Fuel composition "viezel" and procedure for its production

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: composition includes oil diesel fuel, biological component such as vegetable or animal oil or fat and mixture of fuel additives. Mixture of fuel additives contains a cetane increasing additive, a dehydrating additive, a detergent additive, a lubricating additive and a depressant. The procedure consists in filtering biological component through a polyester filter and in bringing non-soluble and unsaponifiables to a specified value. Filtrate is settled in conic tanks, and sedimentation is removed. Further, there is added oil diesel fuel which is mixed at certain temperature. Mixture of fuel additives is added to premix and mixed. Thus produced mixture is pumped over to conic tanks, is conditioned at ambient temperature, is settled, and sedimentation is removed. Successively, mixture is filtered, centrifuged in a centrifugal separator and prepared fuel composition is pumped over to storage tanks.

EFFECT: produced fuel is equivalent to summer diesel fuel of 2-D grade from viewpoint of engine power and rpm; it facilitates more pure combustion and is essentially less expensive; also, composition functions as biocide for bacteria growth inhibition.

14 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

 

This application was filed with reference to priority of time of application for the grant of U.S. patent No. 60/739673, filed November 25, 2005. Filing date of this patent application in the United States on November 21, 2006; the title of the invention "VIESEL"; inventor Timothy WETZEL.

The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.

The present invention generally relates to the field of fuels for engines. More specifically, the invention relates to fuel compositions for engines produced by mixing a minor part of the oil of diesel fuel from waste vegetable or animal oils and fats as the main part, and the subsequent modification of the stabilizing additives of chemical substances. The resulting hybrid fuel is most suitable for diesel engines, but can be useful for other types of engines or furnaces and other heating units. The composition according to the invention can also be used as a mechanical lubricant. The present invention also relates to a method for obtaining such a hybrid fuel.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Due to the depletion of mineral resources of hydrocarbon raw materials are pressing socio-economic needs in alternative fuels, renewable EN is rgii. "Natural" vegetable oil, usually from the seeds of plants or from other components of the plants or plant waste, provide a practical solution to the problem of fuel supply.

In addition, in connection with the problems of global warming, fuel based on vegetable oils, by themselves, are "carbon neutral" and their combustion does not significantly increase the concentration of a greenhouse gas or carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Vegetable oil, ultimately, produced by photosynthesis, using atmospheric carbon dioxide as a carbon source. Therefore, the combustion of these oils essentially just returns the carbon to the environment and does not increase the total carbon load in the atmosphere. For practical purposes is particularly important, of course, is the fact that the fuel based on vegetable oils are renewable, unlike petroleum fuels, production of which is limited to natural and geological resources.

Waste vegetable oil (ORM) - energy-intensive resource obtained in large quantities as a by-product of the food industry, where vegetable oils are used for frying. One such ORME commonly known as "yellow grease" (LJ), because of the color, which it acquires when it was used as a tool for frying. R is lichnye melted animal fat or oil, such as melted beef tallow, obtained from beef crude fat, and lard obtained from pork fat raw, are also a potential fuels due to their high intensity. ORME, LJ, rendered fats and oils require processing or recycling to prevent their accumulation and environmental pollution. More and more attractive becomes economical use of such wastes of food industry as raw material for fuel production.

Biodiesel, active speaker on the market, is an example of an alternative fuel, raw materials for which are vegetable oils, including ORME. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils with a basic catalyst to obtain a combustible methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids. After completion of the reaction of transesterification of the ester is separated from the reaction mixture, to provide clean, energy-intensive materials for diesel fuel.

Typically, biodiesel is mixed with diesel fuels, oil-based, such as summer diesel fuel (e.g., diesel fuel 2-D) or winter diesel fuel (e.g., diesel fuel 1-D)to get hybrid fuel with acceptable performance and retention. The basic standard is you quality for fuels in the United States established by the American society for testing and materials ASTM (American Society of Testing Materials). For diesel fuels such standard is the ASTM D975 (standard in the Russian Federation, for example, is GOST 305-82).

For example, hybrid fuel B20 prepared by mixing 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel fuel by volume. Similarly, hybrid fuel 50 contains 50% biodiesel by volume.

Fuel B20 is a very popular diesel fuel, has recently become commercially more accessible, with good cetane number and other favorable properties. The B20 fuel contains less sulfur than summer diesel fuel, grade 2-D, because the biological component of the fuel is essentially free from sulphur, and therefore the fuel B20 biodiesel and other hybrid mixtures burn more cleanly than, for example, summer diesel fuel 2-d Fuel B20 meets the requirements of ASTM standard D6751, which determines the quality and characteristics of biodiesel.

Also known so-called emulsified fuels, including oil, including diesel fuel, the biological component in the form of vegetable and animal oils or fats, as well as fuel additives (RF patent 2167920).

There are, however, disadvantages of biodiesel and emulsified fuels. It is well known, for example, that alcohol components used in the production of biodiesel (see, for example, U.S. patent No. 300912), especially methanol, are toxic and require special handling. These alcohol components are volatile and highly flammable and can be explosive. The main catalyst for the reaction, which often acts as sodium hydroxide, is also very corrosive and hazardous substance that requires special protection and care. Finally, glycerin, relatively non-toxic by-product of the reaction of transesterification requires special storage and placement.

