Films, storage container made from said films and application methods

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a perforated film, a method of producing a perforated film for packaging, storage container made from said film and method of filling the storage container with powdered material. The perforated film has at least one layer made from a composition which contains at least one thermoplastic polymer, where at least one layer has perforations whose dimensions are less than or equal to 90 micrometres (mcm), and the ratio of the total perforated area to the total area of the surface of the film is between 400000 and 2000000 square micrometres per square inch of the film ((mcm)2/(inch)2) (62000 - 310000 ((mcm)2/(cm)2).

EFFECT: obtaining storage container made from said perforated film, having a combination of perforation dimensions and density of perforations, which enables efficient removal of air when filling the container with fine powder substances under pressure.

51 cl, 3 tbl, 5 dwg

 

The link to the previous application

This application claims the benefit of provisional application No. 60/729,705, registered on October 24, 2005, fully incorporated herein by reference.

The level of technology

This invention relates to a perforated films containing at least one layer, and to a packaging container made from them. Such film and packing containers contain the perforations, the combination of size and density which allows effective removal of air and results in improved moisture resistance. Packing containers of the present invention, in particular, allows for the effective removal of air during filling under pressure substances representing a highly dispersible powders. This invention also relates to methods of producing such apertured films and packaging materials, and to methods of filling such packaging. In addition, this invention relates to a perforated films that are strong enough to withstand the heat during hot filling and heavy loads, and exposure to rough surfaces under normal processes, packaging and distribution.

In commercial activities related to the packaging of powders, critical is used in isawanya breathable packaging (packages), since the packaging container is filled with compressed air, which fluidizedbed powder particles. Entrapped air must be removed from the packaging, otherwise the internal pressure in the package will increase and breaking the package. Entrapped air must be removed from the packaging in a controlled manner in order to ensure maximum capture of fluidized powder. Currently, the entrapped air is removed through the perforations in plastic bags.

Best packing containers are supposed to protect the powder from rashes, but the ability to hold powder must be balanced with the need for the escape of air during the filling process. As discussed above, one way air release is the perforation of the package. The size and number of perforations in the packaging container will determine the amount of powder that is poured from the package.

The U.S. patent 3,085,608 discloses a polyethylene sheet or the package in which the plastic material perforated in a more or less regular way a large number within the specified distance in advance of punching holes. This package is permeable to air at low pressure, which exceeds or is less than atmospheric pressure, and in fact the wrong nizaam to moisture or water. This publication discloses the sprocket holes with an average diameter in the range from at 0.020 to 0.045 inch.

The U.S. patent 4,672,684 discloses thermoplastic transport bag with thermoplastic inner layer comprising a grid, which allows the packaging represents a highly dispersible powder materials without allocation during or after filling unacceptable quantities of powders into the atmosphere. This publication reveals the inner mesh size perforations from 0.1 to 1.0 mm

European patent application No. 0391661 discloses A laminated sheet material formed by the first layer and the second layer. The first layer has a certain predetermined density/m2micro-holes with a size in the range from 0.1 to 0.4 mm, which provide this layer is controlled degree of porosity, thereby making the layer is permeable to air, which can pass through the aforementioned holes. The second layer has a fibrous air-permeable structure and virtually impermeable to liquids and particles.

The U.S. patent 4,743,123 discloses a plastic bag, made of a polyolefin material such as polyethylene, for packaging materials consisting of particles with a size less than 50 microns, and a closed package containing such materials, as well as predstavljajushej a thin film material for manufacturing such a package. The wall of the package of thin films has ventilation holes with smooth edges with a maximum size of 50-100 μm, obtained through the use of laser radiation. The distance between the ventilation holes is such that the tensile strength of this thin film is actually the same as the tensile strength of such non-perforated, thin films. For thin films of low density polyethylene of a thickness of 130-190 μm, the distance between the perforations of size 80 μm exceeds 20 mm, for thin films of linear low density polyethylene of a thickness of 50-110 microns, the distance between perforations is at least 5 mm, Such a package may consist of two layers of perforated thin film, and the perforations are staggered in relation to each other.

The U.S. patent 4,332,845 open the package, where at least part of the material forming the package in which sealed absorbing oxygen substance consists of a laminated sheet which is permeable to gas sheet is laminated on one or both sides of the microporous film to give a layered structure of two external layers. The two outer layers have different softening temperatures, and a layer of low temperature Razmadze the Oia forms the inner surface of the package. The microporous film is disclosed as a film that has many small holes, and as gas-permeable and waterproof in the absence of differences between the pressure outside the package and the pressure in the package. Preferably, the size of the holes ranged from 0.01 to 50 μm, and the distance along the short axis was less than 2 microns.

GB 1265547 discloses a method and equipment for packing of substances in the form of particulate or pulverulent products in containers made from plastic film material. This publication discloses a container made of perforated oriented plastic film material in which holes have a diameter less than the average particle size of the Packed product. This publication discloses a packet received from a pipe made of a film of high-pressure polyethylene with a hole size of 0.02 mm on a given area of the film material.

Additional applications associated with the use of films and packaging are disclosed in the patents, publications and patent applications U.S. 5,493,844, U.S. 4,672,684, U.S. 4,456,570, U.S. 4,579,154, U.S. No. 2003/0085213, U.S. 5,427,807, U.S. 6,086,967, U.S. 5,389,448, U.S. 6,579,607, U.S. 5,139,855, EP 0060599, EP 0500931 A1, WO 03/074594 and WO 03/095197.

However, in these publications do not consider soft packaging containers made of breathable films, which ablauts is cost effective to manufacture and possess good mechanical properties, which can effectively fill under the pressure of the powder-like material and which will have the ability to release entrapped air at low loss powder due to rash or spraying.

Thus, there is a need for breathable films which are cost-effective for industrial purposes and have good mechanical properties. There is an additional need for soft packaging containers made from such films, which can effectively fill under the pressure of the powder-like material and which will ensure the effective removal of trapped air. As discussed above, to ensure maximum capture of fluidized powder and quantities of powder (dust) on the outer surface of the package entrapped air must be removed in a controlled way. Thus, there is a need to minimize the amount of dust while ensuring, at the same time, the rapid and effective removal of trapped air during the filling process. Packing should also have good moisture resistance and good structural integrity, particularly at elevated temperatures. In a typical process of filling powders heat released in the process of filling the package, may p is iodite to increase the temperature of the package to 100°C.

There is also a need to create films with a minimum number of surface defects, suitable for printing surfaces and good structural integrity. There is an additional need to create a breathable film that does not feel the need to withstand high loading of filler. At least, the following invention satisfies some of these, as well as other needs.

Disclosure of inventions

This invention describes a perforated film containing at least one layer, and at least one layer contains sprocket holes are individually smaller than or equal to 100 microns (μm), and the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 400,000 to 2000000 square microns per square inch of film(μm)2/(inch)2).

In addition, this invention describes a method of obtaining a perforated film containing at least one layer, and the above method includes:

a) selecting a thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers that are suitable for creating at least one layer;

b) obtaining a film of thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers, such as film, obtained by blowing or irrigation;

C)punching above-mentioned film to obtain a perforated film; and

where at least one layer contains sprocket holes are individually smaller than or equal to 100 microns (μm) and where the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 400,000 to 2000000 square microns per square inch of film(μm)2/(inch)2).

This invention also describes the method for filling packaging powdered material, and the above method includes the introduction of compressed gas powdered materials in packing containers suitable containers for receiving the filled packaging, this packaging container made of a perforated film containing at least one layer, and at least one layer contains sprocket holes are individually smaller than or equal to 100 microns (μm), and the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 400,000 to 2000000 square microns per square inch of film(µm)2/(inch)2).

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 represents the dependence of permeability on Hourly (Gurley) (sec) of the total perforated area (µm)2/(inch)2for perforated polyolefin film in comparison with porous paper service

Figure 2 depicts an alternative perforation patterns.

Figure 3 is a schematic illustration of the valve (1) with uniform (evenly distributed) location perforations (sprocket holes labeled (2)) and the hole (3).

Figure 4 is a schematic illustration of the valve (1) with perforations dealt with several different densities (the sprocket holes are marked as (2)) and the hole (3).

Figure 5 is a schematic illustration of the valve (1) with a higher density of perforations (sprocket holes labeled (2)) on the area of the lateral surface (5) in comparison with the area of the front surface (4) and nut (3).

The implementation of the invention

The invention provides a perforated film and packing containers, which have a good combination of permeability, resistance to moisture and mechanical properties. Perforated packing containers made from films according to this invention, also provides sufficient removal of trapped air during the process of filling the powder under pressure at reducing, at the same time, the number of powder (dust) on the outer surface of the package. In particular, this izopet the tion describes a perforated film, containing at least one layer, and at least one layer contains sprocket holes are individually smaller than or equal to 100 microns (μm), and the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 400,000 to 2000000 square microns per square inch of film(μm)2/(inch)2). In one embodiment of the present invention the perforations have the same dimensions. In yet another embodiment of the present invention the size of the perforations is in the range from 10 microns to 100 microns. In another embodiment, the film contains at least three layers, where at least one inner layer is open and/or capable of re-sealing the porous layer.

In another embodiment of the present invention, at least one layer of a film formed from the composition, which contains at least one thermoplastic polymer. In another embodiment of this invention thermoplastic polymer is a polyolefin. In another embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises 50 or more weight percent of homopolymer or interpolymer based on ethylene. In yet another additional embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises 40 or less weight percent of homopolymer or interpolymer on the basis of the e propylene. It is possible pairwise link polymer molecules homopolymer or interpolymer based on propylene.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the film has a permeability to Gurli less than 50 seconds per 100 cubic centimeters of air, and more preferably less than 30 seconds per 100 cubic centimeters of air. In another embodiment of the present invention, the film contains from 60 to 1000 perforations per square inch of film.

The invention also provides a packaging container made of a film according to this invention, as described in this document. In one embodiment, the package contains two or more layer(EC) and contains sprocket holes on one or several designated areas on the surface of the package.

The invention also provides additional options for the films and/or packaging described herein, or a combination of these options receive.

Additionally, the invention provides a method of obtaining a perforated film containing at least one layer, and the aforementioned method includes:

a) selecting a thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers that are suitable for creating at least one layer;

b) obtaining a film of thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers, such as p is Enki, get blown or irrigation;

C) punching above-mentioned film to obtain a perforated film; and

where at least one layer contains sprocket holes are individually smaller than or equal to 100 microns (μm) and where the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 400,000 to 2000000 square microns per square inch of film(μm)2/(inch)2). In one embodiment, the implementation of the sprocket holes are localized on one or more designated areas of the film. The invention also describes additional embodiments of this method, as described herein, and combinations of these embodiments.

