SUBSTANCE: floor coating consists of hard floor panels, which at least at edges of two opposite sides are equipped with connecting elements interacting with each other. Connecting elements are equipped with mechanical locking facilities that make a unit, which prevent opening of two connecting floor panels in direction perpendicular to appropriate edges and parallel to the lower surface of the connecting floor panels.
EFFECT: improved operational properties of floor.
15 cl, 25 dwg
This invention relates to a floor covering, consisting of hard floor surfaces, and also to a method of manufacturing such floor panels.
Primarily the invention is intended for the so-called laminated floors, but it can also be used for other types of floor coverings, consisting of hard floor panels, such as veneered flooring, precast flooring, or other floor panel, which can be used along with laminate floors.
It is known that such floor panels can be used in various ways.
In accordance with the first embodiment of the floor panel attached to a located underneath the floor or by gluing, or by itself remarkably similarly nails. This technology has the disadvantage that it is quite complex and subsequent changes can be made only with the destruction of the floor panel.
In accordance with a second embodiment of the floor panel can be set freely on the lower floor where the floor panels are fastened to each other by connecting the locking groove, and for the most part they still are glued together by tongue and groove. Paul obtained in this way are also called floating parquet floors, has the advantage that it is easy to install and that the entire surface can move, which is often convenient for vesprini shall be possible phenomena of expansion and contraction.
The lack of a floor covering of this type, when the floor panels are installed freely on the lower platform, mainly is that during expansion of the floor and its subsequent compression of the floor panel may diverge as a result, can be formed of undesirable compounds, for example, if destroyed adhesive connection.
In order to rectify this, the invented technology, whereby between the individual floor panels are provided connecting elements made of metal, in order to hold them together. These connection elements, however, are quite expensive in their manufacture and, moreover, their software, or install takes a long time.
Examples of designs that use such metal compounds are described, inter alia, in WO 94/26999 and WO 93/13280.
In addition, well-known compounds that give the opportunity to make connections one part of the floor with the other types of latches, for example, from WO-94/1628, WO 96/27719 and WO 96/27721. The effect of connection type latch, which creates these forms of embodiment, however, does not guarantee 100% optimal obstruct the development of gaps between the floor panels, in particular, due to the fact that actually must be provided with a limited backlash, h is ordinary to have confidence, what connection type latches possible.
From GB 424.057 know the connection details of the parquet, which given the nature of the connection is only suitable for solid wood flooring.
In addition, there are connections for panels known from document GB 2.117.813, GB 2.256.023 and DE 3.544.845. These compounds, however, are not suitable for fastening of floor panels.
The invention aims at improved coverage for the specified type, floor panel which can be attached one to another in an optimal way, and/or floor panel, which can be used smooth, whereby excluded one or more of these shortcomings.
The invention also aims to cover the floor, which has the advantage that the installation process cannot be admitted errors such as gaps, and the like.
In addition, the invention is intended to cover the floor, in which there is no subsequent development gaps, or at least provides the best way of countering this, resulting in more and minimizes the possibility of dust and moisture.
Thus, the invention is a floor covering, consisting of hard floor panels, which, at least on the edges of two opposite sides provided with coupling parts, interacting with between the Oh, mainly in the form of tongue and groove, characterized in that the connecting parts supplied components of the whole mechanical locking means which prevent the divergence of the two joined floor panels in a direction perpendicular to the respective edges and parallel to the bottom surface of the connected panels. Thus, these fittings have been improved so that they create an opportunity to oppose the formation of any form of backlash and to exclude it.
The components of the whole mechanical locking means comprise a fixed part of the floor panel or by attaching fixed to the floor panel or by their education as a whole.
In the first preferred form of embodiment of the connecting parts provided with locking means in the position of connection of two or more of such floor panels transmit tensile force from one to the other, it presses one panel to another. The result is not only opposition to the formation of gaps during installation, but also to inhibit the development of gaps at a later stage resulting in whatsoever.
In accordance with another feature of the invention the connecting parts are made in the form of a single the CSOs whole with the main part of the floor panel.
In accordance with the second preferred form of embodiment the specified improvement is that the floor covering is the following combination of characteristics: coupling parts and locking means made in the form of a single whole with the main part of the floor panel, the connecting parts are shaped so that two subsequent floor panel can be connected to one another solely by snapping and/or rotation, whereby each successive floor panel can be inserted from the side in the previous fasteners provide mutual connection free of play in all directions in the plane that is perpendicular to said edges; the possible difference between the upper and lower lip of those protrusions that limit specified groove, measured in the plane of the floor panel and perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the grooves is less than the total thickness, the total thickness of each respective floor panel is greater than or equal to 5 mm; and the main material of the floor panel, which is formed above the main part and the locking means consists of a powdered product which using binders or through joint fusion is a homogeneous mixture, and/or product on the basis of si is thetic material and/or from particle Board with a thin shavings.
Due to the fact that fasteners provide mutual connection without play, and also due to the fact that these fittings are manufactured as a single unit from the main material of the floor panel can be always guaranteed a flawless connection between adjacent panels of the floor, even with repeated expansion and contraction of the floor.
This combination of characteristics may be combined or not combined with these early characteristics, in accordance with which the locking means transmit the tensile stress from one to the other.
In accordance with a third preferred form of embodiment, the characteristics of which can be combined or not combined with the characteristics of the designs described above, flooring differs in that the lower lip, which limits the lower side of the groove, extends further upper lip, which locking means is formed by at least part of which is inclined downwards facing the inside of the hand; and that this part is at least partially located in the area of the lower lip, which extends further upper lip. The advantages of these features will be apparent from further description.
In accordance with a preferred form of embodiment, the floor panels consist of outline the different panels, and fittings, described above, is installed along the longitudinal sides of these panels.
In accordance with a specific form of embodiment of the connecting parts is also installed on the other two sides and have described or other structure.
