Ground papers with improved sizing of surface and reduced sizing of fabric, having high stability of dimensions

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: ground paper contains a certain amount of cellulose fibres and a gluing substance, besides, ground paper has a coefficient of hygro-expansion from 0.6 to 1.5%, inner link of Scott in cross direction not more than 130 J/m2 and/or inner link of Scott in longitudinal direction of not more than 130 J/m2.

EFFECT: increased stability of dimensions and strength of ground paper surface.

28 cl, 28 dwg, 12 tbl, 5 ex

 

This application claims the priority, under 35 U.S.C. §119(e)of provisional patent application U.S. No. 60/759,629 entitled "PAPER base WITH INCREASED GLUING SURFACE AND LOW SIZING BLADE. HAVING HIGH dimensional STABILITY", filed January 17, 2006, which is incorporated herein in full by reference. This application claims the priority, under 35 U.S.C. §119(e)of provisional patent application U.S. No. 60/853,882 entitled "PAPER base WITH INCREASED GLUING SURFACE AND LOW-SIZING of CLOTH HAVING HIGH dimensional STABILITY", filed October 24, 2006, which is incorporated herein in full by reference. This application claims the priority, under 35 U.S.C. §119(e)of provisional patent application U.S. No. 60/759 .630 called "PAPER base WITH INCREASED GLUING SURFACE AND LOW SIZING BLADE. CONTAINING the FILLER HAVING a HIGH dimensional STABILITY", filed January 17, 2006, which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

The technical field

The present invention relates to a paper base with increased gluing surface and low-sizing of cloth having high dimensional stability, as well as methods of making and using the composition.

The level of technology the key

Variables performance paper bases vary within wide limits depending on a wide range of end use such a framework. However, most of the performance variables can be programmed into the paper more easily with increasing dimensional stability of the base. So for a very long time on the market was desirable to put dynamic base paper having excellent dimensional stability, but can have a high surface hardness.

Lipponen and others (Lipponen et al.) (2003) report on "Gluing surface solutions of starch with a high content of solids", presented at the Forum by TAPPI metering size presses, discussed the use of high content of solids in solutions of starch size press, which can be used to obtain the strength of the surface in some specific cases, but failed to achieve and/or to assess the importance of the paper base with stable dimensions. In addition, the paper mentioned in the report Lipponen and others, has what the authors characterize as undesirable low resistance of cloth (not below about 140 j/m2).

In addition, a subsequent report Lipponen and others (2005) "the influence of the pulling force of the press and the underlying mass on the properties of paper, not containing d is avecina, during the gluing surfaces", presented at the Spring technical conference and trade fair TAPPI, the authors discuss the methodology of the increase is undesirable low strength canvas paper base coated with a solution of starch with a high content of solids in the sizing press. Unfortunately, these reports present the results of failed attempts to get a paper base material with high dimensional stability and high durability of the surface.

Accordingly, there is still a need for cheap and effective solution to improve dimensional stability and strength of the surface of the paper base.

Detailed description

The authors of the present invention have found an inexpensive and efficient solution to improve dimensional stability and strength of the surface of the paper base.

In one aspect the present invention relates to a paper basis.

The paper base of the present invention contains a fabric of cellulose fibers. The paper base of the present invention may contain recycled fiber and/or primary fiber. One typical difference between secondary and primary fibers is that the secondary fibers were drying process at least once.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 1 to 99 wt.%, predpochtitel is from about 5 to 95 wt.% of cellulose fibers from the total mass basis, including 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65. 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 99 wt.% and including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Preferably, the sources of the pulp fibers are softwood timber and/or hardwood.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 1 to 100 wt.%, preferably from 10 to 60 wt.%, cellulose fibers obtained from coniferous wood, of the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis. This range includes 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.%, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits, the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis.

The paper base may alternatively or predominantly contain from 0.01 to 99 wt,% softwood fibers, most preferably from 10 to 60 wt.% of the total weight of the paper base. The paper base contains not more than 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 99 wt.% coniferous wood from the total weight of the paper base, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may contain fibers of softwood, which have a canadian standard degree of grinding (csf) from 300 to 750, more preferably from 400 to 550. This range includes 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 410, 40, 430, 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490, 500, 510, 520, 530, 540, 550, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600, 610, 620, 630, 640, 650, 660, 670, 680, 690, 700, 710, 720, 730, 740 and 750 csf, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Canadian standard degree of grinding is measured TAPPI standard test T 227.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 1 to 100 wt.%, preferably from 30 to 90 wt.%, cellulose fibers of hardwood from the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis. This range includes 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.%, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits, the total amount of cellulose fibers in a paper basis.

The paper base may alternatively or predominantly contain from 0.01 to 99 wt.% fiber softwood, preferably from 60 to 90 wt.%, of the total weight of the paper base. The paper base contains not more than 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 99 wt.% fibers from the total weight of the paper base, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may contain fibers of hardwood that have a canadian standard degree of grinding (csf) from 300 to 750, more preferably from 400 to 550 csf. This range includes 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 410, 420, 430, 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490, 500, 510, 50, 530, 540, 550, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600, 610, 620, 630, 640, 650, 660, 670, 680, 690, 700, 710, 720, 730, 740 and 750 csf, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Canadian standard degree of grinding is measured TAPPI standard test T 227.

In one embodiment, the paper base contains fibers of softwood and/or hardwood, which is less refined. The paper base contains these fibers, which ennobled by at least 2% less in comparison with the known paper bases, preferably at least 5% less, more preferably 10% less, most preferably at least 15% less refined than the fibers used in the famous paper bases. For example, if the paper contains softwood and/or hardwood fibers having a canadian standard degree of grinding (CSF) 350, the paper base of the present invention more preferably contains fibers having a CSF 385 (i.e., ennobled 10% less than the well-known and still has performance characteristics that are similar, if not better, with such a famous paper. Some typical workers quality framework of the present invention are discussed below. Some decrease in elevation coniferous or hardwood fibers, typical for the present invention include without limitation: 1) from 350 to at least 385 CSF; 2) from 350 to at least 00 CSF; 3) from 400 to at least 450 CSF and 4) from 450 to at least 500 CSF. The decrease in the degree of refining of the fibers may be at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 25% compared with the fibers contained in the famous paper basis, but the basis of the present invention can have performance equal to the performance of the famous paper bases or surpassing them.

If the paper base contains both hardwood and softwood fibers, it is preferable that the ratio of deciduous/coniferous fibres ranged from 0.001 to 1000, preferably from 90/10 to 30/60. This range may include 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,01, 0,02, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits, as well as any ranges and subranges within these limits in the opposite values such relationships.

In addition, softwood and/or hardwood fibers contained in a paper substrate of the present invention, can be modified by physical and/or chemical means. Examples of physical means include, without limitation electromagnetic and mechanical means. Tools electrical modification include, without limitation means providing contact of the fibers with the source of electromagnetic energy such as light and/the electric current. Means of mechanical modification include, without limitation means providing contact inanimate object with the fibers. Examples of such inanimate objects include objects with sharp and/or blunt edges.

Such means include, for example, means for cutting, mixing, crushing, piercing, etc.

Examples of chemical agents include, without limitation known chemical means for modification of the fibers, including the stitching and the deposition of their complexes. Examples of such modification of the fibers can be, without limitation, the examples contained in the following patents: 6,592,717, 6,592,712, 6,582,557, 6,579,415, 6,579,414, 6,506,282, 6,471,824, 6,361,651, 6,146,494, H1,704, 5,731,080, 5,698,688, 5,698,074, 5,667,637, 5,662,773, 5,531,728, 5,443,899, 5,360,420, 5,266,250, 5,209,953, 5,160,789, 5,049,235, 4,986,882, 4,496,427, 4,431,481, 4,174,417, 4,166,894, 4,075,136 and 4,022,965, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. Examples of the modification of fibers also contained in the patent application U.S. No. 60/654,712, filed February 19, 2005, and patent application U.S. No. 11/358,543, filed February 21, 2006, and may include the addition of optical brighteners, which are incorporated herein in full by reference.

Sources "stuff" can be found in the fibres of the SaveAll, circulating flows, flows of scrap, waste streams fibers. The amount of fines present in the BU the most important basis can be changed by changing the flow rate at which these flows add in the paper manufacturing process.

The paper base may contain a combination of hardwood fibers, softwood fibers and fines. Fiber trifles are, as mentioned above, working capital, and typically have an average length of not more than 100 μm, preferably not more than 90 μm, more preferably not more than 80 μm and most preferably not more than 75 μm. The length of fiber stuff is preferably not more than 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 microns, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base contains from 0.01 to 100 wt.% trivia, preferably from 0.01 to 50 wt.%, most preferably from 0.01 to 15 wt.% from the total mass basis. The paper base contains not more than 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.% trivia of the total weight of the paper, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may alternatively or predominantly contain from 0.01 to 100 wt.% trivia, preferably from 0.01 to 50 wt.%, most preferably from 0.01 to 15 wt.% from the total mass of fibers contained in a paper basis. The paper base contains not more than 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 7, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.% trivia of the total weight of the fibers contained in the paper substrate, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base contains at least one sizing agent. Sizing substance is a substance that is added to the paper to give it moisture or water in varying degrees. Examples of such sizing agents can be found in the publication "a Guide for technologists pulp and paper industry " Jahshaka (G.A.Smook) (1992), Angus Wilde Publications, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. Preferably, a sizing substance is a substance for gluing surface. Preferred examples of the sizing substances are starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and polyvinyliden, alginate, carboxymethyl cellulose, etc. But can be used any sizing agent.

When using starch as a sizing agent, the starch can be modified or not modified. Examples of the starch contained in the aforementioned publication "Guide for technologists pulp and paper industry " Dia of CMYK (1992), Angus Wilde Publications. Preferred examples of modified starches include, for example, oxidized, cationic, leaded, hydroelec lirovannye etc. In addition, the starch may be derived from any source, preferably potato and/or corn. Most preferably, the source of starch is corn.

When using polyvinyl alcohol as a sizing agent, he can have any % hydrolysis. Preferred polyvinyl alcohols are those that have the % of hydrolysis in the range from 100% to 75%. % hydrolysis of the polyvinyl alcohol may be 75, 76, 78, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 98 and 100%, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base of the present invention may also contain PVOH in any amount in wt.%. Preferably, when PVOH is present, it is present in amounts of from 0.001 wt.% to 100 wt.% of the total weight of sizing agent contained in and/or on the base. This range includes 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,006, 0,008, 0,01, 0,02, 0,03, 0,04, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4, 0,5, 0,6, 0,7, 0,8, 0,9, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 wt.% of the total weight of sizing agent in the basis, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base of the present invention may contain a sizing substance in any quantity. Preferably, the paper base of the present invention may contain from 0.01 to 20 wt.% at least one sizing agent, is more preferably from 1 to 10 wt.%, most preferably from 2 to 8 wt.% from the total mass basis. This range includes 0,01, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 wt.% a sizing agent from the total mass basis, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In one best mode of implementing the present invention, a sizing substance may be at least one surface sizing agent. However, the substance for gluing surface can be used in combination with at least one substance for sizing canvas. Examples of substances for gluing surface and paintings can be found in the publication "Guide for technologists pulp and paper industry " Jahshaka (G.A.Smook) (1992), Angus Wilde Publications, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. In some cases, the substance for gluing surface and substance for sizing canvas may be the same.