This invention also provides a method for filling packaging of powdered products, moreover, the aforementioned method includes the introduction of powder materials using compressed gas, usually air, in the packaging container of suitable capacity for receiving the filled packaging where packaging containers made of perforated film containing at least one layer, and where at least one layer contains sprocket holes are individually smaller than or equal to 100 microns (μm) and where the ratio of the total lane is arrowanas area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 400,000 to 2000000 square microns per square inch of film(μm) 2/(inch)2). The invention also provides additional embodiments of this method, as described herein, and combinations of these embodiments.

The perforated film according to this invention possess the best combination of permeability, resistance to moisture and mechanical properties compared to films selected for comparison, the dimensions of the perforations, the perforated area and/or density of the perforations which extend beyond those for films according to this invention. Packaging containers made from such films, you can fill in fine powdered materials under pressure and it has good permeability with respect to the captured air, formed during the filling process. During the selection of air similar packing shows a smaller amount of powder (dust) on the outer surface of the packing containers, compared with a packing container made of films selected for comparison. As discussed, this package also has excellent moisture resistance and excellent mechanical properties such as tensile strength at Elmendorf, 2% secant modulus, resistance to puncture and resistance to instant kick.

As discussed above, the present invention describes an air what they have water resistant film and a soft packing containers, made from such films. Soft packing containers can effectively fill the powdered materials in the terms of use of high pressure (for example, when using compressed air). For the manufacture of packaging containers according to this invention using a perforated film containing at least one layer (or layer). In one embodiment, the implementation of the perforated film contains only one layer or layer.

Packing containers made from films of this invention may contain powdered materials, the particles of which have a variety of sizes. In one of the embodiments, the particle size of such materials may be in the range from 1 μm to 100 μm. The particle can have any shape, such as spherical shape or an irregular and non-uniform shape.

The film according to this invention can be used for packing all types of materials, including materials in the form of fine particles, powders, granules and bulk goods, in particular for packaging sensitive to moisture materials, as well as sensitive to moisture powder materials. Made of a film according to this invention, the packaging container is particularly useful for packaging powder materials, that is their as cement, lime, talc powder, talc, polyvinyl chloride, gypsum, cocoa, corn flour, flour and powdered sugar.

Packaging containers made of a film according to this invention, can be thermally or mechanically processed using additional process steps as required for specific needs related packaging. This invention describes a packaging container that can be used in the normal course of the process steps associated with the packaging of powders, without the need for any additional process steps or without the necessity of changing technological stage.

The film according to this invention can be obtained without using a large amount of filler, such as calcium carbonate. Components constituting the fillers are usually present in quantities of 50 or more weight percent. Fillers are often used in the formula of the film to get holes in the final film. Usually a film cast from this recipe film, and then cast stretch film to obtain holes around clusters of filler particles. In one of the embodiments of the film according to this invention contains less than 50 weight percent filler. In another embodiment, the film according to this invention contains IU is its 25 weight percent filler. In another embodiment, the film does not contain a component representing a filler.

The film according to this invention perforined, usually using mechanical methods, including platens or plates with a needle headset, or processing with a laser, but not limited to them.

Browse films/packaging

The dimensions of the perforations suitable for films of this invention are less than 100 microns (μm), preferably less than 90 microns, and more preferably less than 80 microns. In one of the embodiments the size of the perforations is from 10 microns to 100 microns, preferably from 30 microns to 100 microns, more preferably from 50 microns to 100 microns, and still more preferably from 60 microns to 100 microns. All individual values and subranges from 10 microns to 100 microns included herein and disclosed herein. In another embodiment, the size of the perforations is from 60 μm to 90 μm. In another embodiment, the size of the perforations is from 10 microns to 40 microns. In another embodiment, the size of the perforations is greater than or equal to 10 microns, preferably greater than or equal to 20 microns, and more preferably greater than or equal to 30 microns. In another embodiment, the size of the punch is operating holes is less than or equal to 100 microns, preferably less than or equal to 90 microns, and more preferably less than or equal to 80 microns.

The size of the perforation holes usually is the average diameter if the hole shape is circular, or the average equivalent diameter if the shape is not circular. For example, the size of the perforations in the case of elliptical holes would be the average of the two diameters.

The perforations on the film layers can be any size or shape, including holes of varying degrees of krugoobraznymi, various triangular shapes, a variety of rectangular and other polygonal shapes, irregular shapes and holes in the form of cracks, but are not limited to them. In one way of carrying out this invention the layers (or layer) films possess perforations of the same size or with the gradient size. The size of the perforations will vary depending on the size of the contained material. In another embodiment, the perforations have the same size. In a preferred embodiment, the perforations have a circular form.

The film according to this invention perforined, usually using mechanical methods, including platens or plates with a needle headset, Lieb is processing with a laser, not limited to but them. In one embodiment, the implementation of the perforations get on both sides of the film, such as film, get blown, or on both sides of the packaging. In another embodiment, grooves, resulting perforations are located on the outer side of the package made of a film according to this invention.

In another embodiment, the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film ranges from 400,000 square microns per square inch of film(μm)2/(inch)2) to 2000000 (µm)2/(inch)2preferably from 500,000 (µm)2/(inch)2to 1000000 (µm)2/(inch)2and more preferably 600,000 (µm)2/(inch)2to 800000(µm)2/(inch)2. All individual values and subranges from 400000 (µm)2/(inch)2to 2000000 (µm)2/(inch)2included herein and disclosed herein. In another embodiment, the ratio of the total perforated area to the total area of the surface of the film is greater than or equal to 400000 (µm)2/(inch)2preferably greater than or equal to 500000 (µm)2/(inch)2and more preferably greater than or equal to 600000 (µm)2/(inch)2. In another embodiment, the ratio of the aggregate is perforirovannoi area to the total area of the film surface is less than or equal to 2000000 (µm) 2/(inch)2preferably less than or equal to 1900000 (µm)2/(inch)2and more preferably less than or equal to 1,800,000 (µm)2/(inch)2.

In another embodiment, the perforation density ranging from 40 to 1500 perforations per square inch, preferably from 60 to 1000 perforations per square inch, more preferably from 65 to 750 perforations per square inch, and still more preferably from 100 to 500 perforations per square inch of film.

In another embodiment, the permeability of the film on Gurli is less than 50 seconds per 100 cubic centimeters of air, preferably less than 30, and more preferably less than 20. In another embodiment, the permeability of the film on Gurli is from 2 to 50 seconds per 100 cubic centimeters of air, more preferably from 5 to 40 seconds per 100 cubic centimeters of air, and even more preferably from 10 to 30 seconds per 100 cubic centimeters of air. All individual values and subranges from 2 to 50 seconds per 100 cubic centimeters of air incorporated herein and disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the permeability of packaging containers made from films according to this invention, is at least 30 m3per hour, more than predpochtitelno, at least 50 m3per hour, and most preferably at least 100 m3in the hour. In another embodiment, achieve air permeability of at least 200 m3an hour.

The film according to this invention typically can have a thickness of 25 microns (μm) to 1000 μm, preferably from 40 μm to 600 μm, more preferably from 50 μm to 400 μm. All individual values and subranges from 25 μm to 1000 μm are incorporated herein and disclosed herein. In another embodiment, the film thickness is greater than or equal to 25 μm, preferably greater than or equal to 30 μm, and more preferably greater than or equal to 45 μm. In another embodiment, the film thickness is less than or equal to 1000 μm, preferably less than or equal to 800 μm, and more preferably less than or equal to 600 μm. The film may also have a thickness of more than 1000 μm.

In another embodiment, the film according to this invention have a 2% zechusim module (MD and/or CD)of at least 50000 psi.

In another embodiment, the film according to this invention have a tensile strength at Elmendorf (MD and/or CD)of at least 40 grams per one-thousandth of an inch film thickness, and more preferably at least 70 grams per one-thousandth of an inch film thickness.

The invention describes a packing tar is, made of a film according to this invention. This invention also describes a packaging container, comprising at least one component made of a film according to this invention. Packing containers made from films of this invention may contain a weight from 1 kg to 100 kg, from 1 kg to 50 kg, or 1 to 25 kg

The configuration of the perforations on the film will vary depending on the final application of this film. The sheets may have perforations on designated areas of such sheet. The marked area can have any size and shape. These marked areas of the perforations can be in a variety of configurations, including gradients of the size of the perforations along a particular axis region, the density gradients perforation along a particular axis region, the gradients of the shape and/or size of the perforations, but not limited to them. Ideally, when the perforation pattern (the size of the perforations, the number of perforations and the placement of the perforations should be such that the container was permeable to air under pressure, but mostly impervious to moisture. Examples of alternative cellular templates perforation shown in figure 2.

In one of the variants of the s implementation the film perforined on one or more designated areas. With this design the marked area can be localized to specific areas of packaging or designated area can cover the entire surface of the film. In another embodiment, the film perforined so that packing containers made from such compositions contain the perforations on one or more horizontal, flat surfaces. The perforations can be evenly placed on one or more designated areas or placed with different density perforations on one or more designated areas. In one embodiment, the implementation of the package contains at least four sides, where at least one party has a large number of perforations per square inch of film compared at least with the other party. In another embodiment, the packaging container contains at least four sides, where at least two parties have a large number of perforations per square inch of film compared at least with the other two parties. In each of these embodiments the size and shape of the perforations can vary. The dimensions of the perforations may increase with a decrease in the share of the VA perforations. Packaging container according to this invention usually contains one or two or more layers.

In a preferred embodiment, the film according to this invention is used for making bags with valves. Three images of such a package is shown in Fig.3-5, respectively. As shown in these drawings, the upper part of the package contains a hole for insertion of the spout for filling. In one embodiment, the implementation of the lower part and the corresponding region of the upper part of the sealed, except for the hole for the spout for filling, by using heat to maintain the integrity of the environment. Thus, the package create for approximate matching spout for filling, leaving a small open area for the powder during the filling process. The perforations, as shown in Fig.3-5, first of all, define configuration templates and do not necessarily depicted to scale.

Film and/or packing containers of this invention can be produced using a combination of two or more of the embodiments described in this document.

Polymers - an overview

The film according to this invention contain at least one layer or stratum. In a preferred embodiment, the film contains only one layer or stratum. Each layer or stratum about atovan composition, which usually contains at least one thermoplastic polymer. The choice of polymer for each layer will depend on the location of the layer, the softening temperature and/or melting of the polymer, and also forces the adhesive interaction between successive layers. The content of thermoplastic polymer in each layer will vary depending on the desired properties, for example, the strength properties of the film, as well as from other components of the film and/or the type or types of the used polymers. As a rule, in the case of polyolefins this content constitutes at least 40 weight percent of the total weight of the composition, preferably at least 45%, more preferably at least 60 percent. Preferred polyolefins include polymers based on ethylene-based polymers of propylene.

