of its weight bursting suspended the borehole stemming in the well, bringing it into working condition. At the moment of explosion of the gaseous products of the explosion to fill the free hanging borehole stemming space well and reach the cylinder 1, resting on the cylinder 1, which is firmly stuck in the hole, locking the gaseous products of the explosion, aided by the bevelled upper 2 andlower 3 the ends of the cylinder 1. Hanging borehole stemming promotes short-term locking of explosion products, thus increasing the duration of the expanding gaseous products of the explosion to destroy the array, hence the explosion energy to perform useful work - crushing rocks - spent. This results in intensification of rock crushing, reduction of specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES and improving the quality of crushing rock.
LLC "Kuzbasskommunproekt" processing area ISD (Processing box) LLC KRU-varitron" tests on the installation of suspended downhole zabek for tamping hole charges block excavator Terex No. 110.
Characteristics of exploding block: name rocks - Sandstone, fortress f - 9; category of deblocking - IV; well depth up to 18 m; the water content up to 8 meters; the volume of blasted rock mass - 390000 m
To identify health outboard borehole stemming in the experimental area was naburn block wells with grid 7*7 PM the Rest of the block was drilled with mesh 6*6 m In the experimental area 160 wells to a depth of 1.5 m on two polypropylene twines were installed suspended downhole tamping, made of wood in the form of a cylinder with a beveled top and bottom ends. The free ends of the splits by coupling the Ali to the wooden bar, and had it near the mouth of the well. For sealing gaps and increase the area of friction between the wooden cylinder and the wall of the drilled hole the remainder of the wells were filled up drilling a small thing. After mass explosion was a visual inspection and comparison of the size of pieces of blasted rock experimental and the control section unit. The quality of the prepared rock mass were assessed as good in the place where you have not installed suspended downhole tamping, and where they were installed. The tests suggest about the effectiveness of the proposed suspension downhole seboek.
The inventive suspension borehole stemming allows maximum use of the energy of explosion products, to intensify the process of rock crushing, to reduce the specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES, to improve the quality crushing of the rock mass, to increase the reliability of the downhole tamping, to simplify its manufacture.
This is achieved by providing time hanging borehole stemming necessary for the maximum energy of the gaseous products of the explosion; the simplification of the host suspended borehole stemming inside the well; ease of fabrication of suspended downhole tamping; a significant reduction in the cost due to economy of material.p> Hanging borehole stemming, made in the form of a solid cylinder, the diameter of which is closest to and less than the diameter of the hole, the cylinder is installed to a depth of array-intensive fracturing, between the charge and the stemming there is an air gap, the lower end of the cylinder is made thick and the top rope attached to the lintel above the mouth of the well, wherein the upper and lower ends of the cylinder are made beveled parallel to each other, and the length L of the major axis formed by the ellipse is equal to 1.15-1.25 times the diameter of the hole, while the top end is attached to the lintel above the mouth of the well with a rope fastened to the lower edge of the beveled portion of the tamping.
SUBSTANCE: method provides for delivery of emulsion explosive by means of pump to charging hose and during transportation via the latter of components of emulsion explosive components the supply to annular gap between the hose wall and the flow of water composition with surface-active substance. Alkyl benzene sulphonate (NP-1 sulphanole) or alkyl sulphate of secondary alcohol (penta-surface active substances) in quantity of 0.05-0.1% is used as surface active substance.
EFFECT: introduction of surface active substances allows reducing inter-phase surface tension between emulsion explosives and wall of charging hose, which considerably reduces the pressure during the charging process and excludes the break of the charging hose.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of blast-hole drilling and may be used in various industries, using blasting in rocks with application of emulsion explosive substances (EES). In method to charge deep dry wells with emulsion explosive substance sensibilised by method of gas generation, including preparation of emulsion ES in mixing-charging machine, addition of gas generating additive into emulsion matrix and charging well with emulsion ES, according to invention, well charging is carried out in stages: at first lower charge of emulsion ES is formed with height sufficient to provide for charge tightness in bottom part, corresponding to critical diameter of emulsion ES charge detonation for this diameter of well with installation of primer in it, then charge separator is placed to lower charge of emulsion ES to transfer pressure of mass arranged above part of charge of emulsion ES at walls of well, for instance, in the form of column of cellular polystyrene with height of 4…6 diameters of well, and well charging is continued, when required, repeating procedure of charge separation into parts and arrangement of a separate primer in each part.
EFFECT: easier formation of emulsion ES charge of increased length by application of regular permanent parameters of emulsion by separation of emulsion ES charge into parts along height.