The main disadvantage of emulsified fuels is a dynamic instability of the water fuel emulsion due to the difference between the dynamic coefficient of viscosity and density of water and diesel fuel. As a result, biodiesel and emulsified diesel fuels have a limited shelf life (about three months), whereas according to GOST conventional diesel fuel can be stored for about five years. In addition, emulsified fuels have lower lubricity. The present invention allows to eliminate or reduce these disadvantages. The first task of the invention is to provide a low-emission, more efficient, more cost-effective fuel for diesel engines and other applications. The subject of the invention is a hybrid fuel mixture Rast is positive and animal oils and fats combined with a relatively small amount of petroleum diesel fuels. Vegetable oils and animal fats are preferably used oils. To ensure acceptable performance of fuel specified hybrid fuel optionally mixed with a small amount of the mixture of chemical modifiers, called together a mixture of fuel additives".

The finished fuel composition has excellent lubricating properties. Hybrid fuel is cheaper than biodiesel, and in its manufacture is formed at least environmentally harmful by-products. The present description discloses a composition and method of production of new hybrid fuel.

DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS

The task of the invention is to obtain a hybrid diesel fuel, raw materials that can serve mostly vegetable and animal waste with the inclusion of minimum oil diesel fuel.

Another object of the present invention to provide a fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines without further modification of engines. This fuel must meet the standards that determine the quality of fuels for use in diesel engines.

Another object of the invention is to obtain a fuel that pollutes the environment less than conventional diesel the fuel, used in engines or furnaces.

Another objective of the invention is to provide a less harmful for the environment and cheaper alternative to diesel and biodiesel fuels. We have found that fuel composition containing from 10% to 50% of commercial diesel fuels and up to 90% of waste vegetable and animal oils and fats, well and efficiently burned in diesel engines. Tests showed that no significant loss of engine power or torque or increased wear compared to conventional summer diesel fuel. Partly due to lower sulfur content, such hybrid fuel less polluting to the atmosphere than petroleum diesel fuel. Testing in field conditions showed that these fuel compositions normally operate under extreme climatic conditions.

Diesel fuel acts as a lubricating agent for working parts diesel engine that comes into contact with fuel. In addition to the fact that the composition according to the invention is a fuel, it also acts as a superior lubricant compared with summer diesel fuel. Another advantage is that the use as a fuel composition according to the invention reduces detonation in a diesel engine.

In 1993 in the United States was to change the Yong Federal law, in which was included the requirement that the sulfur content in diesel fuel was less than 500 ppm (m-1). An unintended consequence of this change was the fact that treatment with the aim of reducing sulfur impurities also reduced the lubricity of the fuel. This problem can be solved by the invention. Due to the ability of the fuel composition according to the invention to act as a lubricant, diesel engines, which are used as fuel composition according to the invention, operate more quietly, save power and save fuel due to lower friction losses.

To get ready the composition according to the invention, the premix obtained by simple mixing of commercial diesel fuels and biological component in the form of waste vegetable or animal oils or fats, add additional components under the General title "the mixture of fuel additives".

In particular, the mixture of fuel additives", added in a small amount, allows a mixture of petroleum diesel and bio oil to have the same lubricity, viscosity and fluidity, as in conventional diesel fuels. Furthermore, the mixture of fuel additives" supports the cetane number of the fuel, cleans injectors from solids oil and oils, greases details for diesel is the motors, demolished water from the fuel, protects the fuel from gelling and reduces the emission of sulphur (compared to the oil component of the hybrid fuel).

For the preparation of hybrid mixtures as waste vegetable and animal fats and oils can be used most known commercial waste oil each individually or in any combination thereof. The oil may be fresh, but preferably used. In any case, the oil must be filtered and clarified the manner described in detail below (see A. the Method of obtaining the composition according to the invention).

Petroleum diesel fuel can be summer diesel fuel winter diesel fuel or "farm" diesel fuel, i.e. diesel fuel for agricultural machinery (high-sulfur diesel fuel permitted for use in agriculture). These fuel oil can be used individually, or optionally, in any combination.

As is customary here, the term "vegetable oil" refers to oils of natural origin, obtained from plant materials. Vegetable oil can be used directly after production (fresh vegetable oil, CPM) or after processing, as the ORM. The term "animal oil" refers to oils and semi-solid W the frames, obtained from animal fats and oils. The term "biological component" refers to plant and animal oil in any combination. The term "oil" refers to hydrocarbons derived from mineral or geological sources. The term "fuel" in this context is used to refer to any fuel that can be used in a diesel engine or the heater (type of heating boiler or furnace).

As is customary here, the term "diesel fuel" refers to those fuels that are used in engines with compression ignition, which don't use spark ignition to initiate combustion, and in such installations, which typically use diesel fuel to provide heat.

In this context, the term "biodiesel" refers to diesel fuels synthesized from sources of vegetable oil, in which the source glycerin esters of fatty acids replaced with the reaction of transesterification esters of low molecular weight alcohols fatty acids. Examples of such low molecular weight alcohols are methanol and ethanol.

The term "hybrid fuel" is used here to denote a mixture of a quantity of petroleum diesel fuel, the biological component or biodiesel suitable for use in diesel engine.