Any thermoplastic polymer or thermoplastic polymer mixture can be used in practice of this invention, and typical polymers include natural or synthetic polymers, such as styrene block copolymers, rubbers, polyolefins, such as polyethylene, polypropylene and polybutene, and copolymers of ethylene/vinyl acetate (EVA), copolymers ethylenically acid (EAA)copolymers utilizability (EMA, EEA, EBA), polybutylene, polybutadiene, nylone, polycarbonates,polyesters, the polyethylene oxide, polypropyleneoxide, the ethylene-propylene interpolymer, such as ethylene-propylene rubber and rubber-based monomers of ethylene, propylene and diene, chlorinated polyethylene, thermoplastic vulcanizates, Ethylenediamine polymers (EEA), Ethylenediamine interpolymer (ESI), polyurethanes, as well as functionally modified polyolefins, such as olefin polymers, modified grafted silane or maleic anhydride, and combinations of two or more such polymers, but not limited to.

Thermoplastic polymer or thermoplastic polymer mixture may include one or more homopolymers or interpolymers based on propylene and/or one or more homopolymers or interpolymers on the basis of ethylene, each as the sole polymer component or as one of the polymer components (in addition to one or more other polymer components).

Suitable comonomers suitable for polymerization of the olefin, such as ethylene or propylene, are unsaturated monomers ethylene series, paired or unpaired diene or polyene, but are not limited to them. Examples of such comonomers include ethylene and C3-C20 α-olefins, such as propylene, 1-butene, 1-penten, 1-hexene, 4-methyl-1-penten, 1-hepten, 1-octene, 1-non is h, 1-the mission and the like. Preferred comonomers include ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene, the latter of which is especially preferred. Other suitable monomers include styrene, halogen - or alkyl substituted styrene, tetrafluoroethylene, vinylbenzoate, BUTADIENES, isoprene, pentadiene, hexadiene, octadiene and cycloalkene, for example, cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cyclooctene. Typically, the ethylene will copolymerized with one C3-C20 α-olefin. Preferred comonomers include C3-C8 α-olefins, such as propylene, 1-butene, 1-penten, 4-methyl-1-penten, 1-hexene, 1-hepten, and 1-octene, and most preferably propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene and 1-octene.

In one embodiment, the implementation of interpolymer-based olefin has a content of co monomer, which is not more than 20, preferably less than 15, more preferably less than 10, even more preferably less than 7, and most preferably less than 5 weight percent of the above interpolymer. All individual weight of contents and sub-ranges from 5 to 20 weight percent are included in this document and described in this document.

In another embodiment, interpolymer-based olefin has a content of co monomer, which is not more than 7, preferably less than 5, more preferably less than 3, most chelation is) less than 2 weight percent of the above interpolymer. All individual weight of contents and sub-ranges from 2 to 7 weight percent are included in this document and described in this document.

In another embodiment, interpolymer-based olefin has a content of co monomer, which is not more than 50, preferably less than 40, more preferably less than 30, most preferably less than 20 weight percent of the above interpolymer. All individual weight of contents and sub-ranges from 20 to 50 weight percent are included in this document and described in this document.

The content of the co monomer in interpolymer according to this invention can exceed 50 weight percent or be less than 2 weight percent.

Polymers based on ethylene include homopolymers of ethylene as well as statistical and block interpolymer ethylene. Such polymers include copolymers, terpolymer, terpolymer and polymers of ethylene, propylene and other olefins, such as used for choosing dieny, more complex structure.

Polymers based on ethylene include linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene, ultra low density (ULDPE), polyethylene, very low density (VLDPE), homogeneously branched linear ethylene polymers, homogeneously branched mainly LINEST is e ethylene polymers, as well as heterogeneous linear ethylene polymers. The contents of one or more of these polymers in the film, in case of their presence, will vary depending on the desired properties of the other components and the type of polyethylene(s).

The terms "homogeneous" and "homogeneously-branched" are used in respect of interpolymers ethylene/α-olefin, in which the α-olefin of comonomer statistical way distributed within a given polymer molecule and substantially all of the polymer molecules have the same ratio of ethylene to the number of co monomer.

Homogeneously branched ethylene interpolymer that can be used in practice of this invention include the homogeneously branched linear ethylene interpolymer, and homogeneously branched mostly linear ethylene interpolymer.

Among the homogeneously branched linear ethylene interpolymers included ethylene polymers which lack long chain branching, but which have short chain branches formed depolimerization on interpolymer the co monomer, and which is distributed homogeneously within the same polymer chain and between different polymer chains. That is, in a homogeneously branched linear ethylene interpolymer the Ah there are no long-chain branching as well as in the case of polymers with linear low density polyethylene or linear polymers of high density polyethylene, and get them using polymerization processes, leading to a homogeneous distribution of branching, as described, for example, the author of Elston in U.S. patent 3,645,992. Commercial examples of homogeneously branched linear interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin include polymers TAFMER™, supplied by the company Mitsui Chemical Company, as well as polymers EXACT™, supplied by the company Exxon Chemical Company.

Homogeneously branched mostly linear ethylene interpolymer described in patents U.S. 5,272,236, 5,278,272, 6,054,544, 6,335,410 and 6,723,810, the full contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

In addition, mostly linear ethylene interpolymer are homogeneously branched ethylene polymers with long chain branching. Long-chain branches have the same distribution of units of comonomers, as the main polymer chain, and may have approximately the same length as the length of the main polymer chain. Usually "mostly linear" means that the polymer for the most part is substituted, on average, including from 0.01 long chain branches per 1000 carbon atoms of their total number (including the carbon atoms as a main chain and branched what th) up to 3 long chain branches per 1000 carbon atoms of their total number. In one of the embodiments, the polymer is substituted so that the degree of substitution is from 0.01 long chain branches per 1000 carbon atoms, their total number to 1 long chain branch per 1000 carbon atoms of their total number, more preferably from 0.05 long chain branches per 1000 carbon atoms, their total number to 1 long chain branch per 1000 carbon atoms of their total number, and, particularly, from 0.3 long chain branches per 1000 carbon atoms, their total number to 1 long chain branch per 1000 carbon atoms of their total number.

Commercial examples mostly linear polymers include polymers ENGAGE™ and AFFINITY™ (both available from the company The Dow Chemical Company).

Mainly linear ethylene interpolymer constitute a unique class of homogeneously branched ethylene polymers. They essentially differ from the well-known class of traditional homogeneously branched linear ethylene interpolymers described by the author Elston in U.S. patent 3,645,992, and moreover, they do not belong to the same class as traditional heterogeneous linear ethylene polymers obtained by polymerization using catalysts of the Ziegler-Natta (for example, polyethylene, ultra low density (ULDPE), linear polyethylene of low density is STI (LLDPE) or high density polyethylene (HDPE), obtained, for example, by the method disclosed by the authors Anderson et al. in U.S. patent 4,076,698), nor to the class, which consists of highly branched polyethylene is produced at high pressure using the initiators of free-radical polymerization, such as, for example, low density polyethylene (LDPE), copolymers ethylenically acid (EAA) and copolymers of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA).

Homogeneously branched mostly linear ethylene interpolymer suitable for this invention have excellent technological properties, even though they have a relatively narrow molecular weight distribution. Surprisingly, the ratio of the indices of melt flow according to the standard ASTM D 1238 (I10/I2), mostly linear ethylene interpolymers can widely vary, and in particular it does not depend on the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnor molecular mass distribution. This surprising behavior is opposite to the behavior of homogeneously branched linear ethylene interpolymers, such as those described, for example, the author of Elston in U.S. patent 3,645,992, and heterogeneously branched traditional linear ethylene interpolymers, obtained using the catalysts of the Ziegler-Natta, such as those, which is described, for example, the authors Anderson et al. in U.S. patent 4,076,698.

Unlike homogeneously branched mostly linear ethylene interpolymers linear ethylene interpolymer (regardless of whether they are homogeneously or heterogeneously branched) have rheological properties that the molecular weight distribution has a more powerful effect.

Homogeneously branched linear or substantially linear ethylene polymers characterized as those that have a low coefficient of polydispersity (Mw/Mn). In the case of a linear and mostly linear ethylene ethylene polymer, the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfor example, less than or equal to 5, preferably less than or equal to 4, and more preferably ranges from 1.5 to 4, and more preferably is in the range from 1.5 to 3, and most preferably from 2.5 to 3.5. All individual values and subranges from 1 to 5 are included herein and disclosed in this document.

Distribution comonomeric branches in the case of a uniform linear and mostly linear ethylene polymers characterized by their SCBDI (index distribution of short chain branches) or CDBI (index of compositional distribution of branches) and is defined as the weight fraction of the polymer molecules with the monomer within 50 percent of the average total molar content of co monomer. The CDBI of a polymer is calculated from the data obtained using known in the art techniques, such as, for example, fractionation by elution with increasing temperature (herein abbreviated as “TREF”)as described, for example, the authors of Wild et al. in the publication, Journal of Polymer Science, Poly. Phys. Ed., vol.20, p.441 (1982) or in U.S. patents A Patent Nos. 4,798,081 and 5,008,204. Preferably, SCBDI or CDBI in the case of a mostly linear polymers suitable for compositions of the present invention, exceeded 50%, in particular, exceeded 70 percent, and more preferably exceeded 90 percent.

Homogeneously branched mostly linear ethylene polymers used in film composition according to this invention, are known and they, as well as the retrieval method is described, for example, in patents U.S.-A-Patent Nos. 5,272,236, 5,278,272 and 5,703,187, which are included in its entirety in this document by reference.

The homogeneous linear or substantially linear ethylene polymers can suitably be obtained by using metal complexes with hard geometry, such as those described in patents U.S. 5,272,236 and 5,278,272 (see also U.S. application No. 545,403 registered 3 July 1990 (EP-A-416,815, U.S. 5,703,187, 5,872,201), U.S. 702,475, registered on may 20, 1991 (EP-A-514,828, U.S. 6,118,013), as well as in patents U.S.-A- 5,470,993, 5,374,696, 5,231,106, 5,055,438, 5,07,475, 5,096,867, 5,064,802 and 5,132,380. In the application U.S. - 720,041, registered on June 24, 1991 (EP-A-514,828), revealed some boranova derivatives of the above-mentioned catalysts with hard geometry, as well as the above and stated the way they are received. In the U.S.-A-5,453,410 as suitable catalysts for the polymerization of olefins are disclosed combinations of cationic catalysts with hard geometry with alumoxane.

Heterogeneous linear ethylene polymers can also be used in the present invention. Heterogeneous linear ethylene polymers are copolymers of ethylene with one or more α-olefins from C3 to C8. The homopolymers of ethylene can be obtained by using such catalysts, such as catalysts of the Ziegler-Natta, which is used for heterogeneous systems. As molecular weight distribution, and the distribution of short chain branches, resulting from copolymerization with α-olefins are relatively wide compared to the homogeneous linear ethylene polymers. Heterogeneous linear ethylene polymers can be obtained in the process in solution, slurry or gas phase using a catalyst of Ziegler-Natta, and they are well known to skilled in the art specialists. For example, see U.S.-A - No. 4,339,507 the complete content of catalogueno in this document by reference.