In the most preferred form of embodiment as the base material using the above product, which, as indicated, is crushed by using a binder, be a homogeneous mixture. More specifically, for the main part of the use of finely ground wood, which preferably glue, more preferably glued tightly. More specifically, as the main part is a so-called plate HDP (fibreboard, high density) or plate MDF (fibreboard medium density).
The fact that the invention is applied to the floor panel, the base material which is composed of the above material, gives the advantage that when it is processed very smooth surface, the result can be implemented very thin connections that are primarily important in the case of connection type latches and/or compounds of rotation without backlash. In addition, special forms of fasteners can be manufactured in a simple way the om, because the materials of these types can be processed particularly easily.
The surface obtained with HDF and MDF, also have the advantage that the interconnected floor panels can be smoothly moved next to each other even when they are connected by tensile force.
The inventor also found that these materials, in particular HDF and MDF, have excellent characteristics in order to connect the above-mentioned type, because these materials have the appropriate parameters of elastic deformation in order to, on the one hand, to realize the effect of connection type latch, and on the other hand, elastically to absorb the force produced by the expansion and compression, whereby to prevent separation of the panels or damage.
In the case when the main part of the used material based on synthetic substances may be used in solid synthetic substance or a mixture of synthetic substances, possibly composed of substances reuse.
Flooring is created preferably by attaching one floor panel to another without glue. Thus, these compounds have properties such that the floor panel can be removed without damage to them, so that, for example, when you move you can take in order to believe again. is, however, obviously, the adhesion of the tongue to the groove is not excluded.
The invention also relates to floor panels, which give the opportunity to realize the specified floor covering.
The invention also relates to a method of production of these panels, which represents the advantage that the tongues and/or grooves, including appropriate locking devices, can be performed on the floor panel with high performance without problems. More specifically the aim is a method, which enables to perform a rather complex form of tongue and groove for the specified floor panel cutter, the diameter of which may be chosen independently from the running form, so you may not have to use small cutters, such as bolt cutters, the diameter of which is smaller than the depth of the tongue or groove.
In this case, in the way that the tongue and groove are performed through a milling process, consisting of at least two consecutive cycles of milling cutter, which are located at different angles relative to the respective floor panel. In continuation of each of these cycles milling attained essentially final form one side of the tongue or groove.
Thus, for these two cycles milling cutters are used, is the quiet inside the groove or tongue. More specifically, the diameters of these cutters must be at least 5 times, and even better in 20 times greater than the thickness of the floor panel.
Use these cutters diameter has the advantage that it can be maintained normal production speed, which are used when milling classically straight tongue and groove. Another advantage is that the installation of such cutters associated with only a small additional cost or lack of it, as such cutters can be placed directly on the motor shaft and/or can be used for conventional cars.
For a better illustration of the characteristics in accordance with the invention in a further example permissive character described several preferred forms of embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:
Figure 1 represents a floor panel of the floor covering in accordance with the invention;
Figure 2 is a transverse section on an enlarged scale along the line II-II in figure 1;
Figs 3 and 4 the connection of two floor panels with coupling parts of figure 2;
5 is a cross section on an enlarged scale along the line V-V in figure 1;
Fig 6 and 7, the connection of two panels with connection details Figure 5;
Fig. 8 and 11, a number of variants of fasteners on the panels;
Fig - schematic is the image of the execution of the connecting parts on the floor panel;
Fig - transverse section along the line XIII-XIII in Fig;
Fig. from 14 to 21 - processing mills, which are shown in Fig leaders from F14 to F21, on an enlarged scale and in cross section;
Fig - floor panel in accordance with the invention;
Fig connection of two panels on the floor Pig in an enlarged scale;
Fig and 25 are two ways to connect the panels to one another in accordance with Fig.
The invention relates to a floor covering which is made up of solid floor panel 1, for example, as shown in figure 1. These floor panels 1 can be of various shapes, for example rectangular or square, or any other form.
In the most preferred form of embodiment, they may be made elongated, as shown in figure 1, for example, a length of from 1 to 2 m Thickness, however, may be different, but preferably is from 0.5 to 1.5 cm, and more specifically 0.8 cm
Each floor panel 1 has at least the edges of two opposite sides 2-3 connecting elements 4-5, which provide the ability to interconnect two adjacent floor panel 1.
In accordance with the invention, the connecting elements 4-5, as shown in Fig. 2 to 4, equipped with a mechanical connection locking means 6, which prevent the divergence of the two connected panel is her floor 1 in the direction D, perpendicular to the corresponding sides 2-3 and a parallel bottom surface connected to the floor panel 1; the connecting elements 4-5 and locking means 6 are made as one piece with the main part 8 of the floor panel 1; the connecting elements have 4-5 such a way that the following two floor panels 1 can be connected to one another solely by connection type latches and/or rotation, whereby each successive floor panel 1 can be inserted into the previous side; and connecting elements 4 and 5 provide mutual connection without play in all directions in the plane that is perpendicular to these edges.
In that case, if the floor panels 1 are provided with elongated shape, as shown in figure 1, the respective connecting elements are 4-5 on the longitudinal sides 2-3.
The connecting elements 4-5 can be made of various forms, although most are typically the tongue 9 and the groove 10.
In the form of embodiment according to Fig. from 2 to 4 corresponding floor panel 1 is equipped with connecting elements 4-5 and locking means 6, which give the possibility of mutual connection of the two floor panels 1 by means of a turning movement, it does not create effect connection type "latch".
In the present example, the locking means 6 with the cost of the first locking element 11, formed by a protrusion having a curved circular shape, the bottom side 12 of the tongue 9, and the second locking element 13, formed by a recess having a curved hollow form in the bottom wall 14 of the groove 10.
The locking elements 11-13 provide such a connection in which two floor panels 1, which are connected with one another, could not move sideways in a horizontal plane one relative to another.