If the paper base contains substances for sizing canvas and surfaces, they can be present in any respect and can be identical or different sizing agents. Preferably, the ratio of the number of substances for gluing surface to the quantity of substance for gluing the fabric is from 50/50 to 100/0, more preferably from 75/25 to 100/0. This range is includes 50/50, 55/45, 60/40, 65/35, 70/30, 75/25, 80/20, 85/15, 90/10, 95/5 and 100/0, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base contains at least one sizing agent. However, at least a majority of the total number of sizing agent is preferably on the outer surface of the base. The paper base of the present invention may contain a sizing agent in the coating layer is applied in the size press. The coating layer applied in the size press may penetrate or not penetrate into the cellulose fiber base. However, if the coating layer and the cellulose fibers penetrate into each other, this creates a base paper with a layer of interpenetration.

Figure 1-3 shows various embodiments of the paper base 1 in a paper substrate of the present invention. Figure 1 shows the paper base 1, which has a fabric of cellulose fibers 3 and a sizing composition 2, where a sizing composition 2 has a minimal interpenetration with the web of cellulose fibers 3. Such an implementation option can be manufactured, for example, if the sizing composition is applied as a coating on the fabric of cellulose fibers.

Figure 2 shows the paper base 1, which has a fabric of cellulose fibers 3 and a sizing composition 2, where a sizing composition 2 has usamap the invention with the web of cellulose fibers 3. Layer interpenetration 4 of the paper base 1 defines the area in which at least a sizing solution penetrates into the cellulose fibers and is distributed among them. Layer interpenetration can be from 1 to 99% of full cross-section of at least part of the paper base, including 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 99% of the paper substrate, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Such an implementation option can be manufactured, for example, if a sizing solution is added to the cellulosic fibers prior to coating, and can be combined with a subsequent coating, if necessary. The point of application may be, for example, in the sizing press.

Figure 3 shows the paper base 1, which has a fabric of cellulose fibers 3 and a sizing solution 2 where a sizing solution 2, approximately evenly distributed in the web of cellulose fibers 3. Such an implementation option can be manufactured, for example, if a sizing solution is added to the cellulosic fibers prior to coating, and can be combined with a subsequent coating, if necessary. The approximate point of application can be on the wet stage of the manufacturing process of paper, on the material before and after pressing.

Preferably, SL is th 4 interpenetration minimize, and/or the concentration of sizing agent preferably increases towards the surface of the paper base. Therefore, the amount of sizing agent present in the direction of the upper and/or lower outer surface of the base, preferably greater amount of sizing agent present in the direction of the middle of the canvas paper. Alternatively, most of the sizing agent in a percentage ratio may preferably be located at some distance from the outer surface of the base, and this distance is equal to or less than 25%, more preferably 10%, of the total thickness of the base. This aspect can also be known as an indicator of Qtotal, which is measured by known methods described in the Examples below, using starch as an example. If Qtotal is equal to 0.5, then a sizing substance approximately evenly distributed in a paper basis. If Qtotal is more than 0.5, then towards the middle of the canvas paper base is more a sizing agent than in the direction of the surfaces of the paper base. If Qtotal is less than 0.5, then towards the middle of the canvas paper base is less sizing agent than in the direction of the surfaces of the paper base. In light of the above, the paper present izaberete the Oia preferably has Qtotal is less than 0.5, preferably less than 0.4, more preferably less than 0.3, most preferably less than 0.25. Accordingly, Qtotal paper substrate of the present invention may be from 0 to less than 0.5. This range includes 0, 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,01, 0,02, 0,05, 0,1, 0,15, 0,2, 0,25, 0,3, 0,35, 0,4, 0,45 and 0.49, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In fact, Q is a measure of the amount of starch that passes from the outer edges towards the middle of the blade in cross section. Here it is understood that Q can be any Q, so that he was magnified ability to have starch in the direction of the outer surfaces of the cross-section of the canvas, and Q may be chosen (using any test)to ensure that any one or more of the above and the following characteristics of the paper substrate of the present invention (for example, internal communication, the coefficient gyroresonance, resistance to picking IGT and/or resistance to delamination IGT VPP and so on).

Of course, there are other methods of measurement equivalent to Q above. The idea of the present invention is that acceptable any dimension Q or a similar method of measuring the ratio of the number of sizing agent in the direction of the middle of the fundamentals compared to the amount of sizing agent in the direction of the outer surfaces of the core is you. In one best mode of implementation, this relationship is such that the maximum number of sizing agent is located towards the outer surfaces of the basics, this minimizing the zone of interpenetration and/or minimizing the amount of starch present in the layer interpenetration. It is also preferable that the distribution of the sizing agent was even at a very high level of application of the sizing agent in and/or on the base. Thus, one purpose of the present invention is strict control of the amount of sizing agent in the layer interpenetration, when its surface is applied more and more external sizing agent, or by minimizing the concentration of the sizing agent in the layer interpenetration or by reducing the thickness of the layer interpenetration. The following characteristics of the paper substrate of the present invention are those which can be achieved by such control over the sizing agent. Although this controlled application of a sizing agent may occur in any manner, the following says that a sizing substance is preferably applied in the sizing press.

The paper base preferably has a high dimensional stability. The paper base with the high dimensional stability, preferably have a decreasing tendency to curl. Therefore, the preferred paper substrate of the present invention have a reduced tendency to curl in comparison with the known paper the basics.

One very good indicator of dimensional stability is a physical measurement of the coefficient of gyroresonance, preferably gyroresonance Nina (Neenah) using a USEFUL METHOD 549 TAPPI by the electronic control and regulation of the relative humidity (RH) using a vaporizer and humidifier, and not just the salt concentration. S environmental change from 50% to 15%, then 85%, causing dimensional changes in the paper pattern, which performs the measurements. For example, the paper base of the present invention has a coefficient of gyroresonance in the transverse direction, when S changes, as indicated above, from 0.1 to 1.9%, preferably from 0.7 to 1.2%, most preferably from 0.8 to 1.0%. This range includes 0,1, 0,2, 0,3, 0,4, 0,5, 0,6, 0,7, 0,8, 0,9, 1,0, 1,1, 1,2, 1,3, 1,4, 1,5, 1,6, 1,7, 1,8 and 1.9%, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base preferably has an internal connection in the longitudinal direction from 10 to 350 foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch, preferably from 75 to 120 ft-lbs x 10-3 per square inch, more preferably from 80 to 100 foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch, the most preference is sustained fashion from 90 to 100 foot-pounds x 10 -3per square inch. This range includes 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 160, 165, 170, 175,180, 185, 190, 195, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340 and 350 foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Internal connection in the longitudinal direction is the link Scott (Scott Bond), measured by TAPPI test t-569.

The paper base preferably has an internal connection in the transverse direction of from 10 to 350 foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch, preferably from 75 to 120 ft-lbs x 10-3 per square inch, more preferably from 80 to 100 foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch, most preferably from 90 to 100 foot-pounds x 10-3per square inch. This range includes 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340 and 350 foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Internal communication of the CD is the link Scott (Scott Bond), measured by TAPPI test t-569.

Both of the above-mentioned internal communication in the transverse and longitudinal directions as measured by the test of communications Scott TAPPI t 569, can also be measured in j/m2. The conversion in the conversion of foot-pounds x 10-3per square inch in j/m2equal to 2. Therefore, to convert the internal connections and 100 foot-pounds x 10-3/sq. inch in j/m2you just need to multiply by 2 (i.e., 100 foot-pounds x 10-3/square inch X 2 j/m2/1 ft-lb x 10-3 per square inch=200 j/m2. All the above-mentioned ranges of foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch so you can then enable the corresponding ranges of the internal connections in j/m2as indicated below.

The paper base preferably has an internal connection in the longitudinal direction from 20 to 700 j/m2preferably from 150 to 240 j/m2, more preferably from 160 to 200 j/m2most preferably from 180 to 200 j/m2. This range includes 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 420, 440, 460, 480, 500, 520, 540, 560, 580, 600, 620, 640, 660, 680 and 700 j/m2including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Internal connection in the longitudinal direction is the link Scott, measured by TAPPI test t-569.

The paper base preferably has an internal connection in the transverse direction of from 20 to 700 j/m2preferably from 150 to 240 j/m2, more preferably from 160 to 200 j/m2most preferably from 180 to 200 j/m2. This range includes 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 420, 440, 460, 480, 500, 520, 540, 560, 580, 600, 620, 640, 660, 680 and 700 j/m2, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Internal communication of the CD is the link Scott, measured by TAPPI test t-569.

The paper base preferably has a Gurley porosity of from 5 to 100 seconds, preferably from 7 to 100 seconds, more preferably from 15 to 50 seconds, most preferably from 20 to 40 seconds. This range includes 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40 seconds, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. The Gurley porosity measured test TAPPI t-536.

The paper base preferably has a stiffness in the transverse direction of from 100 to 450 HS*1000, preferably 150 to 450 HS*1000, more preferably from 200 to 350 GS*1000. This range includes 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 375, 400, 425 and GS 450*1000, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. The stiffness in the cross direction Gurley measure test TAPPI t-543.

The paper base preferably has a rigidity in the longitudinal direction Gurley from 40 to 250 GS*1000, more preferably from 100 to 150 g*1000. This range includes 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240 and GS 250*1000, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Stiffness MD Gurley measure test TAPPI t-543.

The paper base preferably has an opacity of the 85 to 105%, more preferably from 90 to 97%. This range includes 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104 and 105%, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Opacity is measured by the test TAPPI t-425.

The paper base of the present invention may have any CIE whiteness, but preferably has a CIE whiteness more than 70, more preferably greater than 100, most preferably more than 125 or even 150. The CIE whiteness can be in the range from 125 to 200, preferably from 130 to 200, most preferably from 150 to 200. The range of CIE whiteness may be greater than or equal 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 155, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195 and 200 points of CIE whiteness, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Examples of measurement of CIE whiteness and the receipt of such white in fibers for making paper and made from them the paper can be found, for example, in U.S. patent No. 6,893,473, which is incorporated herein in full by reference. In addition, examples of measurement of CIE whiteness and the receipt of such white in fibers for making paper and made from them the paper can be found, for example, in patent application U.S. No. 60/654,712, filed February 19, 2005, entitled "Fixation of optical brighteners on the fibers for making paper and in patent applications U.S. No. 11/358,543, filed February 21, 2006; 11/44809, filed June 2, 2006, and 11/446421, filed June 2, 2006, which are incorporated herein in full by reference.