The mixture is heterogeneous and homogeneous ethylene polymers ("composite"polyethylene) can also be used for film compositions of the present invention, and examples thereof are disclosed by the authors Kolthammer et al. in the U.S.-A-5,844,045, 5,869,575 and 6,448,341, the full contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference. Examples obtained in the reactor polyethylene mixtures mainly linear polyethylene and LLDPE are disclosed in patents U.S. 5,844,045 and U.S. 5,869,575. Preferably, the LLDPE fraction obtained in the reactor polyethylene mixture comprised of at least about fifty weight percent (50 weight%) obtained in the reactor mixture, more preferably at least about fifty-five weight percent (55 weight percent, most preferably at least about sixty weight percent (60 weight percent). It is desirable that the content of LLDPE fraction obtained in the reactor polyethylene mixture did not exceed about eighty-five weight percent (85 weight%) obtained in the reactor mixture, more preferably does not exceed about eighty weight percent (80 weight percent), most preferably not greater than about seventy-five weight percent (75 weight percent).

Additional polymers suitable for use with this invention, include polymers based on propylene. Based polymers of propylene include the propylene homopolymers, interpolymer, as well as statistical and shockproof interpolymer propylene and associated pairs based polymers of propylene. Such polymers include copolymers, terpolymer, terpolymer and polymers with the structure of a higher order on the basis of ethylene, propylene and other olefins, such as used for choosing diene. Suitable polymers based on propylene disclosed in patents U.S. 6,593,005, U.S. 6,939,919 and EP 1263873, and the full contents of each are incorporated herein by reference.

Suitable polymers based on propylene include high impact propylene copolymers. Such copolymers are commercially available and well known in the art, such as described by the author E.P. Moore, Jr. in the publication Polypropylene Handbook, Hanser Publishers, 1996, page 220 and U.S. patents 3,893,989 and 4,113,802. The term "high impact copolymer" is used herein to denote a heterophase propylene copolymers, in which the polypropylene is a continuous phase and an elastomeric phase it evenly dispersed. Impact copolymers obtained carried out in the reactor of the process, rather than physical blending. Typically, high-impact copolymers obtained in the course of two or INR is Kostadinova process, which, if desired, is carried out in a single reactor, in which at least spend two stage process, or, if desired, in several reactors. Preferably, high-impact copolymers comprised of at least about 5 weight percent ethylene, preferably at least about 10, preferably up to about 40, more preferably up to about 35 weight percent, even more preferably up to about 25 weight percent, and most preferably up to about 20 weight percent. Examples of some suitable high impact polypropylene copolymers are disclosed in U.S. patent 6,593,005 authors Tau et al., which are incorporated herein by reference.

In one embodiment, the implementation layer film or made of a composition containing at least the following components: associated pairs polymer based on propylene and obtained in the reactor mixture mainly of linear polyethylene (or homogeneously branched linear polyethylene) and linear low density polyethylene. "Get in the reactor, the mixture may also contain LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, mainly linear polyethylene, homogeneously branched linear polyethylene, and mixtures thereof. The polymer composition may also contain other polymer based on ethylene, such as LLDPE and/or substantially linear polyethylene (Il the homogeneously branched linear polyethylene) to improve compatibility between associated pairs of the polymer based on propylene and obtained in the reactor mixture. Examples of such compositions are disclosed in U.S. patent 6,593,005, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

In another embodiment, the film layer or made of a composition containing at least the following components: a homopolymer or interpolymer based on propylene, each of which can be either pairwise connected or not, and one or more homopolymers and/or interpolymers based on ethylene.

Polymer composition containing a polymer based on ethylene and the polymer based on propylene may also contain ethylene/propylene/rubber to ensure compatibility of the polymers constituting the main components. Stabilizer and antioxidants can be entered in the polymer formulation to prevent degradation of the polymer caused by reactions with oxygen, which induce factors such as heat, light or left from the original materials of the catalyst. Antioxidants are commercially available from the company Ciba-Geigy, located in Hawthorn, N.Y. and include Irganox® 565, 1010 and 1076, which represent the spatial employed phenolic antioxidants. They are the primary antioxidants, which act as scavengers of free radicals and which can be used alone or in combination with other antioxidants such as fosfatnye antioxidants, such Irgafos® 168, available from the company Ciba-Geigy. Fosfatnye antioxidants consider as secondary antioxidants and, as a rule, do not use themselves. Such antioxidants are used, primarily, as compounds decomposing peroxides. Other available antioxidants include Cyanox® LTDP available from the company Cytec Industries, located in Stamford, Conn., and Ethanox® 1330, available from the company Albemarle Corp., located in Baton Rouge, Louisianna, but are not limited to them. Many other antioxidants available for use by themselves or in combination with other antioxidants. Other additives to the polymers include substances which absorb UV light, antistatic agents, pigments, dyes, nucleating fillers, which are compounds that reduce friction, flame retardants, plasticizers, processing AIDS, lubricants, stabilizers, substances that suppress the formation of smoke, viscosity regulators, as well as substances that prevent adhesion, but not limited to.

The film should maintain its structural integrity when exposed to elevated temperatures and pressure. In a preferred embodiment, suitable materials for the one or more film layers include one or more polyolefin homopolymers and interpolymers. Examples of such polymer clay is s include polymers based on polyethylene, such as DOWLEX™ and ELITE™, a polymer based on polypropylene, such as INSPIRE™ (all available from the company The DOW Chemical Company), but are not limited to them. Each layer may contain one polymer or two or more polymers, such as polymer mixture.

The specific properties of each layer will depend on the polymer composition. The properties below are typical polyolefin compositions containing one or more polymers and is used to create one or more layers of film. These properties are also typical for other polymer compositions that relate to compositions with the specified properties. Properties of polymer compositions below are not considered as limiting the scope of the invention in terms of the number of polyolefins and other polymers and mixtures suitable for use in this invention. Preferably, the polymer composition includes at least one polymer based on ethylene and/or at least one polymer based on propylene.

In one of the embodiments of the polymer composition is usually characterized by a softening temperature by Vika (Vicat) from 50°C to 230°C, preferably from 70°C to 200°C, and more preferably from 100°C. to 150°C. All individual values and subranges from 50°C to 230°C are included in this documentary is ment disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition is usually characterized by a melting point from 50°C to 250°C, determined by the method of differential scanning calorimetry, preferably from 70°C to 200°C, more preferably from 100°C. to 180°C., and even more preferably from 120°C. to 170°C. All individual values and subranges from 50°C to 250°C included herein and disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition is usually characterized by a melt index (I2) at a temperature of 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238-04) from 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, more preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min, and even more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and subranges from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included herein and disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition is usually characterized by the index melt flow at a temperature of 230°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238-04) from 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, more preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min, and even more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and subranges from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included herein and disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition is typically characterized by a Middleweight who howl molecular weight (M wfrom 20,000 to 1,000,000 and all individual values and subranges from 20000 to 1000000 included herein and disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition typically has a total crystallinity of less than 60%, and preferably less than 50%, as determined by the method of differential scanning calorimetry.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition generally has a density of from 0.88 g/cm3to 0.96 g/cm3preferably from 0.89 g/cm3to 0.95 g/cm3and more preferably from 0.90 g/cm3to 0.94 g/cm3(ASTM D-792-00). All individual values and subranges from 0.88 g/cm3to 0.96 g/cm3included herein and disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition typically has a coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 2 to 20, preferably from 3 to 10, and more preferably from 4 to 8, and more preferably from 5 to 7. All individual values and subranges from 2 to 20 included herein and disclosed in this document.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition contains at least one polymer which has a melting point, measured by the method of differential scanning calorimetry, of from 50°C to 250°C, preferably from 70°C d is 200°C, more preferably from 100°C. to 180°C., and still more preferably from 120°C. to 170°C. All individual values and subranges from 50°C to 250°C included herein and disclosed herein. In one of the embodiments, at least one polymer is an ethylene Homo-polymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on ethylene. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is a propylene homopolymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on propylene.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition contains at least one polymer which has a melt index (I2) at a temperature of 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238-04) from 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, more preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min, and still more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and subranges from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included herein and disclosed herein. In one of the embodiments, at least one polymer is an ethylene Homo-polymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on ethylene.

In another embodiment, Khujand the exercise of the polymer composition contains, at least one polymer which has an index of melt flow at a temperature of 230°C. and load of 2.16 kg (ASTM D-1238-04) from 0.1 to 100 g/10 min, preferably from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, more preferably from 0.3 to 10 g/10 min, and still more preferably from 0.4 to 5 g/10 min All individual values and subranges from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes are included herein and disclosed herein. In one of the embodiments, at least one polymer is a propylene homopolymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on propylene.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition contains at least one polymer which has srednevekovoi molecular weight (Mwfrom 20,000 to 1,000,000 and all individual values and subranges from 20000 to 1000000 included herein and disclosed herein. In one of the embodiments, at least one polymer is an ethylene Homo-polymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on ethylene. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is a propylene homopolymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on Elena.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition contains at least one polymer that has defined the method of differential scanning calorimetry total degree of crystallinity is less than 60%, and preferably less than 50%. In one of the embodiments, at least one polymer is an ethylene Homo-polymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on ethylene. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is a propylene homopolymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on propylene.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition contains at least one polymer which has a density from 0.87 g/cm3to 0.97 g/cm3preferably from 0.90 g/cm3to 0.95 g/cm3and more preferably from 0.91 to 0.94 g/cm3(ASTM D-792-00). All individual values and subranges from 0.87 g/cm3to 0.97 g/cm3included herein and disclosed herein. In one of the embodiments, at least one polymer is an ethylene Homo-polymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on ethylene is. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is a propylene homopolymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on propylene.

In another embodiment, the polymer composition comprises a polymer which has a coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 1 to 10, preferably from 1 to 7, and more preferably from 1.5 to 5, and more preferably from 1.5 to 3.5. All individual values and subranges from 1 to 10 included herein and disclosed herein. In one of the embodiments, at least one polymer is an ethylene Homo-polymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on ethylene. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is a propylene homopolymer. In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymers based on propylene.