Oil is the OE diesel fuel - the product of the distillation of crude oil, obtained by sampling fraction, boiling at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of about 250-350°C., depending on application conditions according to GOST 305-82 are three grades of diesel fuel, of which the most popular are two: summer diesel fuel winter diesel fuel. The main difference between them in the limiting filterability temperature and the temperature of the cloud and pour point specified in the standards for this fuel.

Summer diesel fuel is recommended for operation at ambient temperatures from 0°C. Density at 20°C: not more than 860 kg/m3. Flash point: not lower than 40°C. pour point: -5°C Cetane number of at least 51 (according to the Technical regulations of EurAsEC "safety Requirements for gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil).

Winter diesel fuel is recommended for operation at ambient temperatures up to minus 30°C (temperature limiting filterability). Density at 20°C: not more than 840 kg/m3. Flash point: not lower than 30°C. pour point: -45°C Cetane number of at least 47 (according to the Technical regulations of EurAsEC).

In this context, the terms "summer diesel fuel" or "winter diesel" refer respectively to topliva, obtained from more low-boiling components and more high-boiling components of the specified faction.

In this context, the term "farm diesel fuel" or equivalent "diesel fuel for agricultural machinery" refers to lower quality oil diesel fuel containing higher concentrations of sulfur and used primarily in agriculture. Farm diesel fuel is not taxed and also known as "red diesel" because of the red dye, which is added to it, to be able to distinguish it from fuel other diesel fuels.

Used herein, the term "mixture of fuel additives" refers to the combination of components that additionally modifies or makes certain condition hybrid fuel to get the best storage properties or characteristics of combustion. Examples of these fuel characteristics: lubricity, viscosity, fluidity, the gelation temperature, air quality emissions, cetane number, homogeneity, detergency, the bacterial growth. The term "mixture of fuel additives" refers to the composition, as detailed below in Table 1. The term "premix" refers to a mixture of diesel fuel and the biological component, obtained in the process of preparation the Oia fuel composition according to the invention, before adding a mixture of fuel additives.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

According to the invention offers a fuel composition, which is composed of a minor amount of petroleum diesel fuel, the main quantity of the biological component and stabilizer. Quantitative composition expressed in volume percent. Component petroleum diesel fuel selected from the group consisting of summer diesel fuel winter diesel fuel and diesel fuel for selskohozjajstvenno technology. The biological component is selected from the group consisting of peanut butter, vegetable shortening, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, canola oil, palm oil, waste vegetable oil, animal fat, lard and used cooking oil. The present invention discloses a method for retrieving the specified fuel composition.

Vegetable or animal oils can be fresh, that is unused for any other purpose, but preferably requires used oil; these individual types of oils can be combined and used in any ratio. Specialist in the art it is clear that waste cooking oils and fats can contain any of these and other individual components raises the selected and animal fats and oils in any combination, resulting from the extraction of fats and oils from food during frying.

The finished fuel composition according to the invention additionally contains a mixture of fuel additives designed to maintain the cetane number of the fuel combinations on the level or higher than conventional diesel fuel additives with detergent action (detergent) to remove deposits on the injectors and maintain a clean fuel system, lubricating additives (lubricants) to improve lubricity of the fuel composition, drying additives (demulsifiers) for separating moisture from the fuel composition, and depressants (antirelay) to reduce the maximum temperature point and pour point of the fuel composition.

Volume% offer fuel composition contains from about 10% to 50% petroleum diesel fuel, preferably about 10% petroleum diesel fuel, and from about 50% to 90% of the biological component, preferably about 90% of the biological component. Fuel composition also contains from about 0,086% to 0.17% of the mixture fuel additives, preferably about 0,086% mixture of fuel additives. The main components of the mixture fuel additives shown in the Table.

TABLE
Function (type additives)The active ingredientThe ratio of the components (vol.%, about)
Catan-corrector cyanoliseus additive keeping the cetane number of level values for summer diesel fuel1-acetoxyethyl6,0-8,0
Heavy aromatic solvent-naphtha10,0-14,0
5-interracting1,0-2,0
Ethylbenzene3,0-6,0
2-ethylhexanate29,0-31,0
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene2,0-4,0
1-(methylethyl)benzene0,1
Xylene20,0-23,0
The demulsifier - drying additive that promotes the separation of the moisture contained in the fuel composition2-butoxyethanol6,0-8,0
2-ethylhexanol 0,1
The detergent - wash additive that promotes the removal of deposits on the injectors and maintain a clean fuel system1-hydroxy-3,6-dioxaoctyl0,4
Lubricant - a lubricant additive of improving the lubricity of a fuel compositionFatty acid taly oil1,0
Antigen - depressant additive, reducing the maximum temperature point and pour point of the fuel compositionLight solvent-naphtha10,0-14,0

Specified in Table 1 "heavy aromatic solvent-naphtha is the fraction of oil, wikipeida in the temperature range from 140°F (60°C) to 240°F (116°C). "Light solvent-naphtha is the fraction of oil, wikipeida in the temperature range from 120°F (49°C) to 200°F (93°C). "Xylene" is any mixture of 1, 2-, 1, 3-and 1, 4-dimethylbenzene.

"Fatty acid tall oil" is a mixture of fatty acids obtained from tall oil, a by-product of pulp production. Fatty acid tall oil content of 1-10% resin obtained by fractional distillation of tall oil. The specialist in this area, t is the transport clear that minor levels of unidentified chemical contaminants will naturally be present in the materials listed in Table 1, and that these impurities will not significantly affect the function of the mixture.

