Method of producing laminates by direct pressing

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lamination and laminate made thereby. Proposed method consists in direct impregnation by pressing of non-impregnated substrate material with non-impregnated decorative layer and one or more upper layers impregnated with polymer that feature intensity of effluent resin exceeding 8%. Method is implemented using short-cycle presses at 15 to 40 bar and 140 to 220 220C. Intensity of effluent resin is determined by the formula

EFFECT: lamination by direct pressing using short-cycle presses with good quality of finished laminate surface.

13 cl, 3 ex

 

DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing laminates obtained by direct pressing, containing at least one surface layer of the decorative sheet and the substrate material for the formation of the layered material, in particular a decorative surface. These materials typically used in the production of working surfaces, components, furniture panels or laminated decking.

The production of such laminates may be single-stage process (DPL laminate direct pressing, CPL laminate extrusion, HPL - laminate-pressing at high pressure). In a typical single-stage process the top layer and the decorative layer impregnated with resin and laminated under pressure and at elevated temperature for the formation of the covering layer. The top layer of the decorative sheet and the base material simultaneously, i.e. in one step, laminated for forming finish finishing material. Therefore, in such processes use only one lamination process, thereby reducing production time and costs.

Example of single-stage lamination process direct pressing is known from DE 10220501, which describes the process in which the upper layer, and a decorative sheet before laminating the evaluation of Gaut impregnation. Another example is shown in US 2004/0038610, which reveals the process of direct lamination when the operational pressure of from 25 to 35 bar at temperatures up to 220C.

Typical resin composition for impregnation coating layer (the upper layer and/or decorative sheets) is a melamine resin (melamine formaldehyde, Matt). In contrast to previously used phenol-formaldehyde resins (FF), melamine resins have advantages, which include high reactivity and low toxicity. An example of manufacturing a laminate direct extrusion are given in DE 20220853, which describes the method of manufacture of building products with matching embossing.

Still the processes of laminating direct pressing, which are applied in a press short cycle process (low pressure), always require impregnated resin decorative sheet. This decorative sheet can be laminated with a top layer that can be impregnated or not impregnated. However, if the upper layer is not saturated, it can cause the finished product will have a low surface quality. Therefore, the preferred lamination process direct pressing requires a preliminary step of impregnation of the decorative sheet and the top layer. This leads to what is usually used in the production of laminates p is amym pressing require time-consuming and therefore expensive.

Therefore, the object of the present invention is to provide an improved method of laminating a direct pressing, uses press short cycle process (low pressure) to create a cost-effective and does not require time-consuming process, preferably without losing the desired surface quality of the finished laminate.

This is achieved by way of lamination, in which at least one saturated top layer and not impregnated decorative sheet laminated with the base material at one stage (direct lamination pressing).

The basic concept underlying the present invention is that at the stage of pressing under heat and pressure, the polymer of the top layer is partially transferred into a decorative sheet and a base material, which allows to obtain a final product with a strongly connected layers. Therefore, a special advantage is the impregnation of the upper layer in excess of its saturation limit. Thus, the idea of the present invention is that excess polymer from the upper layer penetrates into the decorative sheet and simultaneously connects it with the decorative layer and the substrate while applying short cycle presses. This method can be defined as a method of impregnation by pressing".

the AK noted above, the method according to the present invention requires impregnation only the top layer. Unexpectedly, it was found that the finished laminated product made with the use of short cycle presses, differs optically homogeneous surface with a transparent and closed surface structure. Therefore, the method according to the present invention is a cost effective method with low cost time, allowing to obtain high-quality laminate direct compression using short presses cycle without losing the quality of the surface.

In an advantageous variant of the invention the composition of the polymer/top layer has a flow rate of more than 8%, preferably 8%to 30%, and most preferably 10-20%. Preferably, the composition of the polymer/top layer has a content of volatile components from 6 to 8, in particular from 6.9 to 7.4%. The use of such polymer compositions/of the upper layer has the advantage, because, due to the increased flow, their penetration through the decorative sheet during impregnation under pressure improves. Thus it is possible to obtain a laminate pressed with time, comparable with other processes direct compression using short cycle presses. The use of such polymer compositions/top layer showed that when laminating direct pressing of the present invention, the lamination process can be completed in 20-30 seconds.

