Method to erect filling mass from consolidating stowing in subsurface mines
SUBSTANCE: in process of filling mass erection a tight reservoir is placed in the filled mine, and the reservoir has variable volume and is made of elastic material, and on completion of filling works, but prior to the filling mass hardening, the reservoir is filled with a foreign fluid-like matter. The matter is supplied in this reservoir under pressure. Increase of dimensions of the tight reservoir with the variable volume from the elastic material inside the filling mass results in the fact that the filling material fills all cavities at the contact with the mine walls, and exposure to pressure forms forces that compensate for the filling material shrinkage during hardening. As a result, a permanent and an efficient contact of the filling mass and enclosing rocks is provided along the whole perimetre of the filled mine, and all unwanted geomechanical consequences, which are usually related to availability of unfilled volumes when traditional technologies of filling mass erection are used, are eliminated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the bearing capacity of the filling mass.
The invention relates to the field of mining, particularly underground mining of mineral deposits with hardening of the mined-out space.
A known method of construction backfill array of hardening of bookmarks by completing a horizontal benches through the pipeline, introduced in section . The disadvantage of this method is negotated the upper part of the space Zachodni at the stage of construction of the filling mass, usually in the amount of 2-5% of the filling volume and filling shrinkage of the array after its hardening, which reduces the bearing capacity of filling mass, unwanted geomechanical effects in the host rocks.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the method of construction of filling the array with reduced negotated due to the inclination of the longitudinal axis of the laying benches . The disadvantage of this method is the reduction of the bearing capacity of filling the array due to the shrinkage of the filling material during hardening, and the preservation of the partial effect of nedozagruzki volume prirezki, in proportion to the angle of inclination of its longitudinal axis.
The aim of the invention is to increase the carrying capacity of filling array constructed in mines - cells or benches - is and eliminating negotated volume and compensate for the shrinkage during hardening material bookmarks.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in laying mines before its completion hardening bookmark place the sealed container of variable volume of elastic material, which after completion of backfilling operations, before hardening backfill array, fill foreign fluidpower substance in the amount determined by the formula
whereVP- the volume of the sealed container of variable volume of elastic material, m3; VC- the volume of output, which is filled with backfill material, m3; KNCrate negotated units.;UZthe coefficient of shrinkage of the filling material during hardening, a unit
The increasing size of the sealed container of variable volume of elastic material within the backfill array causes the filling material fills all cavities in contact with the walls of generation, eliminating thereby the phenomenon of negotated at all angles of lay of generation, and the pressure under which serves fludarabine substance in a sealed container, defined by the formula
where PYVES- the pressure of a foreign substance in the tank, N/m2;
γGearvolumetric weight of filling mater is Ala, N/m3;
hC- the height of the laying of excavation, m,
creates efforts, compensating for the shrinkage of the filling material when it is solidified. The result is a constant and effective contact of filling the array and the host rocks around the perimeter of the laying of excavation. Therefore eliminated all unwanted geomechanical effects normally associated with the presence of the non-pledged amounts in the traditional construction technologies backfill array.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a schematic layout of a sealed container of variable volume of the elastic material in the waste section at the stage of its completion backfill material, as in figure 2 - in the waste chamber. Figure 3 shows the blank of a foreign substance in a sealed container of variable volume in unripe fruit filling the array, and figure 4 is filled with a foreign substance in a sealed container of variable volume in the collected strength of the backfill array.
The method of construction backfill array of hardening bookmarks in underground mines contains rifled generating 1, laying production - section 2 or the camera 3, the insulating jumper 4, filling the pipeline 5, the liquid filling material 6, tight tank PE the temporal volume of the elastic material 7 attachment 8, the supply line 9, foreign substances 10, negotated pledged Zachodni 11, the amount of shrinkage of the filling mass, hardening of 12.
The method is implemented as follows. The pair rifled generation 1 with laying waste generation - section 2 and camera 3, install an isolation jumper with 4 pipe 5 for feeding the liquid filling material 6. Before you start filling operations in laying the developing - section 2 or the camera 3, establish a sealed container of variable volume of the elastic material 7 and fix it one of known methods, for example, using the marks of the ropes 8. Mount the supply line 9, foreign substances 10 for filling a sealed container of variable volume of the elastic material 7. Then start filling laying generation - zagadki 2 and camera 3 - liquid filling material 6 through the filling pipe 5. After completion of backfilling operations, but prior to hardening backfill array in an airtight container variable volume of the elastic material 7 through the inlet pipe 9 begin to apply foreign fludarabine substance 10 (for example, compressed air, water, water / cement mixture and the like) under pressure, which is determined by the formula
where PYVES - the pressure of a foreign substance in the tank, N/m2; γGearvolumetric weight of backfill material, N/m3; hC- the height of the laying of excavation, m; as long as the volume of the filled capacity of the variable displacement of the elastic material 6, which is determined by the formula
where VP- the volume of the sealed container of variable volume of elastic material, m3; VC- the volume of output, which is filled with backfill material, m3; KNCrate Nedosekina, units; KUZthe coefficient of shrinkage of the filling material during hardening, units;
will not be equal to the total value of volume negotated 11 and shrinkage of filling the array 12.
