Biodegradable thermoplastic composition using natural filler
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a biodegradable thermoplastic composition used in making films and various hot-moulded articles in form of consumer packaging. The composition contains polyethylene, a copolymer of ethylene and vinylacetate, starch, nonionic surfactant and schungite.
EFFECT: composition has good rheological characteristics and is biodegradable under the effect of light, moisture and soil microflora.
2 tbl, 4 ex
The invention relates to the production of plastics based on polyethylene used in the manufacture of films, termoformovannyh products (consumer packagings, utensils, etc.)operated in contact with food and technical purposes, for packing of goods economic purposes.
In a complex world environmental situation, the use of biologically erodible polymeric materials for manufacture of products of mass consumption is a key priority to reduce the amount of solid waste, so as to ensure their rapid decomposition under the action of climatic factors and microorganisms.
One of the possible ways of obtaining biologically decomposable material is a modification of traditional polymers. The combination of a synthetic polymer with natural active filler can give the material a new set of properties.
Such materials are filled system, where as the active filler is starch. The most important quality of these compositions is their ability to degradation under the influence of natural environmental factors: light, heat, microorganisms. Known biologically decomposable packaging material based on starch (France, 2691467, CL 5 C08J 5/18, B65D 1/10, 65/46, C08L 3/20).
In the last time there were a significant number of patents and scientific publications, contains information about the use of starch as a filler for imparting polymer compositions biological destructible (U.S. patent 5248702, C08J 9/12, publ. t, No. 4; U.S. patent 5298267, C08J 9/02, 9/12, publ. 03.05.2004, t, No. 1; patent RU 2095379, publ. 30.06.98; patent RU 2180670, publ. 06.01.2000; patent RU 2174132, publ. 23.06.2000; patent 1338405 EPO, MLK VS 67/24, C08J 5/06, publ. 27.08.2003; U.S. patent 6054510, MPK7 C08L 63/00, publ. 25.04.2000).
Company Archer Daniels Midland, USA developed the concentrate of the brand Poly Clean polyethylene-based to obtain biodegradable films. The concentrate contains 40% starch and oxidized additive, the amount of starch in the final product is 5-6%. The disadvantage of this composition is that biological destruction undergoes only the starch component.
Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result of the present invention is the composition according to the patent of Russian Federation №2349612:
|A copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate||59,5-of 79.5 wt.%|
|The cocoa||of 20.0-40.0 wt.%|
|Surfactant||0.2 to 0.5 wt.%|
The objective of the invention is the creation of a thermoplastic composition using bi the degradable filler starch (potato), products which decompose under the action of light, moisture and soil microflora.
This is achieved by the fact that biologically erodible thermoplastic composition according to the invention contains polyethylene (63,5-to 86.4 wt.%), a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (3.0 to 5.0 wt.%), biodegradable filler, which is used as starch (10.0 to 30.0 wt.%) and processing AIDS, which use shungite (0.5 to 1.0 wt.%), and nonionic surfactant laurilumiste (0.1 to 0.5 wt.%).
According to the invention as a biodegradable filler, stimulating the process of biological destruction of the final products made of a mixture of polyethylene and a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, starch is used in the amount of (10-30) wt.%.
Used for filling potato starch has the following physical specifications:
|Mass fraction of moisture, %||17-20|
|Mass fraction of total ash calculated on the dry substance, %, not more than||0.3 to 1.0|
|Acidity - the consumption of 0.1 n NaOH solution to neutralize 100 g dry matter, ml, not more than||6,0-20,0|
For the filling you can use starch times the primary nature: corn, potato, rice, wheat, etc. But preference is given to potato starch. Grains of potato starch are oval in shape, their size varies from 15 to 100 μm, and the grain structure, mainly amorphous, such starch is easier processed.
According to the invention as processing AIDS used shungite.
Shungite consists of microporous aluminosilicate framework and fills up the frame is carbon. Shungite carbon has an amorphous structure, characterized by a high reactivity in thermal processes, has a high sorption and catalytic properties, electrical conductivity. Due to its composition and structure, shungite has a large inner surface and, respectively, high sorption capacity.
The mineral composition of the material shungite is characterized by the following indicators: carbon - 25%; silicon - 65%; the rest 10%.
|the carbon content||from 20 to 30%|
|- adsorption activity of iodine||11.6 mg/l|
|- to fficient heterogeneity||1,4|
|- the total pore volume in the water||0,087 cm3/g|
Shungite can be used as a filler in rubber, plastics, mastics and other composite materials to replace carbon black and carbon white and create materials with new properties. In agriculture shungite used as feed in the form of shungite-dolomite mixture, which contains calcium and magnesium, necessary for growth of plants, minerals - potassium, phosphorus, vanadium, cobalt, copper, Nickel, zinc, accelerating the growth of plants.