The standard composition of the polymer/top layer have a flow rate of from 4.0 to 8.0% and, therefore, less suitable for use in presses short cycle due to poor surface formation and improper connection to the substrate.

The flow rate of the compositions of the polymer top layer can be obtained by using modifiers ("modified polymer"). These modifiers are in addition to others, are di - and polyols, polyester diols and alkoxysilane alcohols. To alkoxycarbonyl alcohols include methoxylamine, ethoxylated and propoxycarbonyl alcohols, diols and polyols. Preferred compounds belong to the group With2-C12diols, such as 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and 1,6-hexanediol. These diols preferably can be added in quantities of 8 to 20 weight parts per 100 parts of polymer.

The polymer can be ameloblastoma resins, in particular melamine resin.

The polymer may contain additives, such as hardeners, surface active agents, protivovspenivayushchie agents and separating agents. For your preferred hardeners include sulfamic acid, ethanolamine hydrochloride, triethanolamine sulfate, or combination of curing agents, such as morpholine/p-toluene sulfonic acid, N-methylethanolamine/SO2or N-mutilat nalaman/ethanolamine/SO 2. Hardeners can be entered in the procedure of impregnation in an amount of 0.1-3 weight. %. Surfactants can be, for example, ethoxylated fatty acid or apes that can be applied in a quantity of 0.2-1.0 weight. %. Typical of the separating agent may be a wax emulsion in an amount of 0.2-2 weight. %. Possible protivostoyanie agents can be weakly foaming combination of surfactants in an amount of 0.1-1.0 weight. %.

According to the present invention is impregnated with a polymer top layer and not impregnated decorative sheet can be laminated on any base material, for example, fiberboard, high density (so-called "HDF"), fiberboard medium density ("MDF"), particleboard, plaster plate or glass plate. Furthermore, the method can be used for applying the impregnated polymer top layer and not impregnated decorative sheet materials base, is covered by one or multiple layers of Kraft paper.

For impregnation of the upper layer, it is advisable to use a two-stage process, whereby first the top layer is impregnated with a standard polymer (with a flow rate of 8% or below), and then the polymer with a flow rate of more than 8%, for example a polymer containing modifiers (see above). Further, particular advantages can be achieved by impregnation of the upper layer standard polymer, while the initial weight of the upper layer is not doubled (without drying). Then add the modified polymer.

Used by the upper layers preferably have a paper weight less than 50 g/m2preferably 10-30 g/m2and can be impregnated with the polymer in a percentage by weight of up to 300% or 500% relative to the weight of the paper.

In another embodiment of the present invention soaked the top layer is subjected to curing to the state of the prepreg before used for lamination. While the prepreg can be prepared in advance and stored for use in the lamination process.

In addition, in another embodiment of the present invention the surface of the laminate can be given the structure of the reproducing decorative structure, for example, wood or stone, not only by color but also by the form.

In a particularly preferred variant of the invention, saturated top layer and a decorative sheet laminated on the base material using a press short cycle. Preferably, the pressure is 15-40 bar at temperatures of from 140 to 220C. Under these parameters, the pressing time can be less than 60 C.

Examples

Example 1

In the process of double impregnation of the top sheet SL is I, having a paper weight of 22 g/m2at the first step impregnation of pre-impregnated standard melamine resin to achieve a density of 46 g/m2. In the second stage impregnation of the upper layer was impregnated without intermediate drying standard melamine resin, modified with 1,4-butanediol (8 parts by weight of 1,4-butanediol per 100 parts of melamine resin) to achieve a final density of 122 g/m2and the content of volatile components of 7.3%. The resin composition had a flow rate of 14.5 per cent.

Chipboard panel thickness 16 mm size of 5050 cm covered not containing polymer decorative sheet (density 80 g/m2), and the above-described upper layer was eliminirovali press short cycle at a pressure of 20 bar, the temperature of 160C for 30 s

The result showed excellent surface formation, i.e. optically homogeneous, transparent and closed surface. The interconnection with wood stove was acceptable, and the resulting product meets all technical requirements.