The paper base of the present invention can have any ISO brightness, but preferably more than 80, more preferably greater than 90, most preferably more than 95 points ISO brightness. The ISO brightness may preferably be from 80 to 100, more preferably from 90 to 100, most preferably from 95 to 100 points ISO brightness. This range includes values greater than or equal 80, 85, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 and 100 points brightness ISO, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits. Examples of measuring the brightness ISO and obtain a brightness in the fibres for the manufacture of paper and paper is made from paper can be found in U.S. patent No. 6,893,473, which is incorporated herein in full by reference. In addition, examples of measuring the brightness ISO and obtain a brightness in fibers for making paper and made from them the paper can be found, for example, in patent application U.S. No. 60/654,712, filed February 19, 2005, entitled " Fixation of optical brighteners on the fibers for the manufacture of paper and in the patent application U.S. No. 11/358,543, filed February 21, 2006, which are also incorporated herein in full by reference.

Paper present the image is placed preferably has superior printing characteristics and improved patency (i.e., characteristics in press). Specifications printing can be measured by determining the superior density of the ink dot gain, capture color, contrast print and/or color print, etc. the Colors traditionally used for such checks printing characteristics include black, blue, red and yellow, but are not limited to them. Specifications printing can be determined by determining the contamination printing by means of visual inspection systems, print, paintings, plates, injection paints, etc. Contamination usually consists of pollution fibers, contamination of the coating or sizing, pollution filler or binder, peeling, etc. of the Paper base of the present invention has improved characteristics of the printing and/or obstruction, as defined by each or any one or combination of the above characteristics.

The paper base may be of any durable surface. Examples of physical inspections strength of the substrate surface, which also seems to be well correlated with the characteristics of the print basics are tests plucking IGT and tests on the grip wax. In addition, it is known that both checks correlate well with great surface hardness and paper basics. Although you can use any of these checks, preferred are checking on you is epiphanie IGT. Check plucking IGT is a standard test in which the characteristics measured by the method of 575 Tappi, which corresponds to the standard test ISO 3873. The paper base may have at least one surface having a surface hardness measured test plucking IGT, which is at least 1, preferably at least to 1.2, more preferably at least 1,4, most preferably at least about 1.8 m/s, the Base has a surface hardness, measured test plucking IGT, which is at least approximately 2,5, 2,4, 2,3, 2,2, 2,1, 2,0, 1,9, 1,8, 1,7, 1,6, 1,5, 1,4, 1,3, 1,2, 1,1 and 1.0 m/with, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

Another well-known test is a test which measures the resistance to delamination IGT VPP (unit of measure N/m). Resistance to delamination IGT VPP paper substrate of the present invention may be any, but preferably more than 150 N/m, more preferably more than 190 N/m, most preferably more than 210 N/m If the base is a base of paper for reproduction, resistance to delamination IGT VPP is preferably from 150 to 175 N/m, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base according to the present invention can be manufactured by managedelement the th machine with high or low baseline weight, including a base weight of at least 10 pounds/3000 square feet, preferably from at least 20 to 500 pounds/3000 square feet, more preferably from at least 40 to 325 pounds/3000 square feet. Base weight may be at least 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325, 350, 375, 400, 425, 450, 475 and 500 pounds/3000 square feet, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base according to the present invention can have any apparent density. The apparent density can be from 1 to 20, preferably from 4 to 14, most preferably from 5 to 10 pounds/3000 square feet per 0.001 inch thickness. The density may be at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 pounds/3000 square feet per 0.001 inch thickness, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base according to the present invention can be of any thickness. The thickness can range from 2 to 35 mils, preferably from 5 to 30 mils, and more preferably, from 10 to 28 mils, and most preferably from 12 to 24 mil. The thickness can be at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 mils, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may, if desired, be of I-beam structure or to have such ha is acteristic, as if she had I-beam structure. However, I preferred structure. Such I-beam structure are a result of selective application and strictly controlled the location of the sizing agent in paper-based and/or paper-based. "I-structure and performance characteristics described in the literature, such as its effect is described in published application U.S. serial number 10/662,699, having publication number 20040065423, which was published April 8, 2004 and incorporated herein in full by reference. However, it is unknown as to control the I-beam structure and/or operational characteristics of I-beam structure basics, made in the conditions of the paper machine and/or experimental machines. One variant of implementation of the present invention may also contain achievement of improved h-structures and/or performance through tight control of the location of the sizing agent in the cross-section basis. Also within the current borders of the present invention has the ability to create superior I-beam structure and/or improved h-performance basis, at the same time increasing the number of the applied sizing agent in the base and/or on it, is about controlling the application of external sizing agent in the base and/or on it.

The paper base of the present invention may also contain additional substances, including the means of restraint, binders, fillers, thickeners and preservatives. Examples of fillers include, without limitation, clay, calcium carbonate, sulfate hemihydrate and calcium sulfate dihydrate calcium. The preferred filler is calcium carbonate, is preferably precipitated calcium carbonate. Examples of binders include, without limitation polyvinyl alcohol, Amres (type kimana), Bayer Parez, polychloride emulsion, modified starch, such as hydroxyethyloxy starch, starch, polyacrylamide, modified polyacrylamide, a polyol, the product of the merger of carbonyl groups to the polyol, the condensate of arandela/polyol, polyamide, epichlorohydrin, glyoxal, pixelmachine, ethandiol, aliphatic polyisocyanate, isocyanate, 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate, diisocyanate, polyisocyanate, polyester, polyester resin, polyacrylate, polyacrylate resin, acrylate and methacrylate. Other additional substances may be, without limitation, silicas, such as colloids or sols. Examples of silica include without limitation sodium silicate and/or borosilicate. Another example of additional substances are solvents, including, without limitation, water.

The paper base of the crust is asego of the invention may contain means of restraint selected from the group consisting of coagulants, flocculants and exciting substances dispersed in the mass of cellulose fibers, and additives that increase the porosity. Examples of means of restraint can also be found in U.S. patent No. 6,379,497, which is incorporated herein in full by reference.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 0.001 to 20 wt.% additional substances from the total mass basis, preferably from 0.01 to 10 wt.%, most preferably from 0.1 to 5.0 wt.%, each of the at least one of the additional substances. This range includes 0,001, 0,002, 0,005, 0,006, 0,008, 0,01, 0,02, 0,03, 0,04, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4, 0,5, 0,6, 0,7, 0,8, 0,9, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 20 wt.% from the total mass basis, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may be produced by contact of a sizing agent and cellulose fibers. In addition, the contact can be performed at acceptable concentration levels that allow a paper substrate of the present invention can contain any of the above quantities of cellulose and a sizing agent.

The paper base of the present application can be produced by contact of the substrate with internal or surface sizing solution containing at least one surface of the substance. Contact who may be exercised at any time during the paper manufacturing process, including, without limitation, wet stage headbox, in the size press, a water tank and/or a device for coating. The point of adding can also include machine reservoir, the dispensing box and the suction side of the fan. Cellulose fiber sizing agent and/or additional components may be introduced into contact sequentially and/or simultaneously in any combination with each other.

The paper base may be omitted through the size press, and is acceptable any size means known in the art. The size press may be in the size press with a bath (inclined, vertical, horizontal) or dosing (for example, by dispensing with a knife or bar). In the sizing press, a sizing agent such as a binder, can be contacted with a base. Optionally, the same sizing agent can be added at the wet stage of the manufacturing process of paper, if necessary. After gluing the paper base may again be subjected to drying or not to be dried according to the above means, shown as an example, and other means known in the manufacture of paper. The paper base may be dried so that it contains any selected amount of water. Preferably, the basis of land is to water content, less than or equal to 10%.

Preferably, the base paper is produced by contact of at least one sizing agent with the fibers in the sizing press. Therefore, sizing the substance is part of the sizing solution. A sizing solution preferably contains at least one sizing substance with an interest solids content of at least 8 wt.%, preferably at least greater than or equal to 10 wt.%, more preferably greater than or equal to 12 wt.%, most preferably, greater than or equal to 13 wt.% solids sizing agent.

Next, a sizing solution contains from 8 to 35 wt.% solids sizing agent, preferably from 10 to 25 wt.% solids sizing agent,more preferably from 12 to 18 wt.% solids sizing agent, most preferably from 13 to 17 wt.% solids sizing agent. This range includes at least 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 wt.% solids sizing agent and maximum 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30 and 35 wt.% solids sizing agent, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The amount of sizing agent applied to the paper, which is approximately or exactly equal to the number of outer por the tapes and, in some cases, the total sizing applied to the fiber, can be anything. Preferably, the amount of sizing agent is at least 0.25 g/m2preferably from 0.25 to 10 g/m2, more preferably from 3.5 to 10 g/m2most preferably from 4.4 to 10 g/m2. The amount of sizing agent preferably may be at least 0,25, 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0, 3,5, 3,6, 3,7, 3,8, 3,9, 4,0, 4,1, 4,2, 4,3, 4,4, 4,5, 4,6, 4,7, 4,8, 4,9, 5,0, 5,5, 6,0, 6,5 and preferably may be a maximum of 7,0, 7,5, 8,0, 8,5, 9,0, 9,5 and 10.0 g/m2including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base may have any internal communication/number of sizing agent. In one aspect of the present invention, the core contains large amounts of sizing agent, but at the same time has a low internal connection. Accordingly, it is preferable, if possible, to ensure internal communication/number of sizing agent tends to zero. Another way to Express the desired phenomenon is the basis of the present invention to provide a paper base, which has a domestic relationship that or decreases, or remains constant or slightly increases with the increasing content of the sizing and/or quantity of the sizing. Another way about the fishing this phenomenon lies in the expression, what changes in the internal communication of the paper base is 0, negative or a small positive value when the number of sizing agent. It is desirable that this paper the basis of the present invention provided such a phenomenon at different degrees of solids sizing agent wt.%, which is applied to the fiber in the sizing press, as mentioned above. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, it is desirable that the paper base possessed by any one or all of the above phenomena, and also had greater surface hardness, measured by plucking IGT and/or test the grip wax.