Black color beans shungite regulates thermal regime of soils: accumulation of persistent and slow return of absorbed per day of solar heat. Feeding loosens the soil with grains of shungite diameter of 1...3 mm
Biodegradable material containing shungite, composting may be a specific pocketcomm.
Surfactant was chosen to reflect the necessity of creating a heterogeneous system with specified values of effective viscosity in the selected temperature range processing. Surfactant - laurilumiste (ALM-7), the General formula R-O(CH2CH2O)nH, where n=7; R is an alkyl residue containing mainly (12...14) and the Ohm carbon. This surfactant used in the composition to improve the compatibility of the ingredients and achieve homogenization, as well as the initiator of biodegradation.
As the polymer, the role of the dispersion medium, there was used a polyethylene LDPE 15803-020 that have the following characteristics:
density, kg/m3- 919,0
MFR, g/10 min under a load of 2.16 kg 2,0
As a polymer that acts as a modifier used is a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (CMEA), which has the following characteristics:
the vinyl acetate content of 5 to 30 wt.%
density 0,928-0,945 g/cm3
elongation tensile (600-800) %
ultimate tensile stress at break 9-12 MPa
We offer a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate has a sufficient water absorption (1-3)%that promotes biodegradation of finished products for disposal. In addition, the CMEA is large enough compatibility with starch, and in the processing composition is a better distribution of starch in the polyethylene matrix.
This composition has rheological characteristics that meet the requirements of materials for recycling on traditional for plastics equipment (extruder, molding).
Articles of the proposed compositions have the specified performance parameters.
The choice of the optimal proportions of polymer, filler, additives due to theoretical limit of the filling, which is determined by the strength of the interaction at the phase boundary.
The proposed composition is made as follows.
Example 1. 10 wt.% starch is mixed with 86,4 wt.% polyethylene, 3.0 wt.% copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, 0.5 wt.% shungite, 0.1 wt.% Surfactants in high-speed turbomachine within 5 minutes the mixture to the extruder for homogenization. The temperature of the melt at the exit of the extruder crosshead (140-150)°C.
The resulting Assembly is cooled by a stream of cold air and cut into granules with a size of 3-5 mm From the obtained pellets by extrusion blown at a temperature of 130-135°C produced the film.
Example 2. The preparation of the composition of example 1. The quantity of starch 30 wt.%, the number of polyethylene of 63.5 wt.%, the amount of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate 5.0 wt.%, the number of shungite 1.0 wt.%, the amount of surfactant 0.5 wt.%.
The granules obtained from this composition is used for the manufacture of the sheet from which is formed into consumer containers of various shapes and sizes.
Example 3. The preparation of the composition of example 1. The quantity of starch 20.0 wt.%, the number of polyethylene of 75.0 wt.%, the amount of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate to 4.0 wt.%, the number zhung is that of 0.7 wt.%, the amount of surfactant 0.3 wt.%.
The granules obtained from this composition, used for the manufacture of films by extrusion.
Formulations of compositions according to the examples shown in table 1. In the examples given their optimal number.
Table 2 shows the methods for the determination of properties, providing objective of the invention.
|№ p/p||Name indications||Test methods|
|1.||The temperature of the processing composition, °C||GOST 11645-73|
|2.||The melt flow index of the composition (MFR) at a temperature of 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg g/10 min||GOST 11645-73|
|3.||Determination of physico-mechanical properties (elongation, %tensile strength, n/m2)||GOST 14236-81|
|4.||Method for determination of resistance to chemical environments||GOST 12020-72|
|5.||Microbiological stability||GOST 9.053-75 GOST 9.049-91|
Biologically erodible thermoplastic composition for products, characterized in that it contains a polyethylene, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, degradable filler, which is used as a starch, and processing AIDS, which are used nonionic surfactant, shungite, in the following ratio, wt.%:
|A copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate||3-5|
SUBSTANCE: biodegradable thermoplastic composition contains cellulose diacetate containing 56.4% acetate groups, in amount of 25 pts. wt, biodegradable filler - starch in amount of 40-45 pts. wt, hydrolysed lignin in amount of 5-10 pts. wt and a plasticiser in amount of 25 pts. wt. The plasticiser is a mixture of dioxane alcohols and their high-boiling esters, obtained through distillation a light fraction with boiling point of 115-160°C from a floatation agent-oxal at pressure 5-10 mm Hg in amount of 25 pts. wt.