A. a method of OBTAINING a COMPOSITION ACCORDING to the INVENTION

Pre-filtered fresh or spent biosynthetic oil through 25 micron polyester filter at a temperature of from about 105°F (40,6°C) to 125°F (51,7°C). Analyzed the filtrate on the water content, insoluble and unsaponifiable substances (VNN). Brought the water content, insoluble and unsaponifiable substances (VNN) to a value equal to or smaller than 1.5%. Re was filtered through a 25 micron filter at a temperature of from about 105°F (40,6°C) to 120°F (48,9°C). Then was filtered in the same temperature range from 105°F (40,6°C) to 120°F (48,9°C) through a 10-micron polyester filter. After addition was filtered through a 5 micron polyester filter. Left the filtrate to stand for about 3 hours in conical tanks. Removed sediment from the base of the conical tank. Added from 10 to 50 volume percent petroleum diesel fuel and mixed at a temperature of approximately 110°F (43,3°C). Withstood the mixture without stirring for about 120 minutes.

Added a mixture of stabilizers (0,086 to 0.17 of Jimnah percent) to this mixture and mixed at a temperature of about 100°F (37,8°C) for 60 minutes. Pumped the mixture in the conical tanks and kept at ambient temperature. Left the mixture to settle for about 2 hours. Removed sediment from the conical tank. Missed the mixture through a 5-micron polyester filter in a storage tank. Pumped the mixture in liquid centrifugal separator model ClNC and centrifuged for about 13 minutes with a speed of 2700 rpm Pumped ready hybrid fuel storage tanks.

Century EXAMPLES

In the preferred embodiment, of the invention (Composition A) 6 gallons (22,7 liters) of the mixture of additives added to 7000 gallons (26500 liters) fuel premix comprising 70 volume percent ORME and 30 vol.% summer diesel fuel, grade 2-D (corresponding to the requirements of ASTM D975)to obtain the concentration of additives 0,086%. The typical lot size is 7,000 gallons. Specialist in the art will understand that the amount of additives varies depending on the viscosity of the filtered oil; the more subtle and cleaner is the biological component, the less necessary additives. However, a mandatory minimum of 1 gallon (3.78 liters) of the mixture of additives on 1167 gallons (4418 liters) premix (0,086%), regardless of the characteristics of the biological component. In another example (Composition), 12 gallons(45.4 liters, 0,17%vol.) the mixture of additives added to 7000 gallons (26500 liters) fuel premix comprising 70 vol.% beef fat and 30% vol. summer diesel fuel, grade 2-d Because this premix is more viscous than the premix obtained using an ORM, requires a greater amount of additives.

The following additional examples, on the basis of volume percent, illustrate other preferred compositions according to the invention, which is suitable for various applications of fuel and for different climatic conditions. The following examples of compositions based on the total volume of premix 7000 gallons (26500 liters):

Composition With, for winter road and off-road driving conditions: (25% ORME + 25% beef tallow + 45% of summer diesel fuel 2-D + 5% winter diesel fuel 1-D) + 12 gallons of a mixture of additives (0,17%).

Composition D, road and off-road driving conditions: (55% melted fat + 45% of summer diesel fuel 2-D) + 12 gallons of a mixture of additives (0,17%).

Composition E, for the summer, road and off-road driving conditions: (55% ORME + 45% of summer diesel fuel 2-D) + 12 gallons of a mixture of additives (0,17%).

Composition F, road and off-road driving conditions: (70% ORME + 30% of summer diesel fuel 2-D) + 12 gallons of a mixture of additives (0,17%).

STORONIE TEST

Two identical truck (the truck is) Ford F-350 with the same engines, transmissions, steering mechanisms, ratios of the main transmission, age and mileage were subjected to comparative tests in the summer (August 2003)and winter (February 2003). One truck refueled summer diesel fuel, grade 2-D, and the other of the fuel composition according to the invention (Composition A).

Both trucks were performed daily transportation under normal workloads by more than 375-mile route. According to the results of the August trials, during which the ambient temperature was 90°F (32,2°C), truck, napravlyavshiysya composition And showed an increase in the fuel economy of 3.4% compared to the truck, napravlyavshiysya summer diesel fuel, grade 2-D.

The trucks were similarly tested in February at an ambient temperature of 36°F (2,2°C). And again the truck, napravlyavshiysya composition And showed increase fuel economy by about 3% compared with the truck, napravlyavshiysya summer diesel fuel, grade 2-D.

Both trucks were tested by the quality control Department of the environment and air (DEQ) Oregon (USA) on the content of the hydrocarbon and sulfur in the exhaust gases. Truck, napravlyavshiysya composition And had reduced hydrocarbon emissions by 60% compared to the truck, napravlyavshiysya di the additional fuel. As for the oxides of sulfur, SOxthe truck napravlyavshiysya diesel fuel emitted into the atmosphere 615 million-1SOx(615 ppm). On the contrary, truck, napravlyavshiysya composition according to the invention, threw less than 300 million-1SOx(300 parts per million).

No power loss at the truck, napravlyavshiesya composition according to the invention, was not. Truck, napravlyavshiysya diesel fuel, ran with great difficulty and produce more exhaust gas during cold start. Truck, napravlyavshiysya composition And worked more relaxed and have less knock at idle, showing the best performance lubrication and combustion.