The paper base of the present invention can have any relation to internal communication/number of sizing agent. The internal communication/number of sizing agent may be less than 100, preferably less than 80, more preferably less than 60, most preferably less than 40 j/m2/ g/m2. The internal communication/number of sizing agent may be less than 100, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75, 74, 73, 72, 71, 70, 69, 68, 67, 66, 65, 64, 63, 62, 61, 60, 59, 58, 57, 56, 55, 54, 53, 52, 51, 50, 49, 48, 47, 46, 45, 44, 43, 42, 41, 40, 38, 35, 32, 30, 28, 25, 22, 20, 18, 15, 12, 10, 7, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 j/m2/ g/m2including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In one embodiment, Umana basis may exhibit the phenomenon namely, that the change in internal communication as a function of changes in the amount of sizing agent contained in the base, that is, Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent wt.%, and/or change in the amount of sizing agent applied to the base, that is, Δ connection/Δ amount of sizing agent is preferably negative. That is, when the amount of sizing agent contained in the canvas or canvas, is increased by increments, internal communication is reduced. Preferably, Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent in wt.% is equal to or less than about 0, preferably less than - 1, more preferably less than - 5, most preferably less than - 20. This range for Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent in wt.% includes values less than or equal to 0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, -12, -13, -14, -15, -16, -17, -18, -19 and -20, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In one embodiment, the paper base can exhibit such a phenomenon that the change in internal communication as a function of changes in sizing the substance contained in the basis, i.e. Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent wt.%, and/or changes in the amount of sizing agent, nannannan basis, i.e. Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent, is the maximum possible small positive value. That is, when the amount of sizing agent contained in the sheet increases by increments, or when the amount of sizing agent applied to the fabric, increasing by increments, internal communication increases, but increases by a very small amount. Preferably, Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent in wt.% and/or Δ connection/Δ amount of sizing agent is equal to or less than about 100, preferably less than 75, more preferably less than 50, most preferably less than 25. This range for Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent in wt.% and/or Δ connection/Δ amount of a sizing agent includes values less than or equal to 100, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75, 70, 65, 60, 55, 52, 50, 47, 45, 42, 40, 37, 35, 32, 30, 28, 25, 22, 20, 18, 15, 12, 10, 7, 5, 3 1, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In one embodiment, Δ connection/Δ amount of sizing agent is less than 55, preferably less than 40, more preferably less than 30 and most preferably less than 25, when a sizing substance is applied in the size press in the amount of solids sizing agent 12 wt.%, 13 wt.%, 14 mA is.%, 16 wt.% or even more. In yet another embodiment, Δ connection/Δ amount of sizing agent is less than 55, preferably less than 40, more preferably less than 30 and most preferably less than 25, when a sizing substance is applied in the size press in the amount of solids sizing agent 15 wt.%, 16 wt.%, 17 wt.% or even more. In yet another embodiment, Δ connection/Δ amount of sizing agent is less than 55, preferably less than 40, more preferably less than 30 and most preferably less than 25, when a sizing substance is applied in the size press in the amount of solids sizing agent 18 wt.%, 19 wt.%, 20 wt.% or even more. Each of these above-mentioned ranges includes without limitation values less 55, 54, 53, 52, 51, 50, 48, 46, 44, 42, 40, 38, 35, 32, 30, 28, 25, 23, 20, 18, 15, 12, 10, 7, 5, 2, 0, -1, -5, -10 and -20 when sizing the substance is applied in the size press in the amount of solids sizing agent 12 wt.%, 13 wt.%, 14 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 16 wt.%, 17 wt.%, 18 wt.%, 19 wt.%, 20 wt.% or even more, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

When the fibers are in contact with a sizing substance in the sizing press, it is preferable that the viscosity of the sizing solution ranged from 100 to 500 centipoise at viscometer Brookfiel is Yes, spindle No. 2, at 100 rpm and 150 °F. Preferably, the viscosity ranges from 125 to 450, more preferably from 150 to 300 centipoise, measured at the above standard. This range includes 100, 125, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 325, 350, 375, 400, 425 and 450 centipoise when measured using Brookfield viscometer, spindle No. 2, at 100 rpm and 150 °F, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

When a sizing solution containing a sizing substance comes into contact with the fibers in the sizing press in the manufacture of paper substrate of the present invention, the effective pressure in the contact zone can be any, but preferably ranges from 80 to 300, more preferably from 90 to 275, most preferably from 100 to 250 pounds per linear inch. The pressure in the contact zone can be at least 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290 and 300 pounds per linear inch, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

In addition, shaft size press may have a hardness P&J, preferably any hardness P&J. Since the two shafts, the first shaft may have a first hardness and the second shaft may have a second hardness. The first hardness and the second hardness may be equal and/or different from one another. For example, the hardness of P&J first valleying press may have a first hardness, which is equal to 35 P&J, and the second shaft may have a second hardness that is equal to 35 P&J. Alternative and for example only, the hardness of P&J of the first shaft size press may have a first hardness that is equal to 35 P&J, and the second shaft may have a second hardness that is equal to 45 P&J. Even though the shaft may be of any hardness P&J, it is preferable that the shaft size press were softer, not harder.

The paper base may pressoffice in the press section, containing one or more contact areas. However, you can use any means of pressing, well-known in the field of paper manufacturing. The contact zone can be without limitation a single felt, double felt, shaft and extended contact zone in the presses. However, you can use any of the contact zone, are well known in the manufacture of paper.

The paper base may be dried in the drying section. You can use any means of drying, well-known in the field of paper manufacturing. The drying section may contain a drying drum, a cylinder, a device Condebelt, infrared device or other means and mechanisms of drying known in the art. The paper base may be dried until the content of any selected amount of water. Preferably, the base is dried to a water content less than or equal to 10%.

The paper base may Kalan is to reroutes any means of calendering, well-known in the field of paper manufacturing. More specifically, it is possible to use, for example, calendering with hydration, calendering without humidification, calendering in steel contact areas, hot soft calendering calendering calendering or in extended contact areas, etc.

The paper base may be microfinishing processing any means microfinishing processing known in the manufacture of paper. Means microfinishing treatment processes used in the friction surface of the paper base. The paper base may be microfinishing processing printed by means of calendering or without them sequentially and/or simultaneously. Examples funds microfinishing processing can be found in published patent application U.S. No. 20040123966 and mentioned in the references, and in provisional patent application U.S. serial number 60/810,181, filed June 2, 2006 and entitled "METHOD of SMOOTHING the surface of the FIBER CLOTHS", which are all incorporated herein in full by reference.

Paper, cardboard and/or the basis of the present invention may also contain at least one layer of coating, including coating layers and a number. The coating layer may be applied at least on the bottom surface of the paper, cardboard and/or foundations, including the two surfaces. In addition, the coating layer may penetrate into the paper, cardboard and/or base. The coating layer may contain a binder. In addition, the coating layer may also optionally contain a pigment. Other optional ingredients of the coating layer are surface-active agents, dispersing agents and other conventional additives for printing compositions.

The base and the coating layer is introduced into contact with each other by any known means for applying a layer of coating, including means for impregnation. The preferred method of applying the coating layer is a linear process with one or more stations. Station coating can be equipped by any known means, well known in the manufacture of paper, including, for example, brush, rod, air knife, spraying, watering, cleaning blade, transfer roller, reverse roller, and/or tool for applying coating watering, and any combination of them.

The base coating can be dried in the drying section. You can use any means of drying, well-known in the manufacture of paper and/or coating. The drying section may contain IR tool, device, air dried and/or heated steam drying drums or other means and mechanisms of drying, from the local to the area of coating.

The base coating can be subjected to finishing by any means commonly known in the field of paper manufacturing. Examples of such means finishing, including one or more stations finishing are the calender to add gloss, soft calender and/or a calender with an extended area of contact.

These above methods of making compositions, particles and/or paper substrate of the present invention can be added to any of the known methods of making paper, as well as to methods of conversion, including abrasion, grinding, slitting, scoring, perforation, treatment, calendering, finishing sheets, converting, coating, laminating, printing, etc. Preferred known methods include methods of manufacturing paper bases that can be used for the manufacture of coated paper or cardboard and/or foundations. There are books listed in the publication "Guide for technologists pulp and paper industry" Hasaka (1992), Angus Wilde Publications, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. For example, the fiber may be prepared for use in compositions for making paper by any known operations of melting, refining and bleaching, as for example known is tion manual thermomechanical, chemical and Poluchenie, as well as other known methods of production of pulp. In some embodiments, the implementation of at least part of the cellulose fibers can be obtained from non-woody herbaceous plants, including, without limitation, kenaf, hemp, jute, flax, sisal or abaku, although legal restrictions and other considerations may make the use of cannabis and other sources of fibers impractical or impossible. In the method of the present invention can be used bleached or unbleached pulp.

The base may also contain other conventional additives, such as, for example, starch, mineral and polymer fillers, means retaining and reinforcing polymers. The fillers that may be used include organic and inorganic pigments, such as, for example, minerals such as calcium carbonate, kaolin and talc, and advanced and expandable microspheres. Other conventional additives include, without limitation waterproof resin, the inner adhesives, shopruche resin, alum, fillers, pigments and dyes. The base may contain materials that increase the volume, such as an expandable microspheres, fibers of cellulose and/or salts diamide.

Examples of expandable microspheres having the ability to increase the volume, bring the us in the patent application U.S. No. 60/660,703, filed March 11, 2005, entitled "COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING EXPANDABLE MICROSPHERES AND an IONIC COMPOUND, AND METHODS OF MANUFACTURE AND USE," and patent application U.S. No. 11/374,239, filed on March 13, 2006, which are also incorporated herein in full by reference. Further examples are described in U.S. patent No. 6,379,497, issued may 19, 1999, and patent application U.S. publication number 20060102307, filed June 1, 2004, which is also incorporated herein in full by reference. In the case of adding such materials that increase the volume, they are added in amounts of from 0.25 to 20, preferably from 3 to 15 pounds (for example, expandable microspheres, and/or composition and/or particle described below) per ton of cellulose fibers.

Examples of substances that increase the volume, include, for example, mechanical fibers, such as ground wood pulp, bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp, and other mechanical and/or polymechanics wood pulp. More specific typical example is shown below. In the case of adding such wood mass from 0.25 to 75 wt.%, preferably less than 60 wt.% from the total mass of the used fibers can have on such fibers that increase the volume.