SUBSTANCE: widely spread method for explosion on earth surface is method of blasthole charges. Method for charging of horizontal blasthole consists in alternate feed of packaged explosive charges into blasthole and their pushing with punch. If blastholes are charged with gel-like explosives in polyethylene shells, there are fed into blasthole bottom by dragging. Device for realisation of proposed method consists of stem, on one end of which there is a handle provided, and on the other end - fork for engagement of loop fixed on charge. In process of charging, cartridge, with the help of loop in its front part, is engaged by fork and dragged into blasthole bottom until stop. Each subsequent charge is fed into blasthole in the same manner.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to quickly charge horizontal blastholes with lengthy charges of gel-like explosive with high density, since cavities are not available, density of blasthole charging increases, and completeness of explosives detonation is provided, proposed device is simple and cheap to produce.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for destruction of solid rocks or concrete, includes installation and driving of devices filled with mixture of substances in blast holes, initiation of combustion reactions in devices in non-detonation mode, accompanied by development of appropriate pressure in blast holes. Non-detonation mode of combustion is provided by application of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm, which fills up to 95% of sealed device volume, besides prior to installation of device into blast hole, device cover is opened, liquid hydrocarbon fuel is poured into it in stoichiometric amount, cover is closed, and device is shaken. In version of method, dry sealed blast holes are filled with mixture of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm with liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Initiation of combustion reactions is done by means of initiation facility arranged in the form of thin exploding wire, connected to source of high-voltage electric pulse.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to considerably simplify operations at site of works performance, to increase reliability of method actuation, its safety, to reduce cost of works and therefore increase landmine effect from method application.
SUBSTANCE: proposed borehole tamping represents a cylinder with diametre commensurable with borehole diametre. Said solid cylinder is accommodated in the borehole at the depth of mass with intensive fracturing. Note here that cylinder top face is skewed and secured by ropes to crossarm arranged above borehole head. Cylinder skewed part top has a cut made parallel to bottom face with width making 0.1-0.2 diametre of tampering wherein one or several rods extended above them by 1-1.5 cm. Below skewed part bottom and perpendicular to borehole wall, one or several rods are arranged to extend above them by 1-1.5 cm. End of two ropes are secured to face skewed part at 2-3 cm from tamping edges. Note that one rope is secured nearby edge of tamping skewed part, while another end is secured to bottom edge.
EFFECT: intensified rock crushing, reduced consumption of explosive, lower costs.
SUBSTANCE: spaced-filled tamping consists of section above charge of ES (explosive substance) or air interval filled with loose material; metal spacing tamping is located above this section; tamping is made, for example in form of hollow cylinder cut along axis wherein hollow spacing cone is inserted from beneath. The tamping out of inert material is filled from top onto the metal spacing tamping at height not less, than three diametres of a borehole. The section above charge or air interval is filled with loose material at height of diametre of the borehole.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of explosive rock breaking due to blockage of products of detonation in charge cavity and elimination of metal tamping escape from borehole after destruction of rock around it.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of blasting in mining and may be used in blasting of rocks by borehole charges of explosives in open pits. Method for blasting provides for drilling of blastholes, formation of gas cavity in bottom part of one or several blastholes, arrangement of explosive charge in each blasthole over air cavity with intermediate detonator and facilities for initiation of the latter and execution of explosion. Drilling of blastholes is carried out until elevation of underlying ledge foot, and prior to formation of gas cavity, reflector of shock waves is installed at the bottom of blasthole. As reflector of shock waves, it is possible to use loose substances with various density, value of which is in direct proportion to rock pressure. Intermediate detonator is installed over gas cavity in active part of explosive charge at the distance from lower end of specified charge within the limits of 1-1.5 of gas cavity height. Gas cavity may be formed with the help of elastic reservoirs filled with compressed air or other gas with maximum nondestructive pressure for these reservoirs or filled with granulated cellular polystyrene.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of blast-hole drilling works and to reduce scope of drilling works.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry for maximum unloading of mine soil rocks, which are inclined to dynamic destructions. Method for prevention of rock bursts in rocks of mine soils, including drilling of wells into layer of hard rock, their charging and explosion of explosive charges. In lower part of layer, wells are charged with more powerful charges and exploded in tillage mode, and in upper part pf layer wells are charged with reduced charges, and controlled blasting is carried out. Wells in upper part of hard rock layer are charged in a row. Wells are arranged in rows symmetrically versus longitudinal axis of mine. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle to mine soil in plane of mine cross section. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle versus mine soil in planes arranged at the angle to plane of its cross section. Wells are drilled in such a manner so that they cross vertical plane, passing through longitudinal axis of mine, at the height of 0.15-0.25 m from lower limit of hard rock layer, where m is layer strength.