The engine of the truck, napravlyavshiesya composition And did not change appreciably even when included all accessories (such as air conditioning, radio, lights, alarm etc), unlike the truck, napravlyavshiesya diesel fuel.

When both trucks pulling trailers with 2-Hennie goods, plus the weight of a trailer in hilly terrain, truck, napravlyavshiesya composition And, less slip and more easily accelerated; these facts are illustrated improved smazyvaete and engine acceleration provided by composition A.

Although the invention has been illustrated by specific examples, it is implementation specialists in the art will understand that the invention is not limited to the examples presented. The present invention can be practiced with modifications and changes that fall outside the scope of the attached claims.

1. Fuel composition for diesel engines, comprising at least one oil diesel fuel; at least one biological component, such as vegetable or animal oil or fat; and the mixture of fuel additives, characterized in that the mixture of fuel additives contains
a) at least one cyanoliseus additive (petan-corrector), keeping the cetane number of the fuel composition on the level of values for summer diesel fuel with active components selected from the group consisting of 1-acetoxyethyl, heavy aromatic solvent-naphtha, 5-interracting, ethylbenzene, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1-(methylethyl)benzene and xylene;
b) at least one dewatering additive (demulsifier), contributing to the separation of moisture from the specified fuel composition, active components selected from the group consisting of 2-butoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexanol;
c) at least one washing additive (detergent), contributing to the removal of deposits on the injectors and under which Argania clean the fuel system, containing as an active ingredient 1-hydroxy-3,6-dioxaoctyl;
d) at least one lubricant additive (lubricant), contributing to the improvement of the lubricity of a fuel composition containing as an active ingredient fatty acid tall oil;
e) at least one depressant additive (antigen), reducing the maximum temperature point and pour point of the fuel composition containing as an active ingredient a light solvent-naphtha.

2. Fuel composition according to claim 1, wherein the biological component is selected from the group consisting of peanut butter, vegetable shortening, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, canola oil, palm oil, waste vegetable oil, animal fat, lard and used cooking oil.

3. Fuel composition according to claim 1, characterized in that petroleum diesel fuel is selected from the group consisting of summer diesel fuel winter diesel fuel and diesel fuel for agricultural machinery.

4. Fuel composition according to claim 1, characterized in that petroleum diesel fuel is about 10 to about 50 vol.% the specified fuel composition.

5. Fuel composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the biological to mponent is from about 50 to about 90 vol.% the specified fuel composition.

6. Fuel composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture of fuel additives is from about 0,086 to about 0.17% by total premix consisting of petroleum diesel fuel and a biological component.

7. Fuel composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture of fuel additives containing as active components 1-acetoxyethyl, heavy aromatic solvent-naphtha, 5-interracting, ethylbenzene, 2-ethylhexanate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1-(methylethyl)benzene, xylene, 2-butoxyethanol, 2-ethylhexanol, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dioxaoctyl, fatty acid of tall oil and a light solvent-naphtha, is characterized by the following ratio of active ingredients,%:

1-acetoxyethyl6,0-8,0
heavy aromatic solvent-naphtha10,0-14,0
5-interracting1,0-2,0
ethylbenzene3,0-6,0
2-ethylhexanate29,0-31,0
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene2,0-4,0
(1-methylethyl)benzene approximately 0.1
xylene20,0-23,0
2-butoxyethanol6,0-8,0
2-ethylhexanolapproximately 0.1
1-hydroxy-3,6-dioxaoctylapproximately 0.4
fatty acid tall oil (ICTM)about 1.0
light solvent-naphtha10,0-14,0

8. Fuel composition according to claim 1, wherein the biological component is at least one recycled vegetable oil.

9. Fuel composition according to claim 1, wherein the biological component is at least one reusable animal fat.

10. Fuel composition according to claim 1, containing from about 10 to about 50 vol.% petroleum diesel fuel, from about 50 to about 90 vol.% the biological component and from about 0,086 to about 0.17% by a mixture of fuel additives.

11. Fuel composition of claim 10, wherein the biological component is selected from the group consisting of peanut butter, vegetable shortening, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, oil to the Nolan, palm oil, waste vegetable oil, animal fat, lard and used cooking oil.

12. Fuel composition of claim 10, wherein the petroleum diesel fuel selected from the group consisting of summer diesel fuel winter diesel fuel and diesel fuel for agricultural machinery.

13. Fuel composition of claim 10, wherein said mixture of fuel additives containing as active components 1-acetoxyethyl, heavy aromatic solvent-naphtha, 5-interracting, ethylbenzene, 2-ethylhexanate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1-(methylethyl)benzene, xylene, 2-butoxyethanol, 2-ethylhexanol, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dioxaoctyl, fatty acid of tall oil and a light solvent-naphtha, is characterized by the following ratio of active ingredients,%:

1-acetoxyethyl6,0-8,0
heavy aromatic solvent-naphtha10,0-14,0
5-interracting1,0-2,0
ethylbenzene3,0-6,0
2-ethylhexanate29,0-31,0
1,2,trimethylbenzoyl 2,0-4,0
(1-methylethyl)benzeneapproximately 0.1
xylene20,0-23,0
2-butoxyethanol6,0-8,0
2-ethylhexanolapproximately 0.1
1-hydroxy-3,6-dioxaoctylapproximately 0.4
fatty acid tall oil (ICTM)about 1.0
light solvent-naphtha10,0-14,0