Examples of salts of diamide described in patent application U.S. publication number 2004005423, submitted September 15, 2003, which is incorporated herein in full by reference. Such salts include mono - and distearate of animositisomina, which may be marketed under names Reactopaque 100 (production company Omnova Solutions Inc., Performance Chemicals, 1476 J.A.Cochran By-Pass, Chester, S.C. 29706, USA and selling the company Ondeo Nalco Co., headquartered in Ondeo Nalco Center, Naperville, 111. 60563, USA) or their chemical equivalents. In case of using such salts can be used from about 0.025 to 0.25 wt.% dry mass of the salt diamide.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the base may contain materials that increase the volume, such as the materials mentioned in the patent application U.S. No. 60/660,703, filed March 11, 2005, entitled " COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING EXPANDABLE MICROSPHERES AND an IONIC COMPOUND, AND METHODS OF MANUFACTURE AND USE," which is also incorporated herein in full by reference. This version of the implementation are described in detail below.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 0.001 to 10 wt.%, preferably from 0.02 to 5 wt.%, more preferably from 0.025 to 2 wt.%, most preferably from 0.125 to 0.5 wt.% the composition and/or particle of the present invention from the total mass basis. This range includes values 0,001, 0,005, 0,01, 0,05, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0, 3,, of 4.0, and 4.5, and 5.0 wt.%, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The paper base according to the present invention may contain a tool/material, which increases the amount of in the amount of from 0.25 to 50, preferably from 5 to 20 pounds in the dry state per tonne of final product, if such product increase is additive. This range includes 0,25, 0,5, 0,75, 1,0, 2,0, 2.5, 3,0, 3,5, 4, 4,5, 5, 5,5, 6, 6,5, 7, 7,5, 8, 8,5, 9, 9,5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 pounds in the dry state per tonne of final product, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

If the paper base contains material that increase the volume, it preferably is expandable microsphere, composition and/or particle for paper products or foundations. However, in this particular embodiment, it is possible to use any material that increases the volume, while expandable microsphere, composition, particle and/or paper the basis of what is mentioned below, are the preferred means of increasing the volume. Examples of other alternative means of increasing the volume can serve without limitation, surfactants, Reactopaque, pre-expanded spheres, bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp, microfilaria processing and multi-layered design to build an I-beam effect in a paper or cardboard based is E. Such funds increase when they entered or printed on a paper basis, provide adequate print quality, thickness, base weight, etc. in the absence of hard calendering conditions (i.e., pressure in a single area of contact and/or fewer contact areas in the means of calendering), but give a base paper having a single part or a combination of physical specifications and operating characteristics referred to in this document.

If the paper base of the present invention contains a material that increases the volume, the preferred material, increase the volume, is the following.

The paper base of the present invention may contain from 0.001 to 10 wt.%, preferably from 0.02 to 5 wt.%, more preferably from 0.025 to 2 wt.%, most preferably from 0.125 to 0.5 wt.% expandable microspheres of the total mass basis.

Expandable microspheres may contain an extensible shell, forming a void inside her. Expandable sheath may contain a compound containing carbon and/or heteroatom. Example of compounds containing carbon and/or heteroatom, can serve as an organic polymer and/or copolymer. The polymer and/or copolymer may be branched and/or crosslinked.

Expandable microspheres are preferably teplogazsistemy thermoplastic polymer is a hollow sphere, containing thermally activated expanding agent. Examples of compositions of expandable microspheres, contents, methods of manufacture and use can be found in U.S. patent No. 3,615,972; 3,864,181; 4,006,273; 4,044,176 and 6,617,364, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. You can also make a link to the published patent application US: 20010044477; 20030008931; 20030008932 and 20040157057, which are incorporated herein in full by reference. Microspheres can be prepared from polyvinylidene-chloride, polyacrylonitrile, polyalkylacrylate, polystyrene or vinyl chloride.

The microspheres may contain a polymer and/or copolymer that has a Tg from -150 to +180°C, preferably from 50 to 150°C., most preferably from 75 to 125°C.

Microspheres can also contain at least one pore-forming substance, which, after application of a certain quantity of thermal energy provides the internal pressure on the inner wall of the microspheres so that this pressure is expanded microsphere. A pore-forming substance can be liquid and/or gaseous. In addition, examples of pore-forming substances can be selected from molecules with a low boiling point and their compositions. Such pore-forming agents may be chosen from lower alkanes, such as neopentane, neohexane, hexane, propane, Noah is, pentane and its isomers. Ishaan is the preferred pore-forming substance for polyvinylidenechloride microspheres. Suitable unexpanded and expanded microspheres coated indicated in U.S. patent No. 4,722,943 and 4,829,094, which are incorporated herein in full by reference.

Expandable microspheres can have an average diameter from about 0.5 to 200 microns, preferably from 2 to 100 μm, most preferably from 5 to 40 microns in unexpanded condition and have a maximum expansion of approximately 1.5 to 10 times, preferably from 2 to 10 times, most preferably from 2 to 5 times of the average diameter.

Expandable microspheres can have a negative or positive charge. In addition, the expandable microspheres may have a neutral charge. In addition, the expandable microspheres may be introduced into the composition and/or particle of the present invention, which has a net Zeta potential that is greater than or equal to zero, at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M.

In the composition and/or particle of the present invention expandable microspheres can be neutral, negative or a positive charge, preferably a negative charge.

In addition, the composition and/or particle of the present invention may contain expandable microspheres with physical the characteristics similar above and below, and can be introduced in a paper basis in accordance with the present invention in the same manner and in the same quantities as above and below for expandable microspheres.

In addition, the composition and/or particle of the present invention may contain expandable microspheres and at least one ionic compound. If the composition and/or particle of the present invention contains expandable microspheres and at least one ionic compound, composition and/or particle of the present invention has a net Zeta potential that is greater than or equal to zero mV at a pH of approximately of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M. Preferably, the net Zeta potential of greater than or equal to zero to 500, preferably greater than or equal to zero to 200, more preferably from greater than or equal to zero to 150, most preferably from +20 to +130 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M, when he measured the standard and traditional methods of measuring Zeta-potential, well-known in analytic geometry and physics, preferably by methods using micro-electrophoresis at room temperature.

The ionic compound may be anionic and/or cationic, preferably cationic, if expandable microspheres are anionic. In addition, ion soedinenieto to be organic, inorganic and/or their mixture. In addition, the ionic compound may be in the form of a slurry and/or colloid. In conclusion, the ionic compound may have a particle size of from 1 nm to 1 μm, preferably from 2 nm to 400 nm.

The ionic compound may be any of the additional agents and conventional additives mentioned below and/or well-known in the field of paper manufacturing. More preferably, the ionic compound may be any one or a combination of retention referred to below.

The mass ratio of ionic compounds with the expandable microspheres in the composition and/or particle of the present invention may range from 1:500 to 500:1, preferably from 1:50 to 50:1, more preferably from 1:10 to 10:1, while the composition and/or particle has a net Zeta potential that is greater or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M.

The ionic compound may be inorganic. Examples of inorganic ionic compounds can serve without limitation, silica, alumina, tin oxide, zirconium, antimony oxide, iron oxide and oxides of rare earth metals. Inorganic compound preferably may be in the form of a slurry, and/or colloid, and/or Zola in contact with the expandable microspheres and having a particle size of from 1 nm to 1 μm, preferably from 2 nm to 400 is km. If inorganic ionic compound is in the form of colloid and/or Zola, the preferred compound contains silica and/or alumina.

The ionic compound may be organic. Examples of ionic organic compounds can serve as carbon compounds. In addition, the ionic organic compound may contain heteroatoms, such as nitrogen, oxygen and/or halogen. In addition, the ionic organic compound may contain a functional group containing a heteroatom, such as hydroxyl, amine, amide, carbonyl, carboxyl, etc. in Addition, the ionic organic compound may contain more than one positive charge, negative charge, or a mixture thereof. Ionic organic compound may be a polymer and/or copolymer, which may also be cyclic, branched and/or crosslinked. If the ionic organic compound is a polymer and/or copolymer, such connection preferably has an average molecular weight of from 600 to 5000000, more preferably from 1000 to 2000000, most preferably from 20,000 to 800000. Preferably, the ionic organic compound may be a compound containing amine. More preferably, the ionic organic compound may be polyamines. Most preferably, the organic ion is Obedinenie may be a poly(DADMAC), polyvinylene and/or polyethylenimine.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention may contain at least one expandable microsphere and at least one ionic compound, where the ionic compound is in contact with the outer surface of the expandable microspheres. Such contact may include a system in which the expandable microsphere has a coating of ionic compounds and/or impregnated with an ionic compound. Preferably, although without reference to theory, the ionic compound is associated with the outer surface of the expandable microspheres non-covalent intermolecular forces for the formation of particles having an inner expandable microsphere and external ionic compound, layered on it. However, part of the outer surface layer of the expandable microspheres may be partially covered by the outer layer of ionic compounds, although part of the outer surface layer of expandable microspheres in fact can be completely covered by the outer layer ionic compounds. This may cause some parts of the outer surface layer of expandable microspheres will remain open.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention can be produced by bringing into contact, mixing, absorption, adsorption, etc. expandable microspheres with an ionic compound. Relative Koli is esta expandable microspheres and an ionic compound can be determined by traditional means, while the resulting composition and/or particle has a net Zeta potential that is greater or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M. Preferably, the mass ratio of ionic compounds from contact with the expandable microsphere in the composition and/or particle of the present invention may be from 1:100 to 100:1, preferably from 1:80 to 80:1, more preferably from 1:1 to 1:60, most preferably from 1:2 to 1:50, while the composition and/or particle has a net Zeta potential that is greater or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M.

The contact time between an ionic compound and an expandable microsphere can vary from milliseconds to years, until the resulting composition and/or particle has a net Zeta potential that is greater or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M. Preferably, the contact occurs within 0.01 seconds up to 1 year, preferably from 0.1 second to 6 months, more preferably from 0.2 seconds to 3 weeks, most preferably from 0.5 seconds to 1 week.

To contact expandable microspheres with an ionic compound and an expandable microsphere and/or the ionic compound can be in the form of a slurry, wet cake solids, liquids, dispersions, colloid, gel, respectively. Cu is IU, and expandable microsphere and/or the ionic compound may be diluted.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention may have an average diameter from about 0.5 to 200 microns, preferably from 2 to 100 μm, most preferably from 5 to 40 microns in unexpanded condition and have a maximum expansion of approximately 1.5 to 10 times, preferably from 2 to 10 times, most preferably from 2 to 5 times of the average diameter.

The composition and/or particle of the present invention can be manufactured by the above-mentioned contact before and/or during the paper manufacturing process. Preferably, expandable microsphere and the ionic compound is introduced into contact to obtain a composition and/or particle of the present invention, and then the resulting composition and/or particle of the present invention sequentially and/or simultaneously introduced into contact with the fibers, as described below.

The paper base may be produced by contact of the material, increase the volume (for example, expandable microspheres, and/or the above composition and/or particle) and cellulose fibers sequentially and/or simultaneously. In addition, the contact may occur at acceptable concentration levels that provide the content in a paper substrate of the present invention any of the above mentioned quantities of all the vines and material increase the volume (for example, expandable microspheres, and/or the above-mentioned composition, and/or particles) both separately and in any combination. More specifically, the paper base of the present invention can be produced by adding from 0.25 to 20, preferably from 5 to 15, most preferably from 7 to 12 pounds of material, increase the volume (for example, expandable microspheres, and/or the above-mentioned composition, and/or particles) per tonne of pulp fibers. This range includes 0,25, 0,5, 0,75, 1,0, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0, 3,5, 4, 4,5, 5, 5,5, 6, 6,5, 7, 7,5, 8, 8,5, 9, 9,5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 pounds in the dry state per tonne of final product, including any and all ranges and subranges within these limits.

The contact can occur at any time in the paper manufacturing process, including, but not limited to pressing, pressing, pressure in the mailbox and device for coating, preferably the insertion point is after pressing. In addition, the point of addition can be in the machine reservoir, the pressure box and on the suction side of the fan.