In a preferred embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymer propylene/α-olefin or a copolymer of propylene/ethylene. In yet another embodiment, the α-olefin is chosen from the group consisting of 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene, 1-Heptene, 1-octene, and 1-butene,1-nonene, 1-mission 4-methyl-1-pentene and mixtures thereof. In another embodiment, interpolymer propylene/α-olefin or a copolymer of propylene/ethylene has a melt index (I2) from 0.1 to 100 g/10 min In another embodiment, interpolymer propylene/α-olefin or a copolymer of propylene/ethylene has a density from 0.86 to 0.93 g/cm3preferably from 0.86 and 0.92 g/cm3and more preferably from 0.86 to 0.91 g/cm3. Each of interpolymer propylene/α-olefin or a copolymer of propylene/ethylene can be obtained by combining two or more of these embodiments.

In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymer propylene/α-olefin or a copolymer of propylene/ethylene and has a melt index from 0.1 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.86 and 0.92 g/cm3and the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 2 to 10.

In another preferred embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin. In yet another embodiment, interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin comprises a copolymer formed by monomers selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, ethylene and 1-butene, ethylene and 1-hexene, ethylene and 1-pentene, ethylene and 1-Heptene, ethylene and propylene, ethylene and 4-methyl-1-pentene, and mixtures thereof. predpochtitelno, when the monomers are selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, and ethylene and 1-butene. In another embodiment, interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin has a melt index (I2) from 0.1 g/ 10 min to 100 g/10 min In another embodiment, interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin has a density of from 0.900 for up to 0,950 g/cm3, preferably from 0.900 for up to 0,945 g/cm3and more preferably from 0.900 for up to 0,940 g/cm3. Interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin can be obtained by combining two or more of these embodiments.

In another embodiment, interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin has a melt index from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.900 for up to 0,950 g/cm3and preferably from 0.900 for up to 0,940 g/cm3and the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 1.5 to 5.

In another embodiment, at least one polymer is interpolymer propylene/ethylene based on propylene. In yet another embodiment, interpolymer propylene/ethylene has a melt index (I2) from 0.1 g/10 min to 100 g/10 min In another embodiment, interpolymer propylene/ethylene has a melt index from 0.1 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.86 and 0.92 g/cm3and the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 2 to 10. Interpolymer propylene/ethylene can be obtained by combining two or more of the LCO of these embodiments.

The polymer composition can be obtained by combining two or more of these embodiments described in this document.

The polymer components of such compositions can be obtained by combining two or more of these embodiments described in this document.

Suitable polymeric compositions may contain a homopolymer or interpolymer based on ethylene and a homopolymer or interpolymer based on propylene. In one of the embodiments of the polymer composition contains 50 or more weight percent of homopolymer or interpolymer based on ethylene. In yet another embodiment, the polymer composition contains 40 or less weight percent of homopolymer or interpolymer based on propylene. In another embodiment, the polymer composition contains from 50 to 90 weight percent, preferably from 55 to 80 weight percent, and more preferably from 60 to 75 weight percent, homopolymer or interpolymer based on ethylene. In yet another embodiment, the polymer composition contains from 10 to 50 weight percent, preferably from 20 to 40 weight percent, and more preferably from 25 to 35 weight percent, homopolymer or interpolymer based on propylene. Polymer molecules homopolymer or interpolymer based on propylene can be the pairwise connected.

The method of producing films according to the invention

The film according to this invention are made, choosing thermoplastic polymer or mixture that is suitable for receiving each layer, receiving a film of each layer, and in the case where the film consists of more than one layer, the connection layer or co-extrusion or casting one or more layers. It is desirable that the layers of film connected continuously on the boundary area between the films (layers of film).

The film can be perforated to the manufacture of the container or in the course of this. In addition, custom container, you can punch later. Device for perforation include rollers with needle headset plate with needle headset and laser equipment, but are not limited to them. In a preferred embodiment, the perforations are located on both sides of the film, and deepening, the resulting perforations are located on the outer surface of the container made from such films. The shape and size of the perforations and the number of perforations will depend on the end use of the film.

Usually for each layer is suitable extrusion of the mixture components with any additional additives, such as reducing friction, reducing adhesion and polyaluminosilicate polymer additives. Mixing during extrusion should be carried out in such a way to achieve an adequate degree of dispersion. The parameters of the mixture during extrusion will necessarily depend upon the components. Typically, however, the total deformation of the polymer, i.e. the degree of mixing, important and its control, for example, the design of the screw and the temperature of the melt. The temperature of the melt during production of the film will depend on the properties of the components of the film.

As a result of mixing during extrusion receive film structure. The film structure can be produced through traditional methods of manufacturing, such as extrusion injection blow, processes biaxial orientation (such as processes using frames for stretching and orienting the film or double razuki), extrusion casting/manufacturer of sheet extrusion, co-extrusion and lamination. Traditional methods of extrusion injection blow (also known as methods for producing blown films at elevated temperatures) are described, for example, in the encyclopedia of chemical technology The Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Kirk-Othmer, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981, vol.16, pp.416-417 and vol.18, pp.191-192. For the manufacture of new thin film structures according to this invention can also be used production methods of producing films with biaxial orientation, such as the way"double razuki", described in U.S.-A - 3,456,044 (author Pahlke), and the methods described in U.S.-A-4,352,849 (author Mueller), U.S.-A - 4,820,557 and 4,837,084 (both patent of the author Warren), U.S.-A - No. 4,865,902 (authors Golike et al.), U.S.-A-4,927,708 (authors Herran et al.), U.S.-A - 4,952,451 (author Mueller), and U.S.-A-4,963,419 and 5,059,481 (both patent authors Lustig et al.). All of these patents are incorporated herein by reference.

The temperature of the melt during production of the film will vary depending on the properties of the components of the film. Typically, the melt temperature is from 175°C to 300°C, preferably from 185°C to 240°C, and more preferably from 195°C. to 220°C.

Production methods of manufacturing thin film structures according to this invention include methods of vertical form filling with sealing, such as those described in the publication Packaging Machinery Operation, Chapter 8: Form-Fill-Sealing the author Glenn C. Davis (Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Institute, 2000 K Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., 2006), encyclopedia of The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, Marilyn Bakker, Editor-in-chief, pp.364-369 (John Wiley & Sons), the patents U.S. 5,288,531 (authors Falla et al.), U.S. 5,721,025 (authors Falla et al.), U.S. 5,360,648 (authors Falla et al.) and U.S. 6,117,465 (authors Falla et al.), other manufacturing methods for the production of films, such as those discussed in the publication Plastic Films, Technology and Packaging Applications (Technomic Publishing Co., Inc. (1992)) the authors Kenton R. Osborn and Wilmer A. Jenkens, pp.39 - 105. All of these patents and literature cited are incorporated herein by reference is I.

Other manufacturing methods for the production of films are disclosed in U.S. patent 6,723,398 (authors Chum et al.). Using the materials according to this invention, it is also possible to perform post-processing methods, such as treatment with radiation and treatment with corona discharge, especially for applications related to the application of printed images. Films made according to this invention can also be cured using silanes or polymers used for the manufacture of articles according to this invention, it is possible to impart upon receipt (such as polymers with grafted maleic anhydride), including the methods disclosed in patents U.S. 4,927,888 (authors Strait et al.), U.S. 4,950,541 (authors Tabor et al.), U.S. 4,762,890 (authors Strait et al.), U.S. 5,346,963 (authors Hughes et al.), U.S. 4,684,576 (authors Tabor et al.). All of these patents are incorporated herein by reference.

After manufacture of the film can be stretched. Stretching can be performed by any method conventionally used in this technical field.

The sheets can be joined using * heat sealing or with an adhesive. * Heat sealing can be accomplished by conventional methods, including the use of hot bar, pulse welding, welding in the overlap, ultrasonic welding or other alternative methods of treatment using the heat.

Films made according to the aforementioned methods, may have any thickness depending on the application. Usually films have a total thickness of from 25 to 1000 microns, preferably from 50 to 500 microns, more preferably from 50 to 250 microns.

DEFINITION

Any described in this document, the range of numbers includes all values from the lower value to the upper value in increments of one unit provided that there is a difference, at least two units between any lower value and any of the top value. For example, if it is alleged that the quantity of the component or the value characterizing the composition or physical property, such as, for example, the content component in the mixture, the softening temperature, the melt index and so on, is in the range from 1 to 100, I mean that all individual values, such as 1, 2, 3, etc. and all subranges such as from 1 to 20, from 55 to 70, from 197 to 100 and so on, clearly listed in the specifications. If the value is less than the unit one unit consider how to 0.0001 to 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1, as appropriate. These are just examples of what mean, and all possible combinations of numerical values between these lower and upper values should be considered as those which are clearly identified in the application. Ranges cise is given, as discussed in this document in relation to the softening temperature by Vika determined by the method of differential scanning calorimetry the melting temperature, the size of the perforations, the film thickness, index, melt flow rate melt srednevekovoi molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, crystallinity, density, the weight content of the component, pressure and other characteristics.

The term "film" in the form in which it is used herein, means a single - or multilayer film structure.

The term "composition" in the form in which it is used herein, includes one or more components that form the composition, and the reaction products and decomposition products formed from the component(s) of this composition.

The term "perforations" in the form in which it is used in this document refers to the holes made on the film using a percussion mechanism, laser or other mechanical or optical devices. The perforations can have different sizes and different shapes. The perforations individually and, thus, each independently have a size less than or equal to 100 microns (μm).

The phrase "punching hole the participation of the same size", as well as similar phrases in the form in which they are used in this document, refer to the perforation holes, which all have the same size within experimental error and/or error of the measuring equipment.

The term "polymer" in the form in which it is used herein, refers to a polymer compound obtained by polymerization of monomers of the same or different types. The General term "polymer" encompasses, therefore, the term "homopolymer"is commonly used to refer to polymers derived from monomers of only one type, and the term "interpolymer", as defined below.

The term "interpolymer" in the form in which it is used herein, refers to polymers obtained by polymerization of at least two different types of monomers. The General term "interpolymer", therefore, includes copolymers, commonly used to refer to polymers derived from two different types of monomers as well as polymers derived from more than two types of monomers.

The term "thermoplastic polymer" or "thermoplastic composition" and similar terms mean a polymer or polymer composition, which is essentially capable of extrusion or deformation when heated, although it may be necessary to use a relatively hard in the conditions.

The terms "mixture" or "blend of polymers in the form in which they are used in this document represent a mixture of two or more polymers. Such polymers can be linked in pairs and/or crosslinked. This mixture may be mixed or may not be such (without phase separation at the molecular level). Such a mixture may contain one or more domain structures determined by transmission electron microscopy, light scattering, x-ray scattering, and other techniques known in the art, or may not include them.

The term "interpolymer on the basis of ethylene in the form in which it is used in this document refers to interpolymer, which contains at least 50 mole percent, and preferably more than 50 mole percent ethylene.

The term "interpolymer based on propylene in the form in which it is used in this document refers to interpolymer, which contains at least 50 mole percent, and preferably more than 50 mole percent propylene.