When traditional methods of construction backfill array of solid mixtures, almost always there is negotated volume in the upper part of laying mines, and after hardening backfill material volume increases due to the effects of shrinkage. The creation of backfill material for the additional cavity having a volume greater than or equal to the total volume of negotated and shrinkage bookmarks and filled any known material under pressure compensating weight bookmarks and compressive forces occurring in the process of laying backfilling Mat is the Rial, eliminates the causes of the well-known negative geomechanical effects associated with incomplete filling of the volume of excavation backfill material and will contribute to maintaining the stability of overlapping strata of rocks and safety of mining operations.
Sources of information
1. Backfilling in mines: a Handbook /Ed. Dambrosia, Menzyanova. - M.: Nedra, 1989. - 400 C. (s-127).
2. Trabuco A.L. Application hardening bookmarks in underground mining. - M.: Nedra, 1981. - 172 S. (s) (prototype).
The method of construction backfill array of hardening bookmarks in underground mine workings, including the construction of insulating bridges, filling excavations backfilling material and hardening, characterized in that in laying mines placed a sealed container of variable volume of elastic material, which after completion of backfilling operations, but prior to hardening backfill array, fill foreign fluidpower substance in the amount determined by the formula:
where Vp- the volume of the sealed container of variable volume of elastic material, m3;
VC- the volume of output, which is filled with backfill material, m3;
ToNCrate Nedosekina, %;
Touz- CoE the rate of shrinkage of backfill material during hardening, unit of pressure, defined by the formula:
where RYves- the pressure of a foreign substance in the tank, N/m2;
γgearvolumetric weight of backfill material, N/m3;
hC- the height of the laying of excavation, m
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling gaps with the help of flexible curb, which is a tight container sewn from hose of strong watertight cloth, shaped as a sack or bag closed at both ends. Valves with holes are installed in upper corners of flexible curb. One valve is intended to feed cement-containing mixture into the container, and the second one - for air outlet from filled space. The flexible curb is evenly laid behind course strengthening space, and cement-containing material is injected through one of valves, at the same time air is exhausted from filled space via the other valve.
EFFECT: high-quality and efficient filling of gaps in mining courses.
SUBSTANCE: method to develop potassium beds includes a continuous development system, plow or combine mining, conveyor transportation, filling of developed space. Developed space is fenced off the bottom hole with a powered support, and backfilling material is used to completely fill the developed space, while initially developed space is filled with backfilling material with filling extent of 0.8-0.9, at the same time distance from powered support to face does not exceed 10-12 m, and then space behind partition, which remained unfilled, is backfilled to roof of withdrawn bed. Filling of bed roof is carried out with mechanical method with the help of pneumatic filling complex. Production complex operation in face is controlled automatically.
EFFECT: improved completeness of potassium ores extraction with preservation of continuity of water protection thickness, efficiency and safety of production works performance.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used in underground mining of potash mines with goaf stowing. Proposed method comprises forming laying cavity in the chamber, separate transfer and storage of salt wastes and clay-salt slimes, discharged of settled brine. Note here that chamber laying cavity is filled, first, with clay-slat slimes and, after settling of said slimes and brine clarification, salt wastes pulp is fed into said chamber to fill it completely. Note also that solid fraction of clay-salt slimes fed into the chamber is determined by the following formula : where Msl is weight of solid clay-salt slime fraction in the chamber, t; Msc is weight of salt waste in the chamber without clay-salt slime, t; S+Sl is sum of salt wastes and clay-salt slimes withdrawn from enrichment process. Invention is detailed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: increased volume of laid clay-salt slime in goaf stowing.
4 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: rock lining method involves erection of n-coal liner in filling mass from equal n-elements along helical spiral, installation of hollow guide template on bearing set prior to erection of filling mass, which repeats contours and clear sizes of development and the height of which is more than filling increment. At that, lining elements are laid on outer surface of template; after that filling mass is erected around liner; then template is lifted through one filling increment; sequence of operations is repeated till the liner erection is completed.
EFFECT: maintaining straightness of development liner during erection.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at development of mineral deposits with stowing mined space. Composition of stowage mixture containing milled granulated blast furnace slag, inert filler and water consists of the said acidic slag of fractions smaller, than 0.071 mm not less 90 wt %, as inert filler - wastes of concentration of wet magnet separation of ferrous quartzite containing fractions smaller, than 0.071 mm not less 90 wt %, additionally - super fluidising agent SP-1 at the following ratio of components, wt % said slag 22, said wastes 54.5, super fluidising agent SP-1 0.4 of slag contents, water - the rest.