14. The method of obtaining fuel composition for diesel engines according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, including the following:
pre-filtering the biological component through a 25-micron polyester filter at a temperature of approximately 105°F (40,6°C) to 125°F (51,7°C);
analysis of the filtrate on the water content, insoluble and unsaponifiable substances (VN);
bringing the water content of insoluble and unsaponifiable substances (VNN) to a value equal to or smaller than 1.5 vol.%;
repeated filtration through a 25-micron filter at a temperature of approximately 105°F (40,6°C) to 120°F (48,9°C);
subsequent filtering within W the temperature range from 105°F (40,6°C) to 120°F (48,9°C) through a 10-micron polyester filter;
additional filtration through a 5 micron polyester filter;
defending the obtained filtrate for about 3 h in conical tanks;
removal of sediment from the base of the conical reservoirs;
adding from 10 to 50 vol.% petroleum diesel fuel and mixing at a temperature of approximately 110°F (43,3°C);
keeping the obtained premix without stirring for about 120 min;
the addition of a mixture of fuel additives (0,086 to 0.17%) to the specified premix and mixing at a temperature of about 100°F (37.8°C) for about 60 min;
pumping the mixture in the conical reservoirs;
conditioning at ambient temperature;
settling the mixture for about 2 hours;
removal of sediment from the conical reservoirs;
filtering the mixture through a 5 micron polyester filter in a storage tank;
pumping the mixture in liquid centrifugal separator model CINC and centrifugation for about 13 min speed 2700 rpm;
and pumping the finished fuel composition in the storage tanks.



 

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2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to briquetting of mineral resources, secondary raw material and can be used in metallurgy, machine building etc. Proposed method comprises preparing automotive tire to accumulate wastes to be salvaged, blending and filling said tire. Mix of said wastes has the following composition in wt %: fines of coke - 24, crushed tires - 5-10 mm-fractions - 10, blast-furnace dust - 10, oxide scale of electric filters - 40, blast-furnace or steel-smelting, sintering tails - 10, buhr - the rest. Note here that CaO/SiO2≈0.7-0.8 that corresponds to basic capacity of slag in acid process. Mix in tire is compacted on vibration table. Filled tires are loaded in metallurgical installation, backfilled by sinter, and tires are transferred into reducing process zone. Device to implement above described method comprises tire to accumulate aforesaid wastes. There is a hole to load wastes inside the tire made in tire outer surface. Inner slot of the tire is covered by wood or metal rim.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of salvaging.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of solid fuel made from industrial and domestic waste consists in the fact that industrial and domestic wastes are divided into three groups at the first step. The first group includes large-sized metal objects, cords and hazardous substances which are removed from total weight of basic objects for manufacturing of solid fuel and then they are disposed. The second group includes large-sized industrial and domestic wastes. The third group contains the wastes which are less than 150 mm as per overall dimensions. At the second step the wastes of the second group are placed in screw crusher for decreasing their overall dimensions to less than 150 mm. At the third step the wastes of the second and the third group are supplied to horizontal crushing plant to decrease their volume. At the fourth step, lime is added to wastes obtained in horizontal crushing plant. Moulding of round briquettes is performed at high pressure and temperature and their drying so that final product is obtained with diametre of 15-30 mm, 30-150 mm long, calorific value of more than 6000 kcal/kg and combustion temperature of more than 1100 deg/C.

EFFECT: simplifying manufacturing procedure of solid fuel from industrial and domestic wastes.

2 cl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of solid fuel made from industrial and domestic waste consists in the fact that industrial and domestic wastes are divided into three groups at the first step. The first group includes large-sized metal objects, cords and hazardous substances which are removed from total weight of basic objects for manufacturing of solid fuel and then they are disposed. The second group includes large-sized industrial and domestic wastes. The third group contains the wastes which are less than 150 mm as per overall dimensions. At the second step the wastes of the second group are placed in screw crusher for decreasing their overall dimensions to less than 150 mm. At the third step the wastes of the second and the third group are supplied to horizontal crushing plant to decrease their volume. At the fourth step, lime is added to wastes obtained in horizontal crushing plant. Moulding of round briquettes is performed at high pressure and temperature and their drying so that final product is obtained with diametre of 15-30 mm, 30-150 mm long, calorific value of more than 6000 kcal/kg and combustion temperature of more than 1100 deg/C.

EFFECT: simplifying manufacturing procedure of solid fuel from industrial and domestic wastes.

2 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises coal crushing and damping. Crushed and damped coal is heated to sulfur melting point to deposit sulfur on steel electrodes arranged in coal and receiving direct current. Voltage effect on damped coal in air-water medium at sulfur melting point (119.4°C) time sufficient for sulfur that features polar electronegativity to get transferred onto anode steel electrode.

EFFECT: simplified process, high degree of extraction of sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves dropwise addition of diesel fuel to a pelleting press while pressing crushed wood wastes. The method of producing biofuel from wood wastes involves crushing, drying, mixing components and subsequent pressing, wherein the binder and component which reduces the load on the press matrix owing to increase in the slip coefficient between the material and cavities of the matrix is diesel fuel which is added in the following ratio, wt %: wood wastes 99.0-99.9; diesel fuel 0.1-1.