To the two floor panels 1 can be inserted one into the other by means of a turning movement, the curve preferably has a round shape. The bottom side 12 is formed by a curve having a radius R1, the center of which coincides with the corresponding upper edge 15 of the floor panel 1, while the bottom wall 14 is a curvature radius R2, which is equal to the radius R1, whereby its center coincides with the corresponding upper edge 16. Can also be applied to the radii R1 and R2, which are more or less than the distance to the top edge 15, 16, respectively, and/or differ from one another in value.
The upper side 17 of the tongue 9 and the upper wall 18 of the groove 10 preferably are flat and are located in the horizontal plane.
The front side 19 and 20 of the tongue 9 and the groove 10 two interconnected floor panels 1 are preferably not phoneutria but another, thus is created between them an intermediate space 21, in which the remnants of the dust can be pushed through the tongue 9.
The tongue 9 and the groove 10 preferably have the shape associated together in such a way that when connecting two floor panels 1 tab 9 exactly fits between the top wall 18 and bottom wall 14 of the groove 10, whereby the pressure P acting on the upper lip, 22, is perceived not only this lip 22, but the whole design, because the pressure can be transmitted through the tongue 9 and the lower lip 23.
It is obvious, however, that may be some minor deviations from these conjugated forms, which, in any case, have little or no impact on the reception and transmission of pressure forces. For example, can be provided, as shown in Fig. 2 to 4, the chamfer 24 and the recess 25, the result is achieved that the subsequent floor panel 1 can be easily inserted one into another, with no possible scars will not present difficulties for the proper insert.
As shown in Fig. from 5 to 1, the floor panel 1 in accordance with the invention can also be provided along the sides 26 and 27, which are located at right angles to the sides 2-3, fittings 28-29, which also have locking means 30. The connecting parts 28 and 29 preferably targetirovatsya in the form of a tongue 31 and grooves 32. Thus, the locking means 30 need not be of the same type as the locking means 6.
Preferably, the sides 26 and 27 have been applied such locking means, which have the possibility of contact and mutual connections only through the translational motion of T, as shown in Fig.6 and 7. With this purpose, the locking means 30 is composed of a connection type latches with locking elements 33 and 34, which engages behind one another.
As shown in Fig. 5 to 7, the locking element 33 preferably consists of a projection of the bottom side 35 of the tongue 31, which can be located in the recess 36 in the bottom wall 37 of the groove 32. The locking element 34 is formed upward part, which limits the recess 36.
In this case, the locking elements 33-34 have contact surfaces 38-39, which are parallel to one another and preferably extend at an angle in the direction, which simplifies the connection type latch. Tangent L, which is defined by the contact surfaces 38-39, thus forming an angle A with the bottom surface 7, which is less than 90°.
The locking elements 33-34 preferably provided with inclined sections 40, 41, which when connecting two floor panels 1 interact with one another so that the locking elements 33-34 mo is but easy to promote one over another as long until they engages behind one another through the effect of connection type latch.
The thickness W1 of the tongue 31 is preferably equal to the width W of the groove 32, thus the upper lip 42 when it is pressure P, relies on the tongue 31, which, in turn, then based on the lower lip 43.
Similarly, the chamfer 24 and the recess 25 on the edges 28-29 provided by the recess 44 and chamfer 45.
It is noted that such a connection type latches may also be applied on the edges of 2-3. Thus, it can be a connection type latches similar to those shown in Fig. 5 to 7, however, it may also be a connection latch type which makes use of fasteners other forms, such as shown in Fig and 9. In contrast to the locking elements 33-34, which consist of relatively small projections, in the forms of embodiment according to Fig 3 and 9 are the locking elements 46-47, which, compared with the total width B extend over much longer distances.
In this case, the locking elements 46-47 also provided on each side 12 of the tongue 9 and the bottom wall 14 of the groove 10.
In accordance with Fig the locking elements 46-47 have contact surfaces 48-49, which are located at an angle to the plane of the floor panel 1. Thus receives the I connection which closes particularly well.
As shown in Fig.9, the locking elements 46-47 can be designed in such a way that essentially took place only linear contact, for example, because the contact surfaces facing each other, are made with a different curvature.
The surface of the locking elements 46-47, facing each other, thus consist of curved surfaces. Tangent line L forms an angle A that is less than 90°, and even better, if less than 70°.
Thus, the locking element 46 preferably has two sections of different curvature, on the one hand, section 50 with a large curvature, and on the other hand, area 51 with a smaller curvature. Section 50 from the greater curvature provides for the formation of the surface of a solid connection. Area 51 with a smaller curvature makes it easy to insert fasteners 4-5 one another. The intermediate space S forms a chamber into which can enter and settle the dust.
In the case of the connection latch type, for example such compounds, as shown in Fig. 7 to 9, the tongue 9-31 preferably always has such a shape that the bottom he purified and can interact with the expanding section of the groove 10.
Figure 10 shows a variant in which at least the height of the upper edges 15-16 provided TP is positive material 52, the result can be guaranteed airtight seal. This sealing material 52 may consist of a strip or coating, which is previously provided on the floor panel 1, or on one or both of the upper edges 15-16.
Figure 11 presents an additional option, in which the locking means 6 is formed with an upward section 53 on the tongue 9, which is a result of the rotary movement is inserted behind the downward section 54 in the upper wall 18. More specifically this is achieved by running the top side 17 and the top wall 18 with a curvature radius R3, the center of which is located on the edges 15-16, and run the bottom side 12 and bottom wall 14 with a radius R4, the center of which is also located on the top edges 15-16, respectively. These radii R3-R4 can also be selected otherwise.
In General, in accordance with the invention, the difference between the radii R1, R3, respectively, on the one hand, and the radius R2, R4, respectively, on the other hand, should not exceed 2 mm.
It is preferable that the centers of these radii were located within their respective circles C1, C2, which are conducted with a radius R5, equal to 3 mm, around the upper edges 15, 16 respectively, as shown in figure 2.
Ultimately it should be noted that in accordance with the invention the lower lip 23-43, as shown n the Fig. 2 to 7, can be made longer than the upper lip 22-42. The advantage of this is the ability to perform the connecting elements 4-5-28-29 easier way by milling or the like. In addition, it simplifies the connection of two floor panels 1, as each subsequent floor panel 1 in the process of Assembly can be placed on a prominent lower lip 23-43, resulting in the tongue 9-31 and groove 10-32 automatically placed in front of each other.