The paper base may be produced by contact of additional substances and cellulose fibers. The contact can occur at any time in the paper manufacturing process, including, without limitation, before pressing after pressing, vyborna box sizing press, the drawer of water and device for coating. In addition, the point of addition can be in the machine reservoir, the pressure box and on the suction side of the fan. Cellulose fiber material to increase, a sizing agent and/or additional components may be introduced into contact sequentially and/or simultaneously in any combination with each other. Cellulose fiber and material to increase the volume can be pre-mixed in any combination to add or during the paper manufacturing process.

Used in this document ranges are used as shorthand to specify each value, which is included in the range, including all the sub-bands.

In light of the above description numerous possible modifications and changes of the present invention. Therefore, it should be understood that within the scope of the attached claims, the invention can be implemented otherwise than specifically described in this document.

All links and references referred to therein, herein, are hereby incorporated by reference in relevant parts relating to the subject matter of the present invention and all variants of its implementation.

Present from retina explained in more detail using the following example of a variant implementation, which is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Below is a description of the method used for the quantitative determination of index Q in accordance with the above description.

A new method for quantitative determination of the penetration of the starch in the Z-direction

In the present example describes a new method for quantitative determination of the penetration of starch, Q, using image analysis (Lappa-linen, Salosaari, Lipponen (Lappalainen, Solasaari, Lipponen), 2005). With decreasing penetration of the starch in the Z-direction non-dimensional factor, Qtotaltends to zero. If the starch is fully distributed in the Z-direction, the value of Qtotalis 0.5. In this research studied three samples of paper. The values of Qtotalfor packaging Board, C1S cardboard and paper for copying 0.2 and 0.5 and 0.5, respectively, and quantification is consistent with the visual perception. It is necessary to consider that the data of image analysis does not give the actual mass values in percent starch and values of the penetration depth, and caution should be exercised. to receive the data correctly. This method provides a new tool for optimizing and fine tuning parameters the basic process of penetration of the starch.

The penetration of starch and its distribution in the Z-direction in the paper and cardboard are of great interest in the correlation of process variables with the properties of paper. At the conference, TAPPI for coatings in April 2005 he was presented the dimensionless penetration rate, Q, which is an aid in the evaluation data of the image analysis on the penetration of starch (Lappalainen, Lipponen, Salosaari, 2005). This approach can facilitate semiquantitative comparison or ranking of the paper samples with different levels of penetration of starch. The purpose of this report is to repeat the author's method for determination of rate Qtotalin various securities with starch sizing, using a standard compound microscope and free software.

For evaluation were selected three samples of paper and cardboard with different levels of starch. Five specimens of each sample were cut and inflicted on them a Solution of I2/KI (approximately 2-normal). Cross-sections were photographed using an optical microscope with magnification of 10x. Microphotographs of cross-sections is shown in figure 1.

This study used free software for image analysis, ImageJ (downloaded from the website http://rsb.info.nih.qov/ii7). Images were converted into 8-bit is th gray scale with high contrast (normalized across the entire range). The value of the saturated pixel set to the default value of 0.5%, and was selected the automatic setting of the threshold. The cross-section was divided into four rectangular slice of equal thickness (four equal areas of interest (AOI)), and these sections have identified as top, top-middle, middle-bottom, and bottom. On the basis of the automatic setting of the threshold calculated the proportion of labeled iodine region in each AOI. Penetration rates Qtopand Qbottomwas calculated using the following equations. The average penetration of Qtotalthen calculated as a weighted average of the penetration obtained on two sides.

Qtop=The share of the regionupper-middleShare thetop+Share theupper-middle

Qbottom=The share of the regionthe middle-bottomShare thebottom+Share thethe middle-bottom

Qtotal=The share of the regionmid+Share themid-topShare thetop+Share theupper-middle+Share thethe middle-bottom+Share thebottom

The above equation implies that reducing the penetration of starch indicator Q tends to zero. If the starch is uniformly distributed in the Z-direction, the value of Q is 0.5. When Q>0.5 starch is greater in the inner parts of clicks is SCA cross-section, than on its surface.

Results from the three samples of the paper are presented in Table 1. These results are in good agreement with our visual perception of microphotographs of the samples. With reference to samples of cardboard, starch left on surfaces and not pressed in the Z-direction. Other samples showed higher concentration of starch on the surface along with full penetration.

Table 1
The dimensionless penetration rate Q for different sample
SampleQ
Cardboard for packaging juices0,2 (±0,08)
Cardboard C1 S0,5 (±0,01)
The copy paper0,5 (±0,01)

The penetration of starch, Q, obtained by the described method can not be directly interpreted as the distribution of starch content: we literally compare the percentage threshold levels of gray, and they may not be directly correlated with the mass of the starch content in percent. For example, suppose that we have chosen a threshold of gray corresponds to 5 wt.% Brahma the and. Any percentage starch content above 5% will exceed this threshold, and the difference between 5% and higher values will not.

From the previous example can be easily understood that the methods of image analysis are sensitive to differences in thresholds. Although not performed with the statistical stiffness, repeated tests on these samples, other analysts using the manual setting thresholds showed that the calculated percentage value for the area was not sensitive to small changes in the thresholds. What's perhaps more importantly, it was found that the auto threshold setup does not introduce significant additional changes.

It is worth noting that the images of these samples were obtained in the reflected light, and the contrast between the white paper and complex starch-iodine was easily noticeable. In transmitted light, as thin epoxydecane cross sections, it becomes much more difficult to separate the bubbles and the area of the filler (light is blocked) from the complex the iodine-starch: thresholds of gray levels they are similar.

When selecting images, the authors used the reference gray scale to provide repetitive coverage of reflected light. They also used the rear backlight to improve the contrast and the reaction chamber. These improvements with the person will be taken into account in future work.

This study was replicated semi-quantitative way to assess the penetration of starch by calculating the dimensionless penetration, Qtotal. This indicator can be used to compare the penetration of the starch in the samples of paper to determine the effect of changes in the manufacturing process of paper.

Lappalainen, T., Lipponen, J1Solasaari, T. (2005) Novel method for quantitative starch penetration analysis through iodine staining and image analysis of cross-sections of uncoated paper and board (a New method of quantitative analysis of the penetration of starch and image analysis of sections of paper and paperboard uncoated). Presented at the conference Tappi for coatings, April 2005, Toronto.

Standard: R.B.Phillips (MTS), N.Marsolan (MTS), S.Arenander (MTS), D. Crawshaw (PDC), .Campbell (PDC) Additional: H.Munn (Augusta Mill), .Singh (PDC), T.Arnson (PDC), R.Williams (PDC), A.Anderson (PDC), David Reed (PDC), S.Lucia (PDC), B.McGaffin (MTC), M.Bovee (MTC), Dennis Reed (MTC), D.Turner (PDC), B.Schweikert (PDC), R.Rudolph (PDC), L Bednarik (PDC), J.Jackson (MTC), G.Bachman (MTC)

Example 2

Below is a description of another methodology for use in the quantitative determination of Q, as above.

Procedure

Paper cut to a width of 1 cm, then pinched between the processed blocks of stainless steel. Cross-sections were prepared by razor single edge, quickly spending on a polished surface of the clamp stainless steel, cutting off the protruding paper. Leaving the paper in the clip, the contraction in the EC paper was marked by a solution of iodine/potassium iodide (0.1 H). For this procedure, a drop of a solution of iodine was performed on the cross section and then wiped. The wetted sample was allowed to react and absorb at least three minutes to obtain images. The paper has advanced from the clamp approximately 1 mm (twice the thickness of blotting paper, serving as a measuring tool) and re-tightened the clamp.

Images were obtained at arbitrary locations along the cross-section using a digital camera (Olympus DP-10, mode SHQ jpeg, 1280×1024 pixels)mounted on a compound microscope Olympus BX-40, equipped for analysis in the reflected and polarized light. During image acquisition both slide polarizer were in place. Getting random images was achieved by promoting cross-section without supervision on the camera screen or observation through the microscope.

The microscope was equipped with a halogen lamp 12 Century, the lamp Voltage was set to approximately the 11th Century On the right eyepiece used an external microscope photometer (Olympus EMM 7) for monitoring the reflected light. As a standard reflectivity used grey dye on a piece of paper (Sherwin Williams Serious Gray, 6256 SW). The light was dosaged to the level of 7 out of 10 on a scale of high (average) range of the instrument. The decrease in the luminance level is performed and the use of the aperture diaphragm incident-light microscope. The equivalent exposure at 7/10 scale was aperture f/3.5 with a shutter speed of 1/125 second (determined using a digital camera the Nikon CoolPix 950 installed on sensitivity ISO 100, mounted on the right eyepiece), setting the value of exhibiting approximately a 10.5 (10.5 ev to 4.5 division slower than photographic standard "sunny f/16" or ev l5).

Strip plates with a gray dye SW Serious Gray cut so that they fit to the surfaces of the clamp stainless steel next to the marked cross-section paper. These strips were created uniform background defocusing medium gray values in the exposure of the cross-section in focus. The camera was set in the measurement mode matrix and automatic exposure. Used the 20X lens that creates the length of the field image of 0.55 mm. Thirty images gave a clean overall length analysis of 16.5 mm, exceeding the recommended minimum specified in the literature ().

For a typical paper strips with a width of 1 cm was obtained 6-8 images. For each paper sample images are usually received from four or five different cross-sections. Image j peg (the only mode available in the camera DP-10) was re-saved in TIFF format before processing using Adobe Photoshop 5.5 with plugins FoveaPro4 for image analysis (Reindeer Graphics, John Russ).

The process of analyzing the images using FoveaPro4 consisted of several steps. The first procedure involved the fitting and background subtraction; the turning of the cross-section for receiving a horizontal upper surface and installation of rectangular interest of the site to the highest possible capture cross-section, including a minimum of background. Fit perfectly perpendicular to the area of interest to the uneven perimeter of the paper led to an intermediate brightness between the marked dark perimeter of the sample and more vivid gray background. Typical background plots had pixel brightness 160 (grayscale 256, 8 bits), whereas the brightness of the areas marked with dark, was below 40, hence the peripheries of cross sections usually had a brightness closer to 100 and fail to complete darkness. Plane green color was selected and converted to grayscale (auto function in PhotoShop), was computed average pixel dark image in a raster scan (built-in command in Photoshop/FoveaPro: Filter/IP* Measure Global/Profiles/Vertical (averaged across), which led to the distribution of the average pixel brightness from the upper to the lower surface of cross-section paper. These brightness distribution of the cross-section was obtained for each of the 30 images in the spreadsheet MS Excel spreadsheet and then averaged.