EFFECT: higher cost-effectiveness of the technological process without loss of quality characteristics of the obtained biofuel, improved water-repellent properties and higher combustion heat of the biofuel, lower ash content and high wear resistance of the press matrix.

1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: moulded fuel contains a dry mixture of wood wastes and wastes from starch production in ratio of 3:1 and lipid-containing animal wastes in the following ratio of components, wt %: said lipid-containing wastes 30-60; mixture of ground solid fuel and starch production wastes - the rest. The lipid-containing wastes are wastes from fish processing, meat processing and bird processing. The method of producing moulded fuel involves selection of components, grinding and mixing the ground solid fuel, moulding the mixture, wherein before grinding, the solid components are separated on vibrating screens into two fractions with particle size less than 8 mm and greater than 8 mm and the latter is taken for grinding. Each fraction is then taken for drying and the components are dried to moisture of 12-16%. The components are then mixed and the mixture is then moulded in an extruder at pressure of 5-10 MPa and temperature of 140-200°C. The ready fuel is packed into sacks.

EFFECT: invention enables recycling and utilisation of wastes from food production and improves physical and mechanical properties of the fuel blocks.

5 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: moulded fuel contains a dry mixture of wood wastes and wastes from starch production in ratio of 3:1 and lipid-containing animal wastes in the following ratio of components, wt %: said lipid-containing wastes 30-60; mixture of ground solid fuel and starch production wastes - the rest. The lipid-containing wastes are wastes from fish processing, meat processing and bird processing. The method of producing moulded fuel involves selection of components, grinding and mixing the ground solid fuel, moulding the mixture, wherein before grinding, the solid components are separated on vibrating screens into two fractions with particle size less than 8 mm and greater than 8 mm and the latter is taken for grinding. Each fraction is then taken for drying and the components are dried to moisture of 12-16%. The components are then mixed and the mixture is then moulded in an extruder at pressure of 5-10 MPa and temperature of 140-200°C. The ready fuel is packed into sacks.

EFFECT: invention enables recycling and utilisation of wastes from food production and improves physical and mechanical properties of the fuel blocks.

5 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of tetrahydrobenzoxazines

in which substitute R1 denotes a hydrocarbyl residue having 1-3000 carbon atoms, and substitutes R2, R3, R4 and R5 independently denote hydrogen atoms, hydroxyl groups or hydrocarbyl residues, having 1-3000 carbon atoms, respectively, and in which substitutes R3 and R4 or R4 and R5 with a partial structure -O-CH2-NR7-CH2-, bonded to the benzene ring, can also form a second tetrahydrooxazine ring, where R7 denotes hydrocarbyl residues having 1-3000 carbon atoms, provided that at least one of substitutes R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 or R7 are polyisobutenyl, having 3000 carbon atoms and the rest of the substitutes from the group R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 or R7, if they denote hydrocarbyl residues, have 1-20 carbon atoms, respectively, as anti-oxidants for stabilising mineral oil and fuel products against the effect of light, oxygen and heat. The invention also describes jet fuel and jet fuel additive concentrate containing tetrahydrobenzoxazine of formula (I).

EFFECT: preparation of stabilisers having improved stabilisation of nonliving organic material, particularly jet fuel against the effect of light, oxygen and heat.

9 cl, 14 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of improving fluidity of a mixture containing wax and other hydrocarbons, involving addition to the mixture of a certain amount of a dendritic heavily branched polyester amide, in which besides hydrocarbon fluids passing through a pipe and containing wax, there are other fluids such as water, salt solution or gas, where between 1 and 10 wt % dendritic compound, in terms of the entire weight of the hydrocarbon fluid and dendritic compound, is added to the mixture. The invention also relates to a hydrocarbon mixture.

EFFECT: improved fluidity of hydrocarbon mixtures.

11 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: multifunctional motor gasoline additive contains the following in wt %: hexamethylene diammonium tetraborate 8.0-10.0, stearic acid 35.0-40.0, 180…350°C hydrocarbon fraction up to 100.

EFFECT: improved operational and environmental characteristics of fuel, low content of toxic substances in exhaust gases of motorcars.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to multi-functional additive to automobile petroleum, which contains the following, wt %: methyl tertiary butyl ether 20-40; detergent additive containing friction modifier (Hitech 6437) up to 10; colour stabiliser - diethylamine or triethylene tetramine 0.01-0.2; anti-knock additive on the basis of aromatic amines, which includes N-methylaniline as the main component, is the rest. Invention also refers to fuel composition for internal combustion engines. Automobile petroleum by using the proposed additive meets the general requirements of European Standards.

EFFECT: additive within the proposed range and ratio of components together with high anti-knock detergent and corrosion-protecting properties has colour stability after 1 year of storage.

2 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: given invention relates to compositions and methods for improving electrical conductivity of middle-distillate fuel compositions. Described is a concentrate additive, a method of improving electrical conductivity of a middle-distillate fuel composition, a middle-distillate fuel composition, use of the fuel composition in a combustion chamber, a method of providing stable electrical conductivity effect of the middle-distillate fuel composition.

EFFECT: stable electrical conductivity effect of middle-distillate fuel compositions.