EFFECT: invention provides for increased efficiency of dynamic events prevention in mine soil and safety of mining works execution due to differential softening of some parts of hard rock layer, which lies near mine soil.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and may be used to charge blast holes in process of blasting performance. Method for dispersal of charge in blast hole includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic well sealer, diametre of which exceeds well diametre. Sealer is placed into bag, transverse dimension of which is more than well diametre, is freely fastened in bag, compressed till transverse dimension that is less than diametre of well, lowered into well onto connector tube to a specified depth, which is adjusted with the help of connector tube. Sealer is pumped with air till specified pressure, connector tube is separated from pneumatic well sealer and is extracted from well. Primed cartridge and part of charge are placed onto sealer. The next pneumatic well sealer is lowered as compressed on the same connector tube to a specified depth, and the whole sequence of actions is repeated to achieve economically and technically justified number of pneumatic well sealers in a well. As pneumatic well sealer they use toroid leak-tight inflatable chamber with nipple, outer diametre of which exceeds well diametre.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to disperse charge in wells of any diametre and to reduce charging prime cost.
SUBSTANCE: method for dispersal of charge in watered well includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic locks, prior to lock lowering into well, a sinker is fixed onto connection tube, connection tube with fixed sinker and attached pneumatic well lock is lowered into well down to a specified depth. Lock is pumped with air up to a specified pressure, connection tube is separated from it and is withdrawn together with sinker from well. Then the whole sequence is repeated. Sinker is made in the form of welded structure, which consists of hollow cylinder with cover framed with dome, which is made of bars, in cylinder cover there is a hole made with diametre equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, at the same time lower ends of dome bars are fixed to lower ring of oval shape, made of the same bar, upper ends of dome bars are fixed to upper ring, internal diametre of which is also equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, lower part of cylinder is fixed to dome by means of links, and with its cover it is fixed to dome.
EFFECT: reduced specific consumption of water-emulsion explosives.
2 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: earth or rock drilling, particularly means adapted to reduce mutual impact influence of explosives during well development and operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging one or more shock-absorbing members near one or more explosive doses, which prevent propagation of shock caused by detonation of the explosive doses. Shock-absorbing members include porous material, for instance gas-filled liquid or porous solid material, having 2%-9% porosity. Shock-proof screen may be arranged between detonating cord and explosive doses. Hollow charges may be placed in capsule.
EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity.
57 cl, 30 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making well charge of individual members of the blasting agents that receive one or several strikers. The members are separated with spaces filled with a liquid with a density of 800-1400 kg/m3. The strikers are actuated so that the detonation of blasting agent is completed simultaneously in the bulk. The height of the active section of the charge of blasting agent interposed between the boundaries of the liquid and location of the striker are calculated from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining art; performing drilling and blasting operations at stripping and open cuts.
SUBSTANCE: proposed indicator has cover fastened to base, reel and spacer mechanism. Novelty of invention consists in availability of spacer screw with movable nut and twin spacer levers provided with spacer plates and tenons articulated on them.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency due to possibility of using at boreholes of different diameters; simplified construction.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operations in hard rocks at open pit mining, applicable in various branches using spare blasting operations and blasts under a shelter in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the thrust stemming is made in the form of a metal cylinder having a tapered expansion with several rows of shoulders from the outside in the lower part and at least three longitudinal slots inserted in which is a metal thrust cone with an inner cavity, provided with a tubular tie-rod with a thread on the upper end, freely passing through the axial channel of the bearing ring positioned above the cylinder.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting crushing of rocks due to locking of the detonation products in the charge cavity of the thrust stemming up to the moment of complete destruction of the environment.
FIELD: mining art, applicable for charging of deep holes at blasting in mining art and in construction.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in production of air gaps with the aid of deep-hole gates whose diameter exceeds the deep-hole diameter, lowering of them into the deep hole to a preset depth, installation of live primers in each deep hole, installation of the detonating cord. Air gaps are produced with the aid of an elastic deep-hole gate, which in the deformed state is placed in a transportation container and on a rod rigidly linked with the transportation container. They are lowered into the deep hole that is adjusted with the aid of the rod, where the elastic deep-hole gate is pushed out of the transportation container. The transportation container is taken out of the deep hole, and the live primer and a portion of the charge is placed on the elastic deep-hole gate. Then, the same elastic deep-hole gate in a deformed state is placed into the next transportation container, lowered into the deep hole to a preset depth and all operations are repeated in the same sequence up to the feasibility studied quantity of elastic gates in the deep hole.