EFFECT: composition has good operational characteristics, articles made from said composition are biodegradable under the effect of natural factors.
1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition comprises fibrous mass, water and, at least, one neutralised complex phosphate ester of the formula R1O[PO(OZ)]OZ, where R1 is alkyl chain containing 2-24 carbon atoms, Z is separate H or alkyl chain containing 1-24 carbon atoms. Proposed composition can comprise wax, starch, lignosulfonate, biocide. Proposed method consists in adding complex phosphate ester into fibrous mass prior to forming and, then, adding excess amine base to neutralise ester.
EFFECT: perfected process.
27 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: textile industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to integrated methods for manufacturing nonwoven materials involving impregnation with liquid binder. Impregnating composition contains polymeric binder: starch, gelatin, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide; filler: zeolite or activated carbon; plasticizer: vegetable or liquid paraffin; and water. Composition can be used in manufacture of filled filter materials.
EFFECT: increased sorption capacity of materials with regard to impurities in liquid media.
1 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: barley plant including mutation in gene SBE11a, or transgene which codes activity inhibitor of SBE11a, has low level of activity of enzyme SBE11a. Starch produced from grain of such plant may have amylase content of at least 40% (weight/weight). Also, barley of such kind may have lowered levels of activity of SBE11b. Barley grain may have non-rugose phenotype despite damaged amylopectin synthesis path.
EFFECT: lower levels of activity of branching enzyme and increased amylase content of starch-containing products.
46 cl, 19 dwg, 7 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: biotechnology, food processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: barley plants are mutated in SSII gene to reduce SSII activity. Such barley corn has starch structure with. Moreover said corn optionally has relatively high β-glucan content. Starch is characterized with decreased gelatinization viscosity, low crystallinity, and high levels of lipid-bonded starch of V-form crystallinity.
EFFECT: barley plants having reduced amylopectin content and relatively high amylose content.
33 cl, 39 dwg, 10 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polyethylene moulding composition for pressure casting finished parts, for example bottle tops and bottles, and to a method of preparing said moulding composition. The composition has polymodal molecular weight distribution and contains an ethylene homopolymer (A) with low molecular weight, an ethylene copolymer (B) with high molecular weight an ethylene copolymer (C) with ultrahigh molecular weight. At temperature 23°C, the moulding composition has density of 0.948-0.957 g/cm3, melt flow rate MFR (190°C/2.16 kg) of 1-2.7 dg/min and coefficient of viscosity VN3 of the mixture of ethylene homopolymer A, copolymer B and ethylene copolymer C, measured in accordance with ISO/R 1191 in decalin at temperature 135°C ranging from 150 to 240 cm3/g.
EFFECT: besides processability, the moulding composition has high mechanical strength and rigidity, excellent organoleptic properties and high cracking resistance under the effect of the surrounding medium.
12 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dispersion powdered compositions re-dispersed in water, a method of preparing said compositions, as well as to their use in construction materials. The composition is prepared based on polymers of one or more ethylene unsaturated monomers. The composition additionally contains one or more dimeric surfactants in form of alkyne derivatives, an one or more protective colloids. Powdered compositions are obtained through emulsion or suspension polymerisation of one or more ethylene unsaturated monomers. The reaction takes place in an aqueous medium followed by drying the obtained aqueous dispersions, while adding one or more dimeric surfactants.
EFFECT: use of obtained powdered compositions in self-levelling filler or fluid solutions for making seamless floors, prevents formation of irregularities, depressions and small pores on the surface, as well as formation of air pockets in the deposited layer.
18 cl, 2 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: mixture contains two different polyolefin and ethylene/α-olefin copolymers. The ethylene/α-olefin copolymer is a block-copolymer containing at least one hard block and at least one soft block. The ethylene/α-olefin copolymer can function as a component which improves compatibility between two polyolefins which may be incompatible. The disclosed polymeric mixtures can be used in making various articles such as tyres, hoses, belts, linings, shoe soles, cast and moulded articles. Said mixtures are especially useful for applications requiring melt strength, such as big articles made by blow moulding, foam and bundled bars.
EFFECT: improved compatibility of mixtures.