EFFECT: raised strength, increased volumes of utilised anthropogenic wastes for considerable improvement of ecological medium.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at underground development of mineral deposits with stowing mined space. Stowage mixture contains, wt %: Portland cement or its milled clinker 1.4 - 13.68, milled zeolite rock 0.21-10.4, brine of 20÷105 g/l mineralisation, mainly of sodium chloride at temperature facilitating temperature of stowage mixture not below +15°C 14.9 - 26.96, fluidizing agent 0.01 - 0.3, filler - the rest. The invention is developed in dependant claims of the invention formula.
EFFECT: raised mobility and flowability of stowage mixtures, reduced shrinking at maintaining specified hardness, and reduced costs for nature conserving measures from negative effect of harmful salt saturated wastes of diamond extraction.
4 cl, 3 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: shaft pneumatic bridging comprises pneumatic shell, suspension unit, protective jacket, manometric and air-supply hoses, device for filling, control of excessive air pressure and its ejection, mount cord. At the same time pneumatic shell is arranged in the form of soft axisymmetric toroidal shell of rectangular section, inside of which there is sleeve arranged, and along its axis there is pipe mounted in with diametre that is less compared to sleeve. Besides pneumatic shell is separated into two equal parts by means of perforated web, upper end and its side surfaces are coated by loose-fitting meshy web with lap towards working zone of rise heading, upper end is made of synthetic high-module fibre of high strength.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability of shaft pneumatic bridging.
SUBSTANCE: half-open course is arranged along chamber perimetre at the level of drilling crossdrift in interchamber pillars, and wooden lining is arranged in it as protruding with its dead part into stripped area of chamber. In discharge courses there are drain partitions installed, and hydraulic stowage finely dispersed material without binder is supplied through course into stripped chamber to the level of ventilation crossdrift. After drainage of water and setting of stowage massif from preserved half-open course along processed pillars there is a row of vertical and inclined wells drilled for the whole capacity of stowage massif, casing pipes are lowered from the surface of which into wells together with reinforcement rods, which protrude over the level of stowage massif. Afterwards the hardening solution is used to fill the following: at first, through wells - preserved half-open courses, then - the wells themselves, and lastly, upper part of chamber till its ceiling, which forms capping.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of binder.
SUBSTANCE: method of goaf stowing during underground development of steeply dipping thick ore bodies involves bottom-upward excavation of inclined ore streaks 5 in horizontal layers up to 8 m wide with the inclination angle equal to angle of dip of ore body starting from the hanging side towards the lying side, ore breaking to the mine goaf of the bed, loading of the broken ore from the mine goaf, installation of insulating bulkheads on the bed flanks and filling of the mine goaf with hydraulic stowing mixture 2. Before the mine goaf is filled with hydraulic stowing mixture 2, there built near exposed surface of the adjacent inclined ore streak 6 is concrete retaining wall 1 with the thickness taken depending on the bed width and the specified strength of wall 1. After the rest part of the mine goaf is filled with hydraulic stowing mixture 2 and water is filtered, injection of hardening - cement-and-sand solution is performed to its upper part to the depth of 100…300 mm for movement of self-propelled machines along the filling surface 4.
EFFECT: invention will allow decreasing the flow rate of hardening stowing mixture owing to the construction of concrete retaining wall and reducing the prime cost of the mine production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at coal mines during development edge and steeply pitching beds of coal by hydro-cutting. The procedure consists in exposing extraction field, in dividing it to extraction blocks, in leaving inter-block coal solids, in exposing extraction blocks with ventilation and accumulating crosscuts, in driving load handling slopes, ventilation furnaces and pulp furnaces, in dividing extraction blocks to stories, in driving story extraction drifts, and in mining stories of extraction blocks with a system of story hydro-cutting by passes along strike from story extraction drifts and facilitating rock falling in stripped area. Mining of stories is performed in a descending order. Exposure of extraction field is carried out at flanks with ventilation and accumulating crosscuts wherefrom coal is extracted from solids with the system of extraction; also stripped area is stowed with non-combustible fill; the solid functions as a protection for crosscuts forming a barrier solid. Block mining within ranges of an extraction pillar is performed successively starting from a mining block adjoining the formed barrier solid. Along the whole length of the extracting pillar inter-block coal solids are mined together with stories of adjacent mined extraction blocks.
EFFECT: increased safety of miners labour due to elimination of endogenous fires and increased efficiency owing to extraction of inter-block coal solids.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.
EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.
SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.
EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.
EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.
SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.