The structural design, in which the lower lip 23 is equal to or shorter than the upper and the lip 22, in turn, have the advantage that on the outer edge of the floor does not remain outstanding lip 23, which could create problems when finishing.
In order to create the possibility for a smooth Assembly in order to guarantee the necessary stability and strength and to limit the amount of material that must be removed, the difference E between the upper lip 22-42 and the lower lip 23-43, measured in the plane of the floor panel and perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the groove 10, preferably should be less than the total thickness F of the floor panel 1. To ensure the sustainability of this typically the total thickness of F should not be less than 5 mm.
The small size of the difference E gives the advantage that the lower lip is not necessary to strengthen through the reinforcing tape or the WMD similar.
In accordance with a specific form of embodiment the Central line M1 conducted through the tongue 9 and the groove 10, is located lower than the center M2 of the floor panel 1, so that the upper lip 22-42 thinner than the lower lip 23-43. First of all this is essential in this type of connection, because it bends the lower lip 23-43, so that on the upper side of the floor panel 1 is not possible deformation.
As stated in the introduction, the main part of the 8 selected material from the following row:
- powdered product which using binders or through joint fusion is a homogeneous mixture;
the product, which is based on synthetic material;
- chipboard with fine shavings.
The invention is useful in the first place, preferably for laminated flooring for the reasons stated in the introduction.
As shown in the examples in Fig. from 2 to 11, this layered floor covering preferably consists of a main part 8 made of MDF boards, HDF plate or similar, with at least the upper side of the main part 8 is provided with one or several layers of material.
More specifically, it is preferable that the laminated flooring was provided with a decorative layer 55 and the top protective layer 56. Decorative SL is th 55 - this layer, impregnated with resin, for example, made of paper that can be printed many designs, such as the pattern type, pattern in the form of stone, cork or the like, or even ornamental pattern. Protective top layer 56 preferably also consists of a layer saturated with resin, such as melamine resin, made of permeable material.
Clear that can be applied to other layers, such as intermediate layer 57, on top of which may be provided with a decorative layer 55.
Preferably, the lower surface 7 was printed lining layer 58 forming the element opposed to the upper layers, thus guaranteeing the stability of the shape of the floor panel 1. This backing layer 58 may consist of material such as paper, impregnated with resin, such as melamine resin.
As schematically illustrated Fig, the tongue 9 and the groove 10 and preferably also the tongue 31 and the groove 32 are performed by a milling process. If the profile should be performed on all four sides, the floor panel 1 must navigate through two perpendicular movements V1 and V2, and in the continuation of the first movement are profiles on each of two opposite edges, in this case, the longitudinal edges, using a milling device is ist 59-60, while during the second motion profiles are performed on other edges, in this case, the short edges, using a milling device 61-62. In the continuation of the processing of the floor panel 1 is preferably placed so that the decorative layer facing down.
In accordance with an important feature of the invention, each respective tongue 9-31 and groove 10-32 performed by a milling process, consisting of at least two successive cycles of the milling cutter, which are located at different angles relative to the respective floor panel 1.
This is depicted in Fig, 14 and 15, which shows the groove 10 by means of two cycles milling using two cutters 63 and 64. On Fig and 17 show how the tongue 9 by means of the blades 65 and 66.
On Fig-19 and 20-21 presents a similar picture, showing how the tongue 32 and groove 31 by means of cutters 67-68 and 69-70, angled.
In continuation of each of these cycles milling each time essentially implemented the final form of the one hand. For example, the cutter 63 Fig determines the final shape of the lower side 71 of the groove 10, while the cutter 64 determines the final shape of the upper side 72.
As stated in the introduction, preferably on the should be applied cutters from 63 to 72, which have a diameter of G is at least 5 times, and even better in 20 times greater than the thickness F of the floor panel 1.
In addition to these cutters are used and other cutters, for example, to remove a portion of material that must be removed in the continuation of the first cycle of preliminary mechanical processing.
In Fig. from 22 to 25 shows a particularly preferred form of embodiment of the floor panel 1 in accordance with the invention. Items that are taken from the previous forms of embodiment are denoted by corresponding references.
An important feature is that the coupling parts 4-5 features a locking means 6, which being United transmit tensile force from one to the other, resulting in United floor panel 1 pressed one to another. As shown, this is accomplished by the supply of fasteners elastic bendable part, in this case, the protrusion 43, which is in the connection state at least partially bent and thus creates a tensile force, which provides the pressing of the United floor panel 1 in the direction of one another. The resulting curve of V, as well as tensile force K, which is created in the result, shown in enlarged scale in Fig.
To carried out the I so that the tensile stress K led to mutual pressing of the United floor panel 1, bend the item, in this case, the lip 43, is preferably provided, as shown, are inclined inside surface of the contact 73, which can interact with a corresponding contact surface 74. These contact surfaces 73-74 resemble the contact surfaces 38-39 and also similar to the inclined sections of the lower lip in Fig. 2 to 4.
In figure 2, and 5 parts form a conjugate form-fitting; however, it is clear that by modifying may also be implemented tensile stress, such as that shown in Fig.
Due to the fact that, on the one hand, contact is made at an angle A, and, on the other hand, that creates a tensile stress K, produces a component of force K1, resulting in a floor panel 1 are attracted one to another.
Preferably, the angle a between the contact surfaces 73-74 and the horizontal plane was between 30 and 70 degrees. First of all if you use the design that implements the tensile stress K, the value of angle A from 30 to 70 degrees is ideal in order, on the one hand, to produce the optimum pressing together of the floor panel 1, and, on the other hand, to ensure that the floor panels 1 can easily be connected and respectively to be separated.
Despite the fact that the contact force K1 pre is respectfully transferred specified by the lip 43, the invention does not exclude other forms of embodiment, whereby this force is transmitted by other bendable parts.