Because between 30 images of smestow is whether significant differences in thickness, the scatter of the data intensity increased significantly from left to right (from the upper to the lower surface of the cross section). Physically, the starch was applied on the surface or the surface of the canvas, and he penetrated into the fabric: the starting point on the right side (top surface), is not less certain than the left side (the bottom surface). Therefore, the data were plotted on the graph again, shifting the data set so that the right ends centered in one starting point. In the Excel spreadsheet that was achieved by copying the empty cells at the beginning of each data column, shifting the column, so that it ended in the same row as the maximum sample thickness in the dataset of 30 samples. As an example, consider the dataset in thickness from 0.1 to 0.15 mm, the Blank cells will be introduced at the beginning of the interval data for samples of small thickness (less than 0,15), so that they are centered in the same final row of the spreadsheet as a sample of 0.15 mm For each of the received sets of data to calculate the average graph.

On the original dataset to calculate the average thickness. This was a direct average of all curves.

For our previous example, suppose that the average thickness of 0.12 mm To merge the two middle graphs (the original graph and the graph of the right-shift), 0.3 mm were atsec who are from less than a certain end. This gave two charts that are consistent in thickness with an average thickness, and allowed us to derive a best estimate of the penetration depth to local minima dark from every surface.

Complete graph was generated by combining the best of the left (penetration on the upper surface) and right (shift to the right, the penetration of the bottom surface) of the ends and use the average of the two graphs in the center. The length of this Central area was determined by dividing the minimum distance between dark on the third and averaging the Central third of the field.

Between the two minima was held line. The area of interest for the calculations was limited at the top of the full graph and the bottom held by a straight line. The slope of each segment of the curve within the region of interest was calculated using the trend line from Excel applied between the local minima and the point on the upper curve, defined as the average brightness of the curve between the two minima. Additional data point was calculated as the area bounded between the straight line and the upper curve. This area was calculated in Excel as the summation of the areas defined as the difference in height between the curve and a straight line, multiplied by the calibrated distance between adjacent measurement points, exactly analogichnogo of Reimann.

The number "Q" calculated as the ratio of the sum of the two areas near the tails to the total area of the region of interest (tail area plus Central region).

The above method is illustrated in figures 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B, 6C, 7A, 7B, 8A, 8B.

The dataset Thor, thirty individual curves shown in figures 5, 5V when combined left end of the curves (top) and again combined with the right end of the curves (bottom). Increased change is not aligned with the ends of the curves is obvious. On a common set of data to calculate the estimated thickness. On figure 5 we can see that the thickness was in the range of approximately from 0.11 to 0.14 mm For this data set the calculated average thickness of the totaled amount of 0.118 mm

Average curves shift (see figures 6A and 6B) were truncated to the average thickness on the bad end of each curve. The full curve was formed so that each end has remained the most reliable data. The middle part of the graph represents the average of the two middle graphs. The length of this middle part was defined as the Central one third between the two minima.

Between these two minima in figure 6C was the line that defines the region of interest in the Central area of the graph. The weighted average intensity curve intensity between the minima of the calculations was 85, 84 and shown as a black g the horizontal line on the above graph. A vertical line (not shown) from the intersection of the average brightness and intensity curve to the baseline has identified three sub-regions in the area of interest, and part of the intensity curve used to calculate the slope. The analysis of this isolated area has given three values: the total area between the curve of the intensity and the base line, the slope of the curve at each end, and the ratio of the areas contained in the "tails"to the total area under the curve (modeled "Q").

As mentioned above, the inclination of each end of the curve within the area of interest on the figures 7A, 7B, 8A and 8B were calculated using the trend line in Excel, used between the local minima and the point on the upper curve is defined as the weighted average brightness on the curve between the two minima. This slope is typical of the speed at which the level of starch decreases as a function of penetration towards the middle of the cross-section of the canvas. Accordingly, the slope of the line drawn is the intensity, expressed in units per milliliter (progresses, in mm, the cross section of the canvas). For the left end (representing the slope on the upper side of the sheet) of the present invention has a slope that is equal 1612,9 units of intensity per millimeter, whereas the left end for a well-known paper base has on the lawn, which is 426,1 units of intensity per millimeter. Accordingly, when passing from the upper surface to the center of the canvas paper the basis of the present invention has a much greater rate of disappearance of starch (as measured by the slope), and the starch is clearly for the most part isolated in the direction of the top surface of the canvas. For the right end (representing the slope on the lower side of the sheet), the present invention has a slope that is equal 1408,9 units of intensity per millimeter, whereas the right end for a well-known paper base has a slope that is equal 663,46 units of intensity per millimeter. Accordingly, when passing from the lower surface to the center of the canvas paper the basis of the present invention also has a much greater rate of disappearance of starch (as measured by the slope), and the starch is clearly for the most part isolated in the direction of the top surface of the canvas.

Despite these examples, it is preferable that the paper base of the present invention had at least half (top or bottom) of its cross section, having a slope (measured as above), who can provide any one or more of the above characteristics of the paper substrate of the present invention (for example, internal communication, the coefficient gyroresonance stand is here to picking IGT and resistance to delamination IGT VPP). The slope may be greater than 700 units of intensity per millimeter, more preferably 850 units of intensity per millimeter, more preferably more than 900 units of intensity per millimeter, most preferably more than 1150 units of intensity per millimeter. In a more preferred embodiment, the two halves (top and bottom) cross-section paper substrate of the present invention have the inclination (measured as above), who can provide any one or more of the above characteristics of the paper substrate of the present invention (for example, internal communication, the coefficient gyroresonance, resistance to picking IGT and resistance to delamination IGT VPP). The slope may be greater than 700 units of intensity per millimeter, more preferably 850 units of intensity per millimeter, more preferably more than 900 units of intensity per millimeter, most preferably more than 1150 units of intensity per millimeter.

Example 3

In tables 2 and 3 present data on 41 paper-based, made in the experimental conditions of the paper machine using a size press with a metering bar coating of starch as a sizing agent. The specific parameters for each condition, such as linear velocity, the pressure in the zone of contact is and the size press, the amount of starch, the total content of solids in the starch solution, the viscosity of the solution for size press, the hardness of P&J shaft, etc. are listed in the tables. Conditions hardness P&J in this study are divided into two categories: Category 1: the first shaft had hardness" P&J 35 and the second shaft had a hardness P&J 35; Category 2: the first shaft had a hardness P&J 35 and the second shaft had a hardness P&J 45. Furthermore, the performance characteristics and physical properties of paper bases are shown in the tables, for example, internal communication, the Gurley porosity, coefficient of gyroresonance, stiffness, resistance to picking TS (on the upper side) IGT, resistance to picking BS (on the underside) IGT etc. Data on the internal connections are shown in two columns, in one of foot-pounds x 10-3 per square inch (i.e., in foot-pounds and the other in j/m2(i.e. j). These columns represent individual measurements, and are intended to illustrate the conversion between these two units internal communication, as described above.

Example 4

In the following examples, the phrase "x-100" refers to the preferred substance for increasing the amount specified above, with h the Itza containing expandable microsphere and the ionic compound, so that the particle has a Zeta potential that is greater or equal to 0 mV at approximately pH of 9.0 or less at an ionic strength of 10-6M to 0.1 M.

Example 1

Process conditions

Darda rock/soft rock=60/40ControlStudied
Solid particles of starch press for gluing, %816
Viscosity, SP50200
The rod on the press for bonding35SP002
Physical testing
ControlStudiedChange, %
Basic weight56,2556,38
Then the woman 5,014,91
Internal connection in the longitudinal direction12270-42,6
Internal communication in the transverse direction11788-24,8
Porosity Gurley8,712,442,5
the Gurley stiffness (g*1000)287301a 4.9
the Gurley stiffness (g*1000)10912413,8
Opacity, %92,4br93.10,8
The ratio gyroresonance from 85RH to 15 RH (%)0,9510,916was 3.7
The content of ash, % 14,514,8
The starch content %6,136,63

Example 2

Process conditions

Hard rock/soft rock=60/40ControlStudied
Solid particles of starch press for gluing, %9,416,5
Viscosity, SP50,4204
The rod on the press for bonding004SP002

Physical testing

ControlStudiedChange, %
Basic weight56,356,3
Thickness5,185,14
Internal connection in the longitudinal direction14880-45,9
Internal communication in the transverse direction14785-42,2
Porosity Gurley11,41749,1
the Gurley stiffness (g*1000)309285-7,8
the Gurley stiffness (g* 1000)14316716,8
Opacity, %91,791,80,1
The ratio gyroresonance from 85RH to 15RH(%)1,1941,01-15,4
The content of ash, %13,4714,03
The starch content %of 5.536,13

A BRIEF description of the TEST

The goal of the second series of tests X-100 on s consist in checking the function of the machine, clean machine and equipment development and confirmation of the operational characteristics of offset printing with a longer cycle with 18 pounds of filler compared with tests on 3 November 2005. Based on the results of the first tests for 4-5 hours will be verified consumption of 6.2 pounds per ton of downloadable songs for target conditions Thor sizing press. A small part of these tests will be conducted with vellum paper; most will Kalankatuatsi to the thickness according to the specifications of the export order. Starting consumption will amount to 3.1 pounds per ton (composition; vellum paper) and flow monitoring will be conducted within 30 minutes. After that, download the number will be increased to the target flow rate of 6.2 pounds per ton, one party vellum paper will be made prior to calendering to technical conditions. This party will be used for more extensive physical testing than the original. After re-cationization filler X-100 (642-SLUX-80) will be added to the input of the first grid.

The objectives of the tests are:

- determine the effectiveness of the filler for vellum paper at a flow rate of 3.1 pounds per ton;

- repetition of the first test with a flow rate of 6.2 pounds per ton;

- the influence of the thickness and stiffness on several samples with roll forward for vellum paper at a flow rate of filler 6.2 pounds per ton;

- test conditions to validate performance of offset printing machine R1T with a longer cycle (goal 9 rolls): control: standard condition 1 to 18 pounds of filler (for vellum paper): 3.1 lb X-100 per ton: calendering vellum paper - sample from the top of the first party only for the conditions: 6.2 lbs X-100 per ton; calendering vellum paper - 1 roll for condition 3: 6.2 lb-100 per ton; calendering to a thickness of 4.0; estimated loss of time because of the conditions of the test is 2 hours.

This test was performed in conjunction with a high content of solids in the starch and capture starch for sizing press. Were tested two-level X-100: 6.2 pounds per ton and 12.0 pounds per ton, where both flow treated ton of downloadable songs (corresponding to a consumption-based production of rolls was 4.6 and 9.0 pounds per ton, respectively). Filler X-100, used in this trial was cationization at Western Michigan University using in salmoncolored PEL.

Trends thickness in the measurement system showed a rapid and reliable response. The thickness of the line increased from 4.0 to 4.2 at a lower flow rate and from 4.2 to 4.3 at higher flow rate, corresponding to a volume increase by 5-7%. Stiffness in the mill did not show a clear and continuous improvement of rigidity (partly because of the scatter in the small amount of data), but the test roll products and the analysis of the strip from a roll suggest an increase in stiffness at 6-7% CD and up to 15% of MD. The Gurley porosity after adding X-100 has not changed, mostly due to the high content of solids in the starch and capture.