Example 2.

By analogy with Example 1, the upper layer was obtained by using 1,5-pentanediol. In the second step, the impregnation was used standard melamine resin, a modified 10 weight parts of 1,5-pentanediol on 100 parts by weight of melamine resin. After the first stage impregnated the key top layer had a density of 45 g/m 2the final density of 120 g/m2and the resin contained 6.9% of volatile components and had a flow rate of 16.7 per cent.

Chipboard panel thickness 16 mm size of 5050 cm covered not containing polymer decorative sheet (density of 70 g/m2), and the above-described upper layer was eliminirovali press short cycle at a pressure of 25 bar, a temperature of 165C for 25 C.

The result is a technically flawless coverage. The surface is optically homogeneous, closed and transparent. Disadvantages connections with wood stove not observed.

Example 3

By analogy with Example 1, the upper layer was obtained by using 1,6-hexandiol. In the second step, the impregnation was used standard melamine resin, a modified 15 weight parts of 1,6-hexandiol on 100 parts by weight of melamine resin. After the first impregnation of the upper layer had a density of 44 g/m2and the final density of 120 g/m2. The content of volatile components in the resin was 7.1%and the flow rate of 17.1 per cent.

Chipboard panel thickness 16 mm size of 5050 cm covered not containing polymer decorative sheet (density of 90 g/m2), and the above-described upper layer was eliminirovali press short cycle at a pressure of 20 bar, the temperature of 170C for 20 sec.

The result showed be uprice formed surface. The surface is optically homogeneous, transparent and closed. Connection with wood-stove - perfect. The coating meets all technical requirements.

Determination of the intensity of flow

To determine the intensity of the flow of the upper layer, is coated in resin, cut samples (of size 1010 cm), which were weighed (= initial weight) and laminariales between the cold plates of the core in the bore press (T=160C, p = 20 bar, t= 2 min). After pressing, the resin which has flowed out from the upper layer, separated from the upper layer and weighed after pressing (= output weight).

Flow was determined by the following formula:

1. A method of obtaining a laminated product or laminates by direct impregnation pressing covered the base material covered with a decorative layer and one or more impregnated with polymer top layer having a flux intensity of the resulting resin over 8%, while the method is carried out using short presses cycle with application of pressure from 15 to 40 bar and at a temperature of from 140 to 220C, while the flow rate of the resulting resin is determined by the formula

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the resin used for impregnation of the upper layer/layers, contains about the Jn or more modifier(s) to adjust the intensity of the flow, which belongs to the group of di - or polyols, polyester diols and alkoxysilane alcohols or mixtures thereof.

3. The method according to claim 2, in which the modifier belongs to the group of C2-C12diols, preferably 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and 1,6-hexanediol.

4. The method according to claim 1, in which the polymer to seal the top layer/layers use aminoplast resin.

5. The method according to claim 4, in which the polymer to seal the top layer/layers using melamine resin.

6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the polymer used for impregnation of the upper layer/layers contains one or more additives, such as hardeners, surface active agents, separating agents and protivovspenivayushchie agents.

7. The method according to claim 1, in which the covered core material is wood fiber Board, high-density ("HDF"), a wood-fiber Board medium density ("MDF"), particleboard, gypsum or fiberglass stove.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the base material is additionally coated on the laminated side of the at least one layer of Kraft paper.

9. The method according to claim 1, in which at least one upper layer of the first impregnate the polymer with the flow rate of from 4 to 8%, and then another polymer, so that the impregnated polymer top layer had intensive is there a thread which is over 8%.

10. The method according to claim 1, in which the upper layer has a paper weight less than 50 g/m2preferably 10-30 g/m2and/or impregnated with the polymer in a quantity by weight of 300-500% relative to the weight of the paper.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the upper layer utverjdayut to the state of the prepreg before lamination to not impregnated decorative sheet and covered the substrate.

12. The method according to claim 1, wherein in the laminating process printing surface structure.

13. The laminate produced by the method according to one of the preceding paragraphs.



 

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34 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

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EFFECT: multilayer components with optimum characteristics of their surface.

11 cl, 1 dwg

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