It is noted that the curve V is relatively small, for example from a few hundredths to a few tens of millimeters, and does not affect the placement of floor coverings. Moreover, it is noted that such a floor covering is mainly located in the layer below, which is elastically compressed, resulting in bending of the V lip 43 leads to the fact that the underlying layer is locally compressed a bit more.
Due to the fact that the lip 43 is bent separately and that it remains somewhat bent in the position of the connection, creates the advantage that when the pressure of the floor covering, for example, when placed on his subject, the force of mutual pressure increases and this creates even greater resistance to cracking.
It is noted that the inventor has found that in contrast to all expectations, the ideal tensile force can be realized by making the coupling parts 4-5, including the locking elements 33-34, and preferably the whole of the main part 8 of the plate HDF or MDF boards, although these materials provide only minimal elastic deformation.
HDF and MDF also present the advantage that it creates a smooth surface is STI, in the result, the locking elements can easily move one on top of another.
In accordance with a variant of the invention the tensile stress can also be transmitted through elastic compression of the material of the connecting parts, for the purpose of connecting these parts, and preferably all of the main part 8 in this case should be made of their uprugosti.moloko material.
An additional feature of the structural design according to Fig. from 22 to 25 is that the floor panels 1 can be connected by means of a turning movement, as shown in Fig, as well as by moving them towards each other, as shown in Fig, preferably in such a way that in connection with the swivelling movement is the maximum bending Vmthe connecting parts, more specifically the lip 43, the curve of which Vmless pronounced, or is not significant, as shown in Fig. 2 to 4, compared with the curve of Vmthat happens when the connection of the floor panel 1 by moving them towards each other.
The advantage is that the floor panels 1 can easily be connected through rotary motion without the need to do this in tools, while there is a possibility to connect the floor panels by means of their lane is a mix. This last method is useful primarily when the last panel must be placed under the door frame or the like. In this case, the floor panel 1 can be pushed under the door frame by the party that should not be included in the connection, and possibly with the help of instruments can be connected connection type latches with adjoining floor panel 1.
It is noted that the shape of the connecting elements 4-5, shown in Fig. from 22 to 25 may also be used for connecting elements 28 and 29 on the short sides.
In accordance with the invention if the four sides 2-3-26-27 provided with connecting elements 4-5-28-29, these fittings can be designed so that in one direction the connection is more robust than in the other direction. In the case of elongated floor panel 1, for example, as shown in figure 1, the connection at the short sides 26 and 27 preferably should be more durable than the elongated sides 2-3. The length of the connection at the short sides is smaller and, in principle, it is less durable. This is compensated by the fact that there is a stronger connection.
The difference in the connection can be obtained by completing the contact surfaces 73-74 different angles.
Preferably, the specified projection, more specifically superawesome 33, limited by at least two sections 75-76, respectively, of section 75 with a large slope, which makes it possible closure, and section 76 with a smaller slope, which makes the connection fittings easier. In the design according to Fig. from 22 to 25 of these sites 75-76 are formed by flat surfaces, but, as already described with reference to Figure 9, can be also used curved sections 50-51. Figure 5 they are represented by the contact surface 38 and an inclined section 40.
In a preferred form of embodiment of the floor panel 1 in accordance with the invention contain connective elements 4-5 and/or 28-29, which represent one of the following or a combination of two or more of the following characteristics:
the curvature 77 of the lower side of the tongue 9 and/or curvature 78 lip 43, which forms a guide during rotation of the two floor panels 1 one inside the other, the advantage of this is the ability to connect one floor panel 1 with the other during Assembly;
- rounding 79-80 on the edges of the locking elements 33-34, which creates the advantage that the locking elements can move easily on top of each other during the connection, and therefore separation of the floor panel 1 and that the locking elements are not damaged, for example, are painted on the edges, even if the pan is whether the floor together and respectively separated repeatedly;
camera for dust 81 or space 21, as in figure 4, between all parties, facing sideways to each other, connected floor panels 1, the advantage of which is that the inclusion of that fall between the floor panel 1 during a call, do not render harmful influence on the proper connection;
the shape of the tongue 9, which is, for example, due to the presence of chamfers 82 that the upper side of the tongue 9 at the first contact is located under the lower side of the upper lip 42 when the floor panels 1 are moving towards one another at the same level, as shown in Fig that creates the advantage that the front end of the tongue 9 no pressure on the front side of the upper lip 42 when the floor plates are moving towards each other at the same level;
- inclined surface 83, formerly also called a sloped section 41 formed at the free end of the lower lip 43, which creates the advantage that the locking elements 33-34 move seamlessly on top of each other and that the lower lip 43 is bent evenly;
- in the direction of the connection, there is one important point of contact, which is formed by the segment 84, and is located on the upper side of the floor panel 1, which creates the advantage that the tensile force is optimally transferred to the upper side of the floor panel 1 and generates a counter-development hole at back the rd between the floor panel 1;
- contact surface 85-86, more specifically the support surface formed by the upper side of the tongue 9 and the upper side of the groove 10, which in a large plot their lengths are parallel to the plane which is defined by the floor panel 1 and the surface of contact, interacting with one another, formed by the curvature 77-78, that creates the advantage that it avoids the possibility of mutual displacement of two joined floor panels 1, even if the depth of the overriding of the tongue 9 into the groove 10 will change anything, in other words that there will be no difference in height between adjacent the floor panel.
In the form of embodiment according to Fig. from 22 to 25 all these features combined, however, it is clear that as shown in Fig. from 2 to 11, these traits may be present individually or in restrictive combination.
As becomes clear from Fig. from 5 to 7 and 22 to 25, an important characteristic of a preferred form of embodiment of the invention is that the locking means 6, in other words, the part that provides the effect latch and connection, is located on that part of the lower lip 23-43 which extends further upper lip 22-42, more specifically what the lowest point 87 of the locking part 33 is located under the top layer of the floor panel 1. For clarity, this is the top layer indicated in Fig. from 22 to 25 as a single layer.