24 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: there proposed is addition to diesel fuel, which contains alkyl(C3-C20)nitrate, alkyl(C1-C25)succinimide, unsaturated fatty acid chosen from group of oleic, linoleic, linolenic, or amide of this acid and calcium sulphonate. In addition to the above components the addition also includes copolymer of highest ethers C6-C28 of acrylic or methacrylic acid with ethylenically unsaturated monomer. There also proposed is diesel fuel based on base fuel containing this addition in quantity of 0.001-1.0 wt %. As base fuel, the fuel includes gas condensate diesel fuel, summer or winter diesel fuel of oil origin. The proposed diesel fuel completely corresponds to requirements for diesel fuels by European Standard (EN 590) and new GOST R 52368-2005.

EFFECT: proposed addition allows improving start-up and low-temperature characteristics and greasy properties of diesel fuels.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: overall, the invention relates to oil compositions, mainly liquid fuel compositions and oil compositions derived therefrom. A crude oil composition is described, for producing oil with improved fluidity at low temperature, containing crude oil and an effective amount of a depressant composition, which contains at least a depressant of formula (I): , where R1, R2 and R3 are independently selected from hydrocarbon groups which contain up to 50 carbon atoms, R4 is selected from NH or O and n is an integer from 0 to 50, under the condition that, the crude oil composition contains less than 20% carbon. Described also is a method of improving rheological properties of oil, a lubricating oil composition, a method of improving rheological properties of lubricating oil, a crude oil composition and a method of improving rheological properties of crude oil.

EFFECT: obtaining oil with improved rheological properties at low temperature.

35 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil refining and petrochemistry, specifically to composition of a multifunctional additive to motor petrol based on monomethylaniline. The multifunctional additive to motor petrol contains aromatic amine, an admixture of amines, polyester and corrosion inhibitor. The additive is distinguished by that, it also contains a colour stabiliser, which is polyethylenepolyamine of general formula H2N-(CH2-CH2-NH-)nH, where n=1-5, or hydrazine-hydrate, as well as a solvent, with the following ratio of components, wt %: admixture of amines, polyester or corrosion inhibitor 0.5 to 3.5; polyethylenepolyamine of general formula H2N-(CH2-CH2-NH-)nH, where n=1-5, or hydrazine-hydrate 0.01 to 0.2; solvent 20.0 to 35.0; aromatic amine up to 100. The solvent is selected from: 2-ethylhexanol, toluene, xylene etc.

EFFECT: additive made in the proposed interval and ratio of components has high colour stability after 1 year of storage, along with good anti-detonation, detergent and anticorrosion properties.

2 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil refining and petrochemistry, specifically to composition of a multifunctional additive to motor petrol based on monomethylaniline. The multifunctional additive to motor petrol contains aromatic amine, an admixture of amines, polyester and corrosion inhibitor. The additive is distinguished by that, it also contains a colour stabiliser, which is polyethylenepolyamine of general formula H2N-(CH2-CH2-NH-)nH, where n=1-5, or hydrazine-hydrate, as well as a solvent, with the following ratio of components, wt %: admixture of amines, polyester or corrosion inhibitor 0.5 to 3.5; polyethylenepolyamine of general formula H2N-(CH2-CH2-NH-)nH, where n=1-5, or hydrazine-hydrate 0.01 to 0.2; solvent 20.0 to 35.0; aromatic amine up to 100. The solvent is selected from: 2-ethylhexanol, toluene, xylene etc.

EFFECT: additive made in the proposed interval and ratio of components has high colour stability after 1 year of storage, along with good anti-detonation, detergent and anticorrosion properties.

2 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil refining and petrochemistry, specifically to composition of a multifunctional additive to motor petrol based on monomethylaniline. The multifunctional additive to motor petrol contains aromatic amine, an admixture of amines, polyester and corrosion inhibitor. The additive is distinguished by that, it also contains a colour stabiliser, which is polyethylenepolyamine of general formula H2N-(CH2-CH2-NH-)nH, where n=1-5, or hydrazine-hydrate, as well as a solvent, with the following ratio of components, wt %: admixture of amines, polyester or corrosion inhibitor 0.5 to 3.5; polyethylenepolyamine of general formula H2N-(CH2-CH2-NH-)nH, where n=1-5, or hydrazine-hydrate 0.01 to 0.2; solvent 20.0 to 35.0; aromatic amine up to 100. The solvent is selected from: 2-ethylhexanol, toluene, xylene etc.

EFFECT: additive made in the proposed interval and ratio of components has high colour stability after 1 year of storage, along with good anti-detonation, detergent and anticorrosion properties.

2 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: in the method of producing high-octane additive for motor fuel, which involves sulphuric hydration, said hydration is carried out with a mixture of ethylene- and propylene-containing gases - a product of pyrolysis of hydrocarbon material by feeding said material into a first reactor for hydration of propylene from a mixture of sulphuric acid gases to obtain isopropyl sulphuric acid, further hydrolysis thereof to obtain a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water, feeding the remaining mixture of gases into a second reactor for hydration of ethylene from the mixture of sulphuric acid gases to obtain ethyl sulphuric acid, further hydrolysis thereof to obtain a mixture of ethyl alcohol and water, fractionation of the mixture of isopropyl and ethyl alcohol and water to obtain the end product.

EFFECT: high stability and antiknock properties of the high-octane additive, low power consumption and reduced production wastes, which ensure high profitability of oil refining.

11 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

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