TESTING procedures

To evaluate films used several testing methods. Specific test parameters in each test will depend on the used polymer or polymeric composition. Some of the trials listed n the same describe the test parameters that are specified as typical polyolefin polymers. Not mean that the individual test parameters limit the scope of the present invention. Those who are skilled in the art specialists will understand the limitations of a specific set of test parameters and will be able to determine the appropriate options for other types of polymers.

Vozduhoochistki on Hourly

"Permeability" of samples of the films can be estimated using test method for Gurly (Gurley Hill Porosity Test Method) in accordance with test method TAPPI T om-02. Using this test determines vozduhoochistki a small sample (approximately one square inch) in terms of the time required for a given volume of air at a given pressure pass through the sample.

Test the permeability of the package He and Becker (Haver &Boecker)

Custom plastic bags, you can experience the bulk permeability, using a device similar to that used for the bag is filled with cement, except that in this package is introduced only air. Device for filling maintains a pressure of about 50 mbar and determines the amount of air coming out of this service per time unit.

Moisture is donosti

The resistance of the sample film are determined according to the Hydrohead test Water Pressure Test (ISO 1420 A1 (2001).

Microscopy perforations

Optical microscopy can be used to detect perforations in the films and their size. For each sample film randomly select three "holes" for the analysis of each film surface obtained by blowing (for a total of 12 holes). The image is recorded by a microscope LEICA MP AZO using reflected internal backlight and the backlight and digital camera, SONY DKC-5000. Images were recorded using a lens with an 80-fold increase and were processed using Adobe Photoshop 5.0. To obtain maximum information about the image and optimum contrast used the option “adjust image levels”. Then perform measurements to determine the size of the hole. In the case of circular holes or apertures ellipsometry evaluation form square openings must identify one or two sizes.

Test mechanical properties

The strength instant the blow was determined according to ASTM D-1709-03. Tensile strength at Elmendorf was determined according to ASTM D-1922-03. Tensile strength was determined according to ASTM D-882-02. The secant modulus was determined according to the SNO ASTM D-882-02.

Test on composite properties

Density ethylene homopolymers and interpolymers, as well as other polyolefins, measured according to ASTM D-792-00. Some samples were annealed at room temperature for 24 hours before measurement. The standard ASTM D-792-00 can also be used to determine the density of other polymers, as noted in the test procedure.

The melt index (I2) homopolymers and interpolymers on the basis of ethylene measured according to ASTM D-1238-04 at experimental condition 190°C/2,16 kheminda ASTM D-1238-04 can also be used to determine the melt index of other polymers, as noted in the test procedure. The rate of melt flow (MFR) of homopolymers and interpolymers based on propylene measured according to ASTM D-1238-04 at experimental condition 190°C/2,16 kg

Molecular mass distribution of polymers based on polyethylene can be determined using chromatographic system consisting of either equipment Polymer Laboratories Model PL-210 or from equipment Polymer Laboratories Model PL-220. The column and carousel compartments are functioning at a temperature of 140°C. Columns represent the three 10-micron columns Polymer Laboratories 10-micron Mixed-b Solvent is 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. Samples are prepared so as to the concentrations of the polymer was 0.1 g polymer in 50 milliliters of solvent. The solvent used for sample preparation, contains 200 ppm butylamino of hydroxytoluene (EIT). Samples were prepared at low stirring for 2 hours at a temperature of 160°C. the Volume of injected sample is 100 microlitres, and the flow rate is 1.0 ml per minute.

Description of the calibration curve for a set of columns for gel permeation chromatography (GPC) by a polynomial of 5th order was performed using 21 polystyrene standards with narrow molecular weight distribution, molecular weight which are in the range from 580 to 8400000 mixed to obtain 6 "cocktail" mixtures of at least 10-fold difference between individual molecular weights. Standards acquire from the company Polymer Laboratories (UK). Polystyrene standards were prepared at a concentration of 0.025 g in 50 milliliters of solvent in the case of molecular mass equal to or greater than 1,000,000 and at a concentration of 0.05 grams in 50 milliliters of solvent in the case of molecular mass less than 1000000. Polystyrene standards dissolved at a temperature of 80°C under weak stirring for 30 minutes. First analyze a mixture of standards with narrow molecular weight distribution and in order of decreasing molecular weight of high molecular weight component to minimize degradation. Molecular weight, ratio is eastwoodiae peaks of polystyrene standards converted to molecular weight polyethylene, using the following equation (as described in the publication authors Williams and Ward, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Let., 6, 621 (1968)):

Mpolyethylene=Ah(Mpolystyrene)B,

where M represents the molecular weight, the value as well As 0,4315, but the value is 1.0. Calculations of equivalent molecular mass polyethylene is done using software Viscotek TriSEC software Version 3.0. The molecular weight of the polymer based on propylene can be determined using the ratio of Mark-Houwink according to ASTM D-6474.9714-1, where in the case of polystyrene and=0,702 and log K=-3,9, and in the case of polypropylene a=0,725 and logK=-3,721. In the case of samples on the basis of polypropylene column and carousel compartments are functioning at a temperature of 160°C.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) can be used to determine the degree of crystallinity of the samples based on polyethylene (PE) and samples based on polypropylene (PP). The sample is pressed into a thin film at a temperature of 190°C. About 5 to 8 mg of a sample film is weighed and placed in a Cup for measurement by the method of differential scanning calorimetry. A Cup seal lid to preserve integrity. The Cup with the sample placed in a cell for measurement by the method of differential scanning calorimetry, and then heat up soon with the capacity of about 10°C/min to 180°C in the case of PE (230°C in the case of PP). The sample is kept at this temperature for three minutes. The sample was then cooled at a rate of 10°C/min to -60°C in the case of PE (-40°C in the case of PP) and isothermal hold at this temperature for three minutes. Then the sample is heated at a rate of 10°C/min until complete melting (re-heating). The degree of crystallinity is calculated by dividing the heat of fusion (Hf)defined along the curve re-heating, theoretical heat of fusion equal to 292 j/g in the case of PE (165 j/g in the case of PP), and multiplying the resulting value by 100 (for example, % crystallinity=(Hf/292 j/g)X100).

Temperature(s) melting point (Tm) polymers can be determined by curve re-heating produced by the method of differential scanning calorimetry as described above. The crystallization temperature (Tc) can be determined by the curve of the first cooling.

The softening temperature for Vika determined according to ASTM D-1525-00.

Film and methods according to this invention and their use are more fully described in the following examples. The following examples are intended to illustrate the invention and they should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.

Experimental part

The following polymers were used individually or as com is onenew composition in the experimental compositions. Preferably, these polymers were mixed with one or more stabilizers and/or antioxidants.

EAO-D20 was a statistical linear ethylene copolymer with low density, obtained using catalyst type catalyst of the Ziegler-Natta polymerization in solution. This polymer has a density 0,920 g/cm3(ASTM D-792-00) and melt index (I2) 1.0 g/10 min (190°C/2,16 kg, ASTM D-1238-04). Comonomer=1-octene.

EAO-E51 is a superior (composite) ethylene copolymer with a density of 0,920 g/cm3(ASTM D-792-00) and melt index (I2) of 0.85 g/10 min (190°C/2,16 kg, ASTM D-1238-04). Comonomer=1-octene, melting point, determined by the method of differential scanning calorimetry, is 124°Stemperature softening by Vika (Vicat) is 105°C (ASTM D-1525-00).

EAO-B81 is an improved (composite) ethylene copolymer with a density of 0,940 g/cm3(ASTM D-792-00) and melt index (I2) 0,80 g/10 min (190°C/2,16 kg, ASTM D-1238-04). Comonomer=1-octene.

RESIN-D14 is a statistical polymer system based on propylene(s) of the copolymer(s), with a total density to 0.900 g/cm3(ASTM D-792-00) index and melt flow (MFR) of 0.50 g/10 min (230°C/2,16 kg, ASTM D-1238-04). Comonomer=ethylene, the content of co monomer about 8.5% (wt.). The melting temperature determined what Ecodom differential scanning calorimetry, is 164°C (ASTM D-3417).

EAO-D62 is an ethylene copolymer with a high density with density 0,953 g/cm3(ASTM D-792-00) and melt index (I2) 0.3 g/10 min (190°C/2,16 kg, ASTM D-1238-04). Comonomer=1-hexene content of co monomer=0,7% (wt.). Get in the gas phase using a chromium catalyst.

For the manufacture of films for tests used the following songs:

Composition 1: 100 weight % of EAO-D20.

Composition 2: 100 weight % of EAO-e.

Composition 3: 100 weight % RESIN-D14.

Track 4: 65 weight % of EAO-E51 and 35 weight % RESIN-D14.

Composition 5: 100 weight % of EAO-W.

Track 6: 50 weight % of EAO-D62 and 50 weight % of EAO-E51.

Conditions for the production of films presented in table 1.

Mechanical properties of films presented in table 2.

Produced packets received from the following film songs: 62 weight % EAO-e, 34 weight percent RESIN-D14 and 4 weight percent TiO2(pigment). Such packages have performable and tested on bulk permeability, using the test permeability to He and Becker (Haver &Boecker Bag Air Permeability Test). The parameters of the perforations and the results of the permeability tests are shown in table 3. Also conducted some tests of mechanical properties, as shown in table 3.

As can be seen from the data presented in table 3, the package 3 has prevoshodnoy permeability at a smaller size of the perforations and over the small area of perforation. The permeability of the package 3 is comparable to the permeability of the package 2, the comparator, which has a lot of large perforations and the total perforated area. The permeability of the package 3 is also much better than the permeability of the package 1, are selected for comparison.

In addition, the package 3 has the best aggregate properties related to the tensile strength in comparison with service pack 2, is selected for comparison, and has comparable yield. Thus, for a package of 3 mechanical properties do not deteriorate, and even improved in relation to the total tensile strength, although the density of holes (number of holes/inch2) is at least four times more compared to those for package 2, are selected for comparison.

Table 1
Conditions for obtaining films
DimensionUnitsEAO-D20EAO-E51RESIN-D1465% EAO/35% RESIN-D14EAO-B8150% of EAO-D62/50% EAO-E51
Temperature @ annular rim/td> °F474647464647
Amps% FLC50,450,140,248,141,346,9
Thicknessone thousandth of an inch8,088,077,978,178,15of 8.06
The degree of the bulge (B.U.R.)the dimensionless quantity2,12,12,12,12,12,1
Matrixinch666666
Crack head extruderone is ASECNA inch 404040404040
The height of the border of the zero temperatureinch303030303030
Work surfaceinch202020202020
The production line capacityft/min18,318,118,918,81818,8
The pressure of the meltpounds per square inch577058004310502048605420
The temperature of the melt is placed °F456454497464439449
Rotation speed (RPM)rpm64,463,8to 112.283,673,668,1
Production speedlb/HR141,8140,7141,9141,5142,7143,6

1. Perforated film for packaging, containing at least one layer obtained from a composition comprising at least one thermoplastic polymer and at least one layer contains the perforations that are smaller than or equal to 90 μm, and the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film ranges from 400,000 to 2000000 (µm)2/(inch)2film (62000-310000 (µm)2/cm2).