EFFECT: reduced labor content of deep-hole charging by distributed charges, reduced specific cost of the gate of the ultimate cost of the installed charge, reduced cost of deep-hole charging by distributed charges, simplified process of charge distribution in a deep-hole.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining art, applicable for charging of deep holes at blasting in mining art and in construction.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in production of air gaps with the aid of an elastic deep-hole gate made of a rubber-containing material, which in a deformed state and bound by an additional rope is lowered on the main rope into the deep hole to a preset depth that is adjusted with the aid of the marks made on the main rope, then the elastic well gate is freed of the ropes with the aid of one of the ends of the main rope bound to the additional rope. After that the ropes are taken out of the deep hole, and a thickener is placed on the elastic well gate, the live primer and a portion of the charge are placed on the thickener. Then, the next elastic deep-hole gate is bound to the same main rope in the deformed state, lowered into the deep-hole to a preset depth and all operations are repeated in the same sequence up to the feasibility studied quantity of elastic gates in the deep hole.
EFFECT: reduced labor content and cost of deep-hole charging by distributed charges, reduced specific cost of the gate of the ultimate cost of the installed charge, simplified process of charge distribution in a deep hole and salvaging of the used rubber-containing materials.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operations in hard rocks, applicable in various branches using blasting operations in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the suspended tamping bar of blast holes represents a split cylinder with at least three longitudinal slots and a tapered expansion of the cavity down from the bottom with a collet grip fastened through the center of its outer surface. A hollow spacer cone is inserted from the bottom into the split cylinder, the cone is connected to a rope haulage which passes through the collet grip, and with the upper end through a shackle with holes it is fastened an a lever installed on a bedplate. The rope haulage passes through the spacer tube fastened on the bedplate from the bottom.
EFFECT: provided locking of blast products in the charge cavity before destruction of the mass, enhanced efficiency of use of the blast energy for crushing of the rock.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operations in hard rocks, applicable in various branches using blasting, operations in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the spacer tamping bar represents a split cylinder with at least three longitudinal slots and a tapered expansion of the cavity down from the bottom, which is connected to the supporting ring through a spacer tube. A hollow spacer plug is inserted in the split cylinder from the bottom, it consists of tapered and cylindrical parts with at least three longitudinal slots, provided with a tubular haulage with a thread on the upper end, freely passing through the holes in the cylinder and supporting ring.
EFFECT: provided locking of blast products in the charge cavity before destruction of products in the charge cavity before destruction of the mass, enhanced efficiency of use of the blast energy for crushing of the rock.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operation in hard rocks, applicable in various branches using blasting operations in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the spacer tamping bar represents a cylinder with a tapered expansion composed at least of three parts that can move in the horizontal direction on fingers fastened above and inserted in the guide bushes on the bottom. The split cylinder is connected in the upper part to a supporting ring through a spacer tube, and a hollow spacer cone is inserted in the inner cavity of the split cylinder, the cone is provided with a tubular haulage with a thread of the upper end, freely passing through the holes in the cylinder bottom and supporting ring.
EFFECT: provided locking of blast products in the charge cavity before destruction of the mass, enhanced efficiency of use of the blast energy for crushing of the rock.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, construction of mixing-charging machines used for mechanized preparation and charging of holes at open mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: the machine has a transportation base carrying a vessel for emulsion with a charging door closed with a cover, vessels for the gas-generating agent, water and petroleum product, ammonium nitrate bin. The transportation line, proportioning pumps for supply of emulsion, gas-generating agent, water and petroleum product, static mixer of emulsion and gas-generating agent, as well as the ammonium nitrate feeder are also positioned there. The vessel for emulsion is made minimum with one additional fire-fighting hatch that is positioned in the lower part of the vessel for emulsion and has a cover installed on the body of the mentioned vessel for automatic opening of the hatch due to self-destruction of the components of its cover and/or of its locking device at heating of the vessel body for emulsion in case of fire. The cover of the charging door is made in the form of a ring installed for pressing to the door ring edge, and membrane closing the central axial hole of the ring. The membrane is made for destruction under the effect of the maximum allowable pressure of vapors inside the, bin emulsion in case of emergency.
EFFECT: enhanced operating safety of the machine due to its equipment with devices for prevention of origination of a blast at a rise of pressure or temperature in its vessel for emulsion.