It is noted that the combination of such features, like the fact that the lower lip 23-43 extends further than the upper lip 22-42 that the locking means 6 is formed at least through the portion which is inclined downwards facing the inside side, and that this part, at least in part, placed on the section of the lower lip 23-43 which extends further upper lip 22-42, creates, in particular, the advantage, inter alia, in comparison with connection for floor panels described in documents WO 94/01628, WO 94/26999, WO 96/27719 and WO 96/27721. Sloping plot creates the advantage that the floor panels 1 can be disconnected again. The fact that this sloping site is located on reaching the next area of the lower lip 23-43, in addition, creates the advantage that during the connection will not occur any deformations that occur in the upper layer.
In accordance with a preferred feature of the invention specified part, i.e. the contact surface 39 or 73, is arranged in such a way that the distance to the top edge 16 is reduced in the upward direction, in other words, so that, as shown in Fig, the distance X2 is less than the distance X1. This is also shown in Fig.7.
More preferably, this part was just beginning on the exact distance E from the upper lip 42.
Evident is, the coupling parts 22 to 25 can also be made through the specified milling process.
In accordance with a specific feature of the invention the sides 2-3 and/or 26-27 floor panel 1 processed modifying substance, more specifically hardening the surface of the substance, which preferably is selected from the following range of products: permeative substance, sealing the pores of the substance, varnishes, resins, oils, waxes, etc.
On Fig also impregnation 88 is shown schematically. This processing can be performed on the entire surface of the sides 2-3 and/or 26-27 or only on certain areas, for example, solely on the surface of the tongue 9 and the groove 10.
Processing of modifying the surface of the substance provides in combination with the effect of connection type latches the advantage that in some aspects are achieved the best performance of the connection. As a result of this coupling parts 4-5 and/or 28-29 better retain their shape and strength, even if the floor panels 1 are connected and disconnected repeatedly. Especially when the main part 8 is made of LEGS, etc. COULD, by means of this processing is achieved so better surface quality that is no wear of the material in the continuation of the connection and, therefore, the continuation of the separation.
This treatment is also provides the advantage of at least in the case of surface hardening the effect of elastic strain increases.
The present invention is in no way limited to the forms of embodiment described in the examples and shown in the drawings, however, such a floor covering and suitable floor panel 1 can be implemented in various forms and dimensions, without going outside the range of the invention.
For example, different characteristics, which are described by means of the illustrated forms of embodiment may be combined with each other or not combined.
Moreover, all of the structural design of the connecting elements described previously, can be applied on the longer side, as well as on the shorter side.
1. The floor panel to provide a floor covering, the panel (1) is rectangular, i.e. elongated or square, and has first and second pairs of opposite sides (2-3, 26-27), the bounding edge of the panel (1), while the first mentioned pair of opposite sides (2-3) panel (1) the floor has at least the following features:
edges are provided with coupling parts (4-5)made essentially in the form of a tongue (9) and grooves (10), limited upper lip (22) and lower lip (23), whereby these coupling parts provide the opportunity soy is inane of such panels (1) to each other;
these coupling parts (4-5) are supplied with the components of a unit with them mechanical locking means (6), which prevents the divergence of the two connected panels (1) sex in a direction perpendicular to the respective edges and parallel to the bottom side (7) of the United panels (1) sex;
these coupling parts (4-5) and locking means (6) provide the ability to connect two of such panels (1) on the respective edges by turning movements;
these coupling parts (4-5) and locking means (6) is made such that two of such panels (1) in the United state are connected in such a way that prevents backlash; and
these coupling parts and locking means are made as a single unit with the appropriate panel (1);
characterized in that at the said second pair of opposite sides (26-27) panel (1) the floor has at least the following features:
edges are provided with coupling parts (28-29), which provide the ability to connect such panels to each other;
these connecting parts (28-29) is also provided with locking means; and
these connecting parts (28-29) and locking means (30) provide connectivity and clutch only by translational motion.
2. Floor panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the cover (1) sex in the drawn and has long sides and short sides, moreover, the specified first pair of sides (2-3) is formed on the long sides, while the specified second pair of sides (26-27) is formed on the short sides.
3. Floor panel according to claim 2, characterized in that the connecting piece and the locking means (6) of the first pair of sides (2-3) have such a form that two of such panels (1) sex at these parties can be connected on the sides with each other only through movement of the rotation.
4. Floor panel according to claim 2, characterized in that the first pair of sides of the lower lip (23) is beyond the upper lip (22).
5. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the first pair of sides, the difference between the upper lip (22) and lower lip (23), measured in the plane of the panel (1) the floor and perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the grooves is smaller than a single thickness of the floor panel.
6. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the locking means (6) on the first pair of sides (2-3) essentially consist of a locking element (11) in the form of a protrusion made on the underside of the tongue (9)and the locking element (13), bordering the recess formed in the lower lip (23); and that the locking element (13), bordering the recess is located in a part of the lower lip (23), which extends beyond the upper lip (22).
7. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the first pair of sides (2-3) Sapir what the following means (6) have contact surfaces, inside the bow down.
8. Floor panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the connecting part (28-29) on the second pair of sides (26-27) set the latch (31) and the groove (32), and this groove is limited to the upper lip (42) and lower lip (43).
9. The floor panel of claim 8, characterized in that on the specified second pair of sides (26-27) the lower lip (43) is beyond the upper lip (42).
10. Floor panel according to claim 9, characterized in that the second pair of sides (26-27) the difference between the lower lip (43) and upper lip (42), measured in the plane of the panel (1) floor, less than a single thickness of the panel (1) floor.
11. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, 8-10, characterized in that the connecting part (28-29) and locking means (30) is made as a single unit with the corresponding panel.
12. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, 8-10, characterized in that the connecting part (28-29) and locking means (30) on the second pair of sides (26-27) is made such that two of such panels (1) can be connected to each other in such a way that prevents backlash.
13. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, 8-10, characterized in that the second pair of sides (26-27) these coupling parts and locking means connecting two of such panels provide their connected connection bonding of two of such panels (1) through snap.
14. The panel p is La according to any one of claims 1 to 4, 8-10, characterized in that the panel (1) sex is the main part (8), and the fact that the coupling parts (4-5) and locking means (6) on the first pair of sides (2-3) made integral with the specified key part.
15. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, 8-10, characterized in that it is chosen from the group comprising laminated floor panels, veneered flooring and pre-fabricated parquet.
SUBSTANCE: panel part of raised floor covering comprises support layer and upper working layer, which are strongly attached to each other. In panel part there is a through hole for installation of device, comprising side wall, passing along wall of hole, which determines through seat in panel for assembly of various auxiliary types of reinforcement. Device comprises edge at sides, which is enclosed between support layer and working layer.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs in manufacturing and assembly of raised floor.
23 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of wood fibre boards of medium density (MDF) or high density (HDF) for producing floor covering panels with MDF or HDF pith, stabilising layer and, if necessary, protective layer. Note here that is advisable to do without decorative layer, a usual thing for laminate floor covering.
EFFECT: simply laid floor covering quite similar with wood covering.
12 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of construction, in particular, to joined systems of floor from polymer panels. Multiple polymer panels cast in the form of rigid solid, having flat upper surface and lower grating structure, joined mechanically together along side edges. Each side edge has steps that alternate, facing up and down, with concave slots on one surface and joined convex ledges on the other surface for reliable joining of adjacent panels to each other. Steps of adjacent panels are joined to each other to form full floor system. Multiple polymer panels may be cast to imitate materials of floor coating, such as brick, or coated with pieces of linoleum, carpet, synthetic grass, tile or wooden coating of floor. As an alternative solution, assembled panels may be coated with sheet of decorative material.
EFFECT: simplified assembly of floor.
20 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: floor panel is arranged in the form of rectangular plate equipped with facilities of mechanical interlocking joint, arranged at least on its two opposite sides. Panel has layer structure, containing decorative layer, base and continuous fire-resistant later arranged directly under decorative layer and base.
EFFECT: panel fire resistance enhancement.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: laminated elements of flooring include decorative ornaments produced by mechanical impression with matching of surfaces texture, embedded peripheries and fixation mechanisms. By placement of parts of decorative ornaments along edges of flooring elements, it is possible to form periodic ornament of floor covering, which has dimensions exceeding dimensions of a single element of flooring, and which stretches both along length and width of flooring elements row.
EFFECT: reduction of labour inputs in installation of flooring elements with decorative ornaments and improved operational properties of floor.
40 cl, 43 dwg
SUBSTANCE: floor panels are proposed, which are equipped with mechanical lock system, comprising displaced comb in displacement groove. Comb is cast and equipped with folded ledges.
EFFECT: simplified installation of floor panels.
39 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: route indicator comprises a self-luminescent route indicator and a substrate, which is arranged at the bottom and/or at the top of at least one route indicator or forms the mentioned self-luminescent route indicator. At the same time the following components are superimposed onto the substrate: raster or dashed structure of an appropriate type, which partially hides the route indicator, besides the specified self-luminescent route indicator is partially visible through this structure and/or coating, which hides the route indicator and is processed to partially let the light or scattered light through, and partially blocking or screening visual perception of photoluminescent material under conditions of illumination or booster lighting.
EFFECT: development of improved route indicator, which under illumination or booster lighting conditions may be perceived at most various surfaces of walls or floor in the form of a pattern of required colour or shape, and if required, it may be almost invisible.
11 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, namely to methods for repair works of coatings, mostly floors without their disassembly. Method of repair consists in the following: deformations and/or squeak of coating are determined; distribution of repair points is determined depending on rigidity of coating; through holes are drilled in points of their location; a pair of adjustment elements joined to each other are installed in these holes, with the possibility of displacement along axis of hole, one of elements is rested against rigid base, the second one - against repaired coating in direction of deformations reduction, at the same time one of elements is fixed, afterwards movable elements are used to recover shape of coating and/or removal of squeak in direction from repair points of minimum deformations to point of maximum deformation and/or squeak.
EFFECT: increased service life of repaired sections of coating.
4 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to flooring panels. Panel comprises core of wood-particle material or mixture of plastic with wood-particle material and has at least on two opposite side faces such profiling corresponding to each other that two identical panels may be joined and blocked with each other in horizontal (H) and vertical (V) direction by means of vertical connection motion. At the same time blocking in vertical direction (V) is achievable by means of at least one elastic element arranged with the possibility of displacement in horizontal direction (H), and this element in process of connective movement snaps to blocking edge, which substantially stretches in horizontal direction (H). Elastic element is integrally made of core.
EFFECT: reduced labour expenses in panel manufacturing.
12 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: floor covering consists of many separate panels laid so that they are connected to each other. On end and longitudinal sides of panels there are fixing planks which, in erection position of neighbouring separate panels, are engaged with each other. In end sides there provided are slots; at that, those slots of two end sides being adjoined to each other correspond to each other and form the fixing channel for introduction of edge key. The latter protrudes above the slot end facing the longitudinal side of separate panel, and owing to movement of the outward protruding end of edge key to the slot it passes partially from slot to corresponding slot of adjacent separate panel.
EFFECT: reducing labour input when laying the covering.
25 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor structures in rooms adapted for electronic and electrical equipment installation.
SUBSTANCE: floor comprises height-adjustable stands with support plates to which beams with panels are connected. Each support plate has slots located in crosswise manner and opened from peripheral part thereof. Support plate is provided with covering plate having central orifice, cuts arranged in crosswise manner along its perimeter and radial extensions dividing covering plate into four equal segments. Panel plate corners rest upon segment surfaces. Covering plate has metal strips crossing at the 90o angle and disposed from lower side thereof. Two pair of slots are formed between covering plate cuts and extend in annular direction. Metal strip ends passing through above slots are bent on outer side of covering plate.