2. The film according to claim 1, in which perforation the main openings of the same size.

3. The film according to claim 1, for which the permeability to Gurli is less than 50 to 100 cm3air.

4. The film according to claim 1, for which the permeability to Gurli is less than 30 to 100 cm3air.

5. The film according to claim 1, in which the dimensions of the perforations are in the range of 10 to 90 microns.

6. The film according to claim 1, where the film contains from 60 to 1000 perforations per square inch of film.

7. The film according to claim 1, for which the size of the perforations is less than or equal to 80 μm.

8. The film according to claim 1, in which the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is from 500000 to 1000000 (µm)2/(inch)2film (77500-155000 (µm)2/cm2).

9. The film according to claim 1, in which the ratio of the total area of the perforations to the total surface area of the film is from 600000 to 800000 (µm)2/(inch)2film.

10. The film according to claim 1, where the film has a single layer.

11. The film according to claim 1, where the film does not contain 50 or more wt.% the filler.

12. The film according to claim 1, where the film does not contain 25 or more wt.% the filler.

13. The film according to claim 1, in which the dimensions of the perforations are in the range from 60 to 90 microns.

14. The film according to claim 1, in which the dimensions of the perforations are in the range from 10 to 40 microns.

15. The film according to claim 1, in which the film contains from 65 to 750 perforation what's holes per square inch of film.

16. The film according to claim 1, in which the perforations are obtained by mechanical means or laser.

17. The film according to claim 1, in which the perforations are obtained from both sides of the film.

18. The film according to claim 1, in which the film has 2%zechusim module in the direction of movement of the film in the machine and/or transverse direction, for at least 50,000 pounds per square inch.

19. The film according to claim 1, in which the film has a tensile strength at Elmendorf in the direction of movement of the film in the machine and/or transverse direction of at least 40 g per one-thousandth of an inch film thickness.

20. The film according to claim 1, in which at least one thermoplastic polymer is a polyolefin.

21. The film according to claim 20, in which the polymer composition comprises 50 wt.% or more homopolymer or interpolymer based on ethylene.

22. The film according to item 21, in which the polymer composition additionally comprises 40 wt.% or less homopolymer or interpolymer based on propylene.

23. The film according to claim 20, in which the polyolefin is interpolymer propylene/α-olefin.

24. The film according to item 23, in which α-olefin is chosen from the group consisting of 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene, 1-Heptene, 1-octene and 1-butene, 1-nonene, 1-mission 4-methyl-1-pentene and mixtures thereof.

25. The film according to item 23, to which interpolymer propylene/α-about even has a melt index (I 2) from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes

26. The film A.25, for which interpolymer propylene/α-olefin has a melt index from 0.1 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.86 and 0.92 g/cm3and the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 2 to 10.

27. The film according to claim 20, in which the polyolefin is interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin.

28. The film according to item 27, in which interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin is a copolymer derived from monomers selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, ethylene and 1-butene, ethylene and 1-hexene, ethylene and 1-pentene, ethylene and 1-Heptene, ethylene and propylene, ethylene and 4-methyl-1-pentene, and mixtures thereof.

29. The film p in which interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin has a melt index (I2) from 0.1 g/10 min to 100 g/10 minutes

30. The film p in which interpolymer ethylene/α-olefin has a melt index from 0.2 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.900 for up to 0,940 g/cm3and the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 1.5 to 5.

31. The film p, in which the monomers are selected from the group consisting of ethylene and 1-octene, and ethylene and 1-butene.

32. Film of claim 10 in which the polymer composition comprises 50 wt.% or more homopolymer or interpolymer based on ethylene.

33. The film p, in which the polymer composition additionally comprises 40 wt.% or less homopolymer the and or interpolymer based on propylene.

34. The film according to claim 20, in which the polyolefin is interpolymer propylene/ethylene.

35. The film 34, in which interpolymer propylene/ethylene has a melt index (I2) from 0.1 to 100 g/10 minutes

36. The film p in which interpolymer propylene/ethylene has a melt index from 0.1 to 50 g/10 min, a density of from 0.86 and 0.92 g/cm3and the coefficient of polydispersity, Mw/Mnfrom 2 to 10.

37. Packing made of a film according to claim 1, and packing containers has a permeability of at least 30 m3an hour.

38. Packaging container according to clause 37, in which the film has a thickness of from 25 to 1000 microns.

39. Packaging container according to clause 37, in which the packaging container has a capacity of from 1 to 100 kg

40. Packaging container according to clause 37, in which the package contains two or more layers and where the package contains the perforations on one or more designated areas on the surface of the package.

41. Packing for p, in which one or more designated areas completely cover the surface of the package.

42. Packing for p, in which one or more of the designated areas are located on one or more horizontal flat surfaces of the package.

43. Packing for p, in which the punch is operating holes evenly placed on one or more designated areas.

44. Packing for p, in which the perforations are placed with different density perforations on one or more designated areas.

45. Packing for p, in which the packing consists of at least four sides, and at least two sides have a large number of perforations per square inch of film compared at least with the other two parties.

46. Packaging container according to clause 37, in which the perforations are obtained from both sides of the film.

47. Packaging container according to item 46, in which depressions resulting from the perforating holes are located on the outer surface of the package.

48. The method of obtaining the perforated tape for packaging, comprising at least one layer, and the above method comprises a) selecting a thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers that are suitable, at least, to create a single layer; b) obtaining a film of thermoplastic polymer or mixture of polymers; C) perforating the above-mentioned film to obtain a perforated film; and at least one layer contains sprocket holes with a size less than or equal to 90 μm, and for which the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 40,000 to 2000000 (µm) 2/(inch)2film (62000-310000 (µm)2/(cm)2).

49. The method according to p, in which the perforations are located on one or more designated areas of the film.

50. The method of filling packaging powdered material, and the above method provides an introduction powdery materials in the packaging container of suitable capacity with the help of compressed gas to produce a filled packaging containers and packing made of a perforated film comprising at least one layer obtained from a composition comprising at least one thermoplastic polymer, and where at least one layer contains sprocket holes with a size less than or equal to 90 microns and where the ratio of the total perforated area to the total surface area of the film is in the range from 400,000 to 2000000 (µm)2/(inch)2film (62000-310000 (µm)2/(cm)2).

51. The method according to item 50, in which the compressed gas is air.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymerisation catalyst components and use thereof. Described are olefin polymerisation catalyst components, which are essentially spherically shaped, containing Mg, Ti and a halogen as basic components and containing an electron donor compound of formula (I) RaCR1(OR4)-CR2R3(OR5) (I), in which Ra is a metal group or is condensed with R4 to form a ring, R1, R2 and R3 independently denote hydrogen or C1-C20 hydrocarbon groups, possibly containing heteroatoms, R4 and R5 denote methyl or R6CO-groups, in which R6 is a C1-C20-alkyl group, or may be bonded with Ra and R3, respectively, to form a ring; provided that when Ra and R4 form a ring, R5 is methyl. Described also is an olefin CH2=CHR polymerisation catalyst in which R is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical with 1-12 carbon atoms, which includes a product of a reaction between: (a) catalyst components described above, (b) an alkylaluminium compound; described also is use of thereof in polymerisation.

EFFECT: described catalyst enables to obtain polymers having a narrow molecular weight distribution and high apparent density.

8 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves contact between monomers and particles of a fluidised catalyst in gas phase in the presence of hydrogen gas. The monomers consist of ethylene and optionally at least one non-ethylene monomer. Contact takes place under ethylene partial pressure which is not below 689.5 kPa and polymerisation temperature not higher than 120°C. The ethylene (co)polymer has density of not less than 0.945 g/cm3 and environmental stress-cracking resistance (ESCR index) not less than 1.0. Particles of the catalyst are obtained at activation temperature not higher than 700°C and contain silicon dioxide, chromium and titanium. In another method, the ethylene (co)polymer has die swell between 80% and 100%.

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63 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 21 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing ultrahigh molecular weight polymers through polymerisation and copolymerisation of olefins using special bridged metallocene catalysts, as well as catalyst systems thereof. Described is a method of producing ultrahigh molecular weight polymers mainly containing polyethylene, involving reaction of ethylene in the presence of a catalyst system containing a bridged metallocene compound, to obtain a polymer having viscometrically determined molecular weight of over 1×106 g/mol. Described is a method of preparing a catalyst system on a support, involving preparation of a mixture of a metallocene compound and a cocatalyst in a solvent or suspending agent, depositing said mixture onto the support, removal of the main portion of solvent or suspending agent, separation of the catalyst system on the support and, if needed, pre-polymerisation of the catalyst system with an olefin monomer to obtain a pre-polymerised catalyst system on a support. Described is use of the catalyst system described above to produce an ultra high molecular weight polymer.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer using a special bridged metallocene compound and aluminoxane as a cocatalyst without losing activity with respect to the monomer.

20 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyethylene and articles made by injection moulding polyethylene. Polyethylene contains homopolymers of ethylene and/or copolymers with ethylene with molecular weight distribution Mw/Mn between 3 and 30, density of 0.945 - 0.965 g/cm3, average molecular weight Mw between 50000 g/mol and 200000 g/mol, high-load melt index (HLMI) between 10 and 300 g/10 min. The polymer contains 0.1-15 branches/1000 carbon atoms, where 1-15 wt % polyethylene with the highest molecular weight has degree of branching greater than 1 branch of side chains with length greater than CH3/1000 carbon atoms.The polyethylene is obtained using a catalyst composition which contains at least two different polymerisation catalysts, where A) is at least one hafnocene-based polymerisation catalyst (A2), and B) is at least one polymerisation catalyst based on an iron component, having a tridentate ligand which contains at least two ortho-, ortho-disubstituted aryl radicals (B). The disclosed polyethylene can be subjected to processing treatment on standard injection moulding apparatus.

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9 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to control of reactions during transitions from an initial reaction to a target reaction with respect to reduction of the amount of off-grade product. The method of determining transition parametres in a polymerisation reactor from an initial reaction for production of a product whose properties satisfy a set of initial requirements to a target reaction for production of a product whose properties satisfy a set of target requirements involves the following steps: identification of a primary property by obtaining data which indicate instantaneous and average values for each of at least two different product properties before, during and after the transition, where each of the said different properties corresponds to the set of initial requirements at the beginning of the transition, and identification as a primary property, based on the said data, of one product property which can be a reason for production of a large amount of off-grade product during the transition compared to any other property; determination of initial conditions for transition, including the initial value of the primary property, which considerably reduce the amount of off-grade product produced during the transition; and determination of variable process control parametres for the transition which begins with the said initial conditions. Disclosed also is a method of identifying the primary property of the product produced in a polymerisation reactor with properties which satisfy the set of initial requirements.