Problems with the cleanliness of the machines were much lower than expected in this short test, and the only one identified problem was the falling flakes agglomerated X-100 on the basis of the test. In addition, there was a slight discoloration of the drying unit # 6, but not to the level of cleanup after the test. No deposits on other parts of the machines was not observed.

In the main section of the steam pressure during the test increased to the maximum values, and even the humidity in the sizing press was above the target. Production cycles can be slow due to problems with drying of the main section.

Control samples and samples from the test used for flexo printing (D), offset p is chati (RIT) and electrophotographic printing (Erie). In all formats, print both tests showed a very similar print quality and characteristics of cut paper with a control product (18 pounds of filler per tonne).

Description of the test

For this test used a suspension of filler 642-SLUX-80, remaining after testing on 3 November, which was previously cationization at the University of Western Michigan.

The temperature of the drying drum of the main section was measured before and during the test with the IR thermometer. No change in the amount of the deduction or RACES for this test is not planned.

In the first cycle of making vellum paper used the standard flow of the filler 18 pounds per ton. After completion of this cycle the filler X-100 was added at the input of the first grid with a flow rate of 3.1 pounds per ton of given composition. Before serving, use a static mixer with water to reduce the content of solids in suspension. Samples from the headbox and the circulating water was taken on the first pass and to determine the ash content after stabilization of the machine. After making this party (wove paper) consumption filler X-100 was increased to 6.2 pounds per ton for Condition 2 (with one steady roll output vellum paper). Then the degree of calendering was increased to match the technical the conditions.

Description of the content of the active suspension of solids in cationizing suspension was 30%. This material was dosed out in the wire section on ST using a Moyno pump variable speed. Requirements for flow rate and volume are given in Tables 4 and 5 below.

Table 4
Calculation of doses for s 250 gallons sample
Assumptions and calculations of doses
NetInstant
Solids44%22%
The Gurley stiffness1,21,02

3400 feet per minute

cutting coils 356

The weight of the roll 18

when 4,50% moisture,

4,25%starch,

16.5% filler

Bulk density approx. 13,46 without starch or filler

Approx. the bandwidth of the composition 31,32 tons per hour (excluded from calculations of the flow in the feed composition)

1044 pounds per minute of traffic composition

0,522 tons per minute (752 tons per day) traffic composition

Courtland X-100 study 12/13/05
Cm. note X-100 Load f/toneClean gpmSoluble gpmThe speed of soluble massThe number of hours on rest. sample
3:10,360,8525,94,89
6:20,721,7048,82,44
NOTE. The content in pounds per ton calculated by the bandwidth of the composition (as in the previous tests). When the retention 100% retention, content in the final product is 25.3% less

Table 5
Estimated testing time and expense suspension
Download X-100
Conditionbased on compositionBased on TRN roll Working hours machineGallons
Control0,00N/A0
13,12,30,5026
26,24,64,50460
Total5,0486

The insertion point

From previous studies the wet part of the best insertion point for this test is the entrance to the first grid (Fig.9). Cationically X-100 is still diluted with nominal 30% to 0.3 to 3.0% by using recycled water and static mixers. This approach was used successfully in Pensacola is when you add in the wet end with a flow rate of from 1.4 to 9.9 pounds per ton.

Control samples: 3 strips from a roll for Condition 1 (3.1 lb / ton for vellum paper); 3 strip from a roll to Conditions 2 (6.2 lb / ton for vellum paper); 6 specimens cut paper from each roll to roll.

Test conditions, including the condition of the control sample should undergo complete testing by quality control, and results should be entered into the system Proficy. In addition, each roll when the content of filler £ 18 per tonne in this cycle must be checked for hardness. Rolls for evaluation will be cut for the evaluation of offset printing machine RIT and specified serial numbers.

DOWNTIME

All the tests from the beginning of the transition in the control condition (if the machine is not used, the flow rate of 18 pounds per ton) to resume normal production shall be deemed to have downtime in the log PPR (product data, process and resources) (code XXX - planned conditions, idle conditions or market). Any downtime due to breaks in the testing or cleaning of the machine should also be included in the total idle time.

Arch physical characteristics Test 2
ControlResearch is s ResearchResearch
Roll no1304130513061307/8
X-100No3.2 function6 function6 function
EndParchmentParchmentParchmentCalendered
Basic weight18,318,418,618,5
The presence of ash16,215,816,116,1
The presence of starch7,27,56,97,2
Thickness4.09 to4,20or 4.314,14
Opacity of 87.888,3at 88.188,3
Porosity Gurley18,417,616,216,0
The Gurley stiffness in the transverse direction57,056,2of 54.8
The Gurley stiffness in the longitudinal direction146144137
The average internal
link
166153156156

Example 5

We got the paper rolls of a width of 40 inches and a diameter of 50 inches. They were made of 40% wood pulp and 60% pine Kraft pulp. The base weight was 17.5 lbs/1300 sq. ft.

The paper was sent to the experimental Trouser coating. We used the size press with a metering bar. We have put on paper one layer of starch coating, on average, 8% or 160 pounds per ton. This starch was applied at high viscosity, the more the 200 centipoise, at a temperature of 150°F. was Used oxidized starch Cargill 235D. The size press was operated at a speed of 500 feet per minute. The resulting paper was dried to a moisture content of 5% and Kalandarishvili to produce a smoother surface. Then the paper is sent for review offset printing. For physical testing of received samples in the form of leaves.

The results showed that we got a good performance and value Q according to the present invention. Surface strength has improved significantly, from peel values IGT VVP 64 to 190 N/m print samples on the two rolls was clear when using paints high stickiness that was unexpected. Paper, containing wood, for example, Abitibi Equal Offset, which is a well-known paper, usually requires serious washing after 2000-3000 linear feet. We used to over 20,000 linear feet without flushing.

Characteristics table for Example 5
Raw paper Roll 2Raw paper Roll 3Covered roll 2Covered roll 3
Basis weight, pounds per 1300 square feet 17,417,619,219,1
Thickness, mils4,224,113,823,55
Smoothness in Sheffield, the upper side238201152112
Smoothness in Sheffield, bottom223192147105
The Gurley porosity, %4950,9776,8916,2
The brightness, the upper side, %71,571,56968
The brightness, the lower side, %71,272,168,568,7
Opacity, %92,692,391,4 91,5
Longitudinal stiffness, HS*10009399113107
Transverse rigidity, HS*100029354135
Delamination IGT, VVP, N/m, the upper side6855197178
Delamination IGT, VVP, N/m, the lower side6262183202
Grip wax, the upper side10101413
Grip wax, bottom13131614
Ash, 525,%15,816,2115,0615,07
The quantity of starch, % 0,930,98,27,7

1. The paper base containing some amount of cellulosic fibers and a sizing substance, and the paper base has a coefficient of gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.5%, internal communications Scott in the transverse direction is not greater than 130 j/m2and/or internal communications Scott in the longitudinal direction is not more than 130 j/m2.

2. The paper base containing some amount of cellulosic fibers and a sizing substance, and the paper base has a coefficient of gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%, internal communications Scott in the transverse direction is not more than 300 j/m2and/or internal communications Scott in the longitudinal direction is not more than 300 j/m2.

3. The paper base containing some amount of cellulosic fibers and from 0.25 to 10 g/m2a sizing agent, and the paper base has a coefficient of gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%, internal communications Scott in the transverse direction is not more than 300 j/m2and/or internal communications Scott in the longitudinal direction is not more than 300 j/m2.

4. The paper base containing some amount of cellulosic fibers and from 0.25 to 10 g/m2a sizing agent, and the paper base has inner tie the/sizing agent is less than 100 j/m 2/g/m2and the ratio gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

5. The Foundation according to claim 4, characterized in that the ratio of internal communication/sizing agent is less than or equal to 80 j/m2/g/m2.

6. The Foundation according to claim 4, characterized in that the ratio of internal communication/sizing agent is less than or equal to 60 j/m2/g/m2.

7. The Foundation according to claim 4, characterized in that the ratio of internal communication/sizing agent is less than or equal to 40 j/m2/g/m2.

8. The paper base containing some amount of cellulosic fibers and from 0.25 to 10 g/m2a sizing agent, and the paper base has Δ intercom/Δ sizing agent is less than 55 j/m2/g/m2and the ratio gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

9. Basis of claim 8, characterized in that the ratio Δ intercom/Δ sizing agent is less than or equal to 40 j/m2/g/m2.

10. Basis of claim 8, characterized in that the ratio Δ intercom/Δ sizing agent is less than or equal to 25 j/m2/g/m2.

11. A method of manufacturing a paper base containing contact solution containing from 0.5 to 10 g/m2a sizing agent with a certain amount of cellulose fibers, and the solution has a solids content of at least 12 wt.% solids procliamed the substance and has a viscosity of from 100 to 500 CPS at Brookfield viscometer, spindle No. 2, at 100 rpm and 150°F.

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the solution has a viscosity of from 150 to 300 SP.

13. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the solution contains a sizing substance with a solids content of at least 15 wt.%.

14. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the solution contains a sizing substance with a solids content of at least 15 wt.%.

15. The paper base manufactured by the method according to PP-14, and the paper base has Δ connection/Δ sizing agent is less than 55 j/m2/g/m2and the ratio gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

16. Paper based on § 15, and the paper base has internal linkage/sizing agent is less than 100 j/m2/g/m2and the ratio gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

17. Paper based on § 15, and the paper base has Δ intercom/Δ sizing agent is less than 40 j/m2/g/m and the ratio gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

18. Paper based on § 15, and the paper base has internal linkage/sizing agent is less than 60 j/m2/g/m2and the ratio gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

19. Paper based on § 15, and the paper base has Δ intercom/Δ sizing agent is less than 25 j/m2/g/m2and adjusted ient gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

20. Paper based on § 15, and the paper base has internal linkage/sizing agent is less than 40 j/m2/g/m2and the ratio gyroresonance from 0.6 to 1.25%.

21. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the base has a score of plucking IGT at least 1.

22. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the base has a score of plucking IGT at least 1.25 times.

23. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the base has a score of plucking IGT at least 1.5 times.

24. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the base has a score of plucking IGT over 1.7.

25. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the core contains more than 4 g/m2a sizing agent.

26. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the core contains more than 3.5 g/m2a sizing agent.

27. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the core contains more than 4 g/m2a sizing agent.

28. The paper base according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the core contains more than 4.5 g/m2a sizing agent.



 

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6 cl, 2 dwg

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27 cl, 14 tbl, 13 ex

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EFFECT: improved waterproofness, increased inflammation temperature, and improved physicochemical characteristics of material.

4 cl

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