EFFECT: increased operational performance.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly adjustable floor supports.
SUBSTANCE: support comprises combined post including rod with outer thread connected to circular ring support plate and hollow tubular member connected to lower plate secured to floor underlay. Support plate has pair of slots arranged along plate perimeter in crosslike manner and provided with covering plate having central orifice. Covering plate comprises radial extensions for floor panels installation and cuts arranged in crosslike manner to provide free beam installation in mating slots of support plate. Hollow tubular member of post has inner thread engaging mating rod thread. Hollow tubular member diameter is equal to 0.2 - 0.3 of support plate diameter. Covering plate is provided with two metal strips crossing each other in central orifice area thereof. Two opposite pair of slots are made between covering plate cuts. Ends of metal strip pass through above slots and are bent on outer surface of covering plate.
EFFECT: improved service performance.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly adjustable supports for raised floor or double-floor structures.
SUBSTANCE: set comprises threaded rod with nut screwed on rod, short cylindrical member connected to plate by one end thereof and replaceable cylindrical head having inner conical surface. Difference between head end diameters is 0.4 - 0.6 mm. Method of support assembling involves placing cylindrical member on floor; putting replaceable head on cylindrical member and inserting threaded rod in head.
EFFECT: extended range of technical capabilities along with maintaining high connection reliability.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building units, particularly composite raised floors made of panels and defining space for laying electric cables and/or providing ventilation.
SUBSTANCE: support comprises rod fixedly secured to support panel and body formed as sleeve and having support flange on the first end and cylindrical flange on another one. Cylindrical flange may be axially displaced and fixed on rod. Sleeve side has part with curvilinear surface extending over at least half of sleeve length defined by flanges. Curvilinear surface is formed by rotation of second-order line segment around support axis.
EFFECT: increased strength characteristics, particularly directional stability of support body subjected to axial alternating loads when temporary compression force is applied to support body.
19 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly raised floor panels installed on adjustable supports and used for assembling floors in rooms equipped with computer or other electronic devices.
SUBSTANCE: panel includes inner load-bearing layer of resin-bonded chipboard material, upper and lower layers of sheet metal. At least two opposite sides of inner load-bearing layer are impregnated with primer and aqueous glue is applied to the sides. Above sides are then covered with polyvinylchloride coating. Primer and aqueous glue are acrylic-based and include dag. Inner layer comprises at least two layers with increased density cooperating with upper and lower panel layers. Electric resistance between outer surfaces of opposite panel ends covered with polyvinylchloride coating is not more than 0.1 Ohm.
EFFECT: improved service properties and increased panel rigidity.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly raised floors in offices adapted for heavy equipment installation.
SUBSTANCE: panel includes tray-like metal member forming panel base and side walls having folded inwards edges extending in parallel to panel base. Arranged inside tray is load-bearing layer covered with metal sheet. Load-bearing layer has non-uniform density along height thereof and includes groove extending along layer perimeter. Metal sheet has peripheral extension formed in lower side thereof and cooperating with groove. Folded edges are connected with metal sheet in area of contact between extensions and grooves, outer surfaces thereof are in plane with outer surface of metal sheet connected to inner load-bearing layer by depressions and/or glue.
EFFECT: increased load bearing capacity and rigidity.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly raised floors for offices equipped with computers.
SUBSTANCE: panel includes bearing plate of timber-based material enclosed with metal shell from all plate sides. Shell is formed as two boxes, namely upper and lower ones. Each box has rectangular part defining upper and lower panel sides, and side edges folded along rectangular part perimeter. Folded side edges extend over half of end panel side height. Area of rectangular part of upper box exceeds that of lover part by (4-5)δ value, where δ is thickness of upper box. Folded side edges of upper and lower boxes are equal in height. End parts of adjacent side edges of each end plate side are pressed together in overlapped manner.
EFFECT: improved antistatic properties of raised floor, increased reliability of panel connection.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building units, particularly false floors elevated above base and supported by adjustable supports.
SUBSTANCE: false floor defining a chamber for communication lines consists of panels. Floor panel comprises inner load-bearing layer of flakeboard, upper decorative layer of vinyl plastics and lower layer of sheet material. At least two opposite side surfaces of inner layer are impregnated with priming agent and aqueous adhesive is applied on above surfaces to which polyvinylchloride coating is further connected. Priming agent and aqueous adhesive are formed on acrylic base and dag is added to above substances. Inner layer includes at least two high-density sub-layers contacting with upper and lower panel layers. Electrical resistance between outer surfaces of opposite panel ends covered with polyvinylchloride coating is not more than 0.1 ohm.
EFFECT: increased strength of floor panel.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor members for underfloor heating/cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: floor member comprises sheet with at least one groove, heat-conducting layer extending over one main sheet surface and along each groove side to form depression for heat-conducting wire receiving opened from top side thereof. Depression tightly encloses wire and passes over half of cross-sectional perimeter thereof. Upper wire side is flush with upper sheet surface or located below thereof. Sheet has thin foldable foil with thickness of less than 200 μm.
EFFECT: reduced floor member thickness, increased simplicity of floor member dimension selection by cutting foil inside the groove.
6 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor, ceiling and wall covering.
SUBSTANCE: support includes square lower bearing plate made of flexible metal sheet material and upper bearing plate. The plates have central orifices. Central orifice of lower plate comprises rod receiving recess and is surrounded with annular depression having depth not exceeding sheet thickness. Central orifice of upper plate comprises flange. The plates are provided with radial grooves located so that convex surfaces thereof face each other. Depression and grooves have oval cross-section and oval or wavy cross-sections in connection areas in-between. Upper plate is made of the same material as the lower one. Orifices for fastening members receiving formed in lower plate and holes for gasket fixing made in upper plate are coaxial and created along stiffening ribs extending along square diagonals.
EFFECT: increased support resistance and strength thereof along with reduced material consumption, decreased mass and simplified manufacture.
14 cl, 6 dwg