EFFECT: more reliable control.

14 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method for polymerisation of ethylene or copolymerisation of ethylene with other 1-olefins. The invention describes a method for polymerisation of ethylene or ethylene with other 1-olefins in accordance with which ethylene polymerises in the presence of a catalyst in a gas-phase reactor (1) with formation of polymer particles. In order to tap polymerisation heat, there is a circulating reaction gas which contains propane and non-polymerised ethylene in which polymer particles are continuously or discretely output from the reactor (1). Polymer particles are separated from the larger portion of the accompanying gas and degassed. Gas is released from the captured fine particles. Gas is separated from the low-boiling fraction which contains ethylene or from the high-boiling fraction which contains other 1-olefins or alkanes with 4-12 carbon atoms at the first separation step. The propane fraction is separated at the second separation step and then used to degas polymer particles coming from the reactor, where partial pressure of ethylene in the propane fraction used for degassing is less than 6000 Pa under degassing conditions, and total partial pressure of other 1-olefins and alkanes with 4-12 carbon atoms in the propane fraction is less than 10000 Pa. Described also are apparatus for realising the said method (versions), as well as use of propane in which the fraction of ethylene, which is expressed through partial pressure, is less than 6000 Pa under degassing conditions, and the fraction of 1-olefins and alkanes with 4-12 carbon atoms, expressed through partial pressure, is less than 10000 Pa under degassing conditions, and which is obtained from the gas coming out of the gas-phase polymerisation reactor together with polymer particles, for degassing particles of ethylene homopolymers or copolymers in the method described above.

EFFECT: tapping a large amount of heat from the reactor, sufficient for degassing output polymer particles, high extraction ratio of the reaction gas.

18 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polyolefin synthesis method and more specifically to a polyethylene synthesis method. Polyethylene is a copolymer of ethylene with 1-alkenes. The invention also relates to polyethylene synthesis catalyst systems. The catalyst system is a mixture of metallocenes: hafnocene and an iron-based complex, an activating compound and a support. The invention also relates to films made from polyethylene and packets made from the said films.

EFFECT: disclosed catalyst system enables production of polyethylene with given molecular weight distribution in a single reactor.

16 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to high-strength bimodal polyethylene compositions which are meant for preparing compositions for pipes, particularly high-strength compositions for pipes. The composition has density equal to or greater than 0.940 g/cm3, overall polydispersity index equal to or greater than 25 and contains a high-molecular polyethylene component and a low-molecular polyethylene component. The ratio of weight-average molecular weight of the high-molecular component to the weight-average molecular weight of the low-molecular component of the composition is equal to or greater than 30. The weight-average molecular weight of the low-molecular polyethylene component ranges from 5000 to 30000. The composition is classified as PE 100 material, has proper balance of properties such as strength and hardness, as well as good processing properties. A pipe made from the composition which has undergone internal strength tests has extrapolated stress equal to or greater than 10 MPa when the internal strength curve of the pipe is extrapolated to 50 or 100 years in accordance with ISO 9080:2003(E).

EFFECT: increased strength of products.

15 cl, 6 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing polyethylene and copolymers of ethylene with alpha-olefins using a supported titanium-magnesium catalyst. A method is described for producing polyethylene and copolymers of ethylene with alpha-olefins with a narrow molecular weight distribution in suspension mode in a medium of a hydrocarbon solvent using a supported catalyst containing a titanium compound on a magnesium-containing support, where the method is distinguished by that, the catalyst used is made by reacting a solution of a magnesium-containing compound with a compound which triggers conversion of the magnesium-containing compound to a solid magnesium-containing support. The magnesium-containing compound used is butylmagnesium chloride in a solution of R2O ether, where R=butyl or i-amyl, and the compound used for triggering conversion of the magnesium containing compound to a solid magnesium-containing support is a composition which contains a product of reacting alkylchloro silane with formula: R'kSiCI4-k where: R' is alkyl or phenyl, k=1, 2, with silicon tetraalkoxide Si(OEt)4 in molar ratio Si(OEt)/SiCl=0 - 025 and dialkylaromatic ether. The catalyst is used together with a co-catalyst - aluminium trialkyl. The molecular weight regulator of the polymer of copolymer used is hydrogen in amount of 10-50 vol. %.

EFFECT: high output of polyethylene with high melt flow index (MFI(5)=8-100) and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn=3,8-5,4) at low hydrogen concentration in the reaction medium.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention describes an arylphenoxy catalyst system for producing a homopolymer of ethylene and copolymers and alpha-olefins, and a method of producing homopolymer of ethylene and copolymers and alpha-olefins, with high molecular weight under polymerisation conditions for a solution at high temperature using the same catalyst. The catalyst system contains a catalyst based on arylphenoxy-substituted group 4 transition metal and aluminoxane co-catalyst from a boron compound. In the transition metal catalyst, a cyclopentadiene derivative and arylphenoxide as chemically bonded ligands are localised around the group 4 transition metal. The arylphenoxide ligand is substituted with at least one aryl derivative and is localised in its ortho position and the ligands are linked with each other.

EFFECT: catalyst contains environmentally friendly material, its synthesis is cheap, and has excellent thermal stability; the catalyst is used in production of homopolymer of ethylene and copolymers and alpha-olefins with different physical properties in industrial polymerisation processes.

14 cl, 20 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of forming a multilayer elastomeric laminate for clothes and a hygienic product, to a multilayer elastomeric laminate and an article made therefrom. The method involves the following: a) laminating an elastomeric film onto a first substrate to form a laminate web having an elastomeric film surface, where the elastomeric film contains an elastomeric polymer selected from a group consisting of block copolymers of vinyl arylene and conjugated diene monomers, natural rubber, polyurethane rubber, polyester rubber, elastomeric polyolefins, elastomeric polyamides and mixtures thereof, and the first substrate is made from a polymer film, non-woven fabric, a paper article, woven fabric, knitted fabric, scrim, netting or a combination thereof; b) slitting the laminate web to form laminate strips; and c) bonding the surface of the elastomeric film of at least one laminate strip with a second substrate having a width greater than the width of the laminate strip to form a multilayer elastomeric laminate, where the second substrate is made from a polymer film, non-woven fabric, a paper article, woven fabric, knitted fabric, scrim, netting or a combination thereof.

EFFECT: efficient manufacturing of an elastomeric film having good elastomeric properties and good-looking surface structure after activation, which can be rolled and stored without monitoring.

20 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: there is disclosed three-dimensional apertured film containing the first plane surface in the first default plane, the second plane surface in the second default plane and a set of apertures passing between the first and second surfaces. The three-dimensional apertured film also comprises at least one element that overlaps each set of apertures to form thereby a set of smaller apertures. The element overlapping each aperture has an upper face arranged below the first default plane.

EFFECT: three-dimensional apertured film has improved properties in processing the fluid when used in disposable absorbing products.

57 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl

Layered panel // 2323092

FIELD: aircraft industry.

SUBSTANCE: layered panel comprises at least two interconnected stacks of metallic layers and plastic layers reinforced with fibers. The stacks have intermediate section `at which at least one of the internal layers is discontinuous. All other layers including outer metallic layers are continuous. Within the material, one stack of layered composition is smoothly goes into the other without onset of stress concentration.

EFFECT: enhanced strength.

14 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods and the heads for production of the laminate with the lengthwise-transversal orientation of the layers made out of the oriented films.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the laminate with the lengthwise-transversal orientation of the layers formed out of the films, from which at least two of them have mono-axial or unbalanced two-axial orientation, in which the main direction of the orientation in one of these films intersects the main direction of the orientation in other film and have the modifications of the surface properties executed in the certain tracery of these two films on those their surfaces, which are disposed inside the laminate and are connected with each other. The surface layers of the films located inside contain the set of filaments made out of the material produced by the joint extrusion, and are located so, that these two sets on two films intersect each other. The filaments may by used for control over the adhesion between the films and for reduction of the trend to delamination at the multiple bending. It allows to use the laminate in the capacity of the canvas cloth. In the combination with creation of the relief at least on one film, the main layer of which is made transparent for formation of the strips. At that the colored filaments attach the attractive visual effects to the laminate. The visual effect makes the laminate to look more heavy-gage.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the filaments used in the laminate may by used for control over the adhesion between the films, for reduction of the trend to delamination at the multiple bending allowing to use the laminate as the canvas cloth and the colored filaments attach the attractive visual effects to the laminate.

58 cl, 7 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: laminated fire-proof materials.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying fire-retarding material on tissue web to create the first discrete layer, wherein the fire-retarding material is based on emulsified polyvinylchloride; placing the second tissue web on the first one; covering the second tissue web with the same fire-retarding material to form the second discrete layer; arranging the third tissue web on the second one and simultaneously hardening the first and the second discrete layers.

EFFECT: increased thermal protection, fire-resistance, improved protection against poisonous agents and increased labor productivity.

1 tbl

FIELD: fire-resistant materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabricating fire-resistant material suitable to make filter-type individual respiratory defense systems. Material contains textile sheet with, applied thereon, emulsion polyvinylchloride-based fire-retardant composition in the form of discrete layer. Material additionally has, on its reverse side, (i) a sorption layer constituted mainly by carbon-containing material with, applied on its both sides or on the side being in front of facing layer, discrete coating based on polyvinylchloride containing fire retardants, and (ii) reverse layer containing woven or unwoven material made from cotton, viscose, synthetic fibers or mixtures thereof.

EFFECT: acquired high fire-resistant and heat-resistant properties with high air permeability and thereby defense against poisons preserved.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fire-resistant materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabricating fire-resistant material suitable to make filter-type individual respiratory defense systems. Material contains base in the form of cloth with, applied on one of its sides, discrete fire-retardant emulsion polyvinylchloride-based coating. Material additionally contains similar coating applied on its other side and, situated on its opposite sides, facing cotton/ester textile layer and reverse cotton textile layer. Base cloth consists of carbon-containing material.

EFFECT: enhanced fire-resistant and heat-resistant properties with high air permeability and thereby defense against poisons preserved.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

The invention relates to the production of flame resistant textile materials for filtration PPE

FIELD: fire-resistant materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabricating fire-resistant material suitable to make filter-type individual respiratory defense systems. Material contains base in the form of cloth with, applied on one of its sides, discrete fire-retardant emulsion polyvinylchloride-based coating. Material additionally contains similar coating applied on its other side and, situated on its opposite sides, facing cotton/ester textile layer and reverse cotton textile layer. Base cloth consists of carbon-containing material.

EFFECT: enhanced fire-resistant and heat-resistant properties with high air permeability and thereby defense against poisons preserved.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

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