27 cl, 10 dwg, 13 tbl, 40 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition with multimodal distribution of molecular weight has density between 0.94 and 0.95 g/cm3 at 23°C and melt flow index (MFI190/5) between 1.2-2.1 dg/min in accordance with ISO 1133. The composition contains 45-55 wt % low molecular weight homopolymer A of ethylene, 30-40 wt % high molecular weight copolymer B of ethylene and another olefin containing 4-8 carbon atoms, and 10-20 wt % ultrahigh molecular weight copolymer C of ethylene and another olefin containing 4-8 carbon atoms. The composition has high processibillity and resistance to mechanical loads and breaking, especially at temperatures below 0°C.
EFFECT: flawless coating for steel pips has mechanical strength properties combined with high hardness.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer moulding compositions meant for moulding screw fitments. The composition contains a copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene with density between 0.947 and 0.962 g/cm3 and melt index between 2 and 8 g/10 min and another copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene with density between 0.912 and 0.932 g/cm3 and melt index between 0.25 and 6 g/10 min. Difference in density of the two polyethylenes is equal to or greater than 0.03 g/cm3. Selection of the components enables to obtain polymer compositions which have sufficient resistance to cracking and impact strength at low production expenses and without loss of other necessary operational properties.
EFFECT: screw fittings made from the said composition have strength which conforms to requirements for maintaining pressure, particularly in bottles with carbonated drinks, as well as plasticity for providing an airtight seal without need for lining and without change in taste or smell of the contents of the bottle.
9 cl, 4 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyethylene and articles made by injection moulding polyethylene. Polyethylene contains homopolymers of ethylene and/or copolymers with ethylene with molecular weight distribution Mw/Mn between 3 and 30, density of 0.945 - 0.965 g/cm3, average molecular weight Mw between 50000 g/mol and 200000 g/mol, high-load melt index (HLMI) between 10 and 300 g/10 min. The polymer contains 0.1-15 branches/1000 carbon atoms, where 1-15 wt % polyethylene with the highest molecular weight has degree of branching greater than 1 branch of side chains with length greater than CH3/1000 carbon atoms.The polyethylene is obtained using a catalyst composition which contains at least two different polymerisation catalysts, where A) is at least one hafnocene-based polymerisation catalyst (A2), and B) is at least one polymerisation catalyst based on an iron component, having a tridentate ligand which contains at least two ortho-, ortho-disubstituted aryl radicals (B). The disclosed polyethylene can be subjected to processing treatment on standard injection moulding apparatus.
EFFECT: articles obtained through injection moulding is uniform and can further be improved by increasing rate of injection moulding or high melting point.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyolefin compositions which have high decolouration and impact resistance. The composition contains from 50 to less than 70 wt % crystalline propylene homopolymer, 13-28 wt % elastomeric ethylene and propylene copolymer and 10-22 wt % polyethylene. Total amount of the elastomeric copolymer and polyethylene in the composition is more than 30 wt %. The crystalline propylene homopolymer has polydispersity index ranging from 4 to 10 and amount of isotactic pentades (mmmm) measured using 13C-NMR method on a fraction which is insoluble in xylene at 25°C more than 97.5 mol %. The elastomeric ethylene copolymer is partially soluble in xylene at ambient temperature. The polymer fraction which is soluble in xylene has value of inherent viscosity, measured in tetrahydronaphthalene at 135°C, which ranges from 2 to 4 dl/g. Polyethylene has inherent viscosity ranging from 1 to 3 dl/g.
EFFECT: obtained polypropylene compositions have relatively low hardness, high impact resistance and high resistance to decolouration, which enables their use in the motor car industry, particularly in bumpers and interior finishing, packaging and household objects.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains at least one high-molecular polyethylene and at least one low-molecular polyethylene component. The high-molecular polyethylene component of the composition has molecular weight distribution of approximately 6 to 9, content of short-chain branches less than approximately 2 branches per 1000 carbon atoms of the main chain and Mz - approximately 1100000 or greater. The ratio of weight-average molecular weight of the high-molecular polyethylene component to the weight-average molecular weight of the low-molecular polyethylene component is less than 20. The disclosed composition has density greater than 0.94 g/cm3, resistance to cracking under the influence of the surrounding medium greater than 600 hours and percentage swelling greater than 70%.
EFFECT: improved mechanical strength characteristics, suitable for blow moulding.
22 cl, 1 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: resin has melt index MI5 from 0.40 to 0.70 g/10 min and contains from 47 to 52 wt % low-molecular polyethylene fraction and from 48 to 53 wt % high-molecular polyethylene fraction, where the high-molecular polyethylene fraction includes a copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene and 1-octene.
EFFECT: improved hydrostatic properties.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyethylene mixed compositions, intended for film manufacturing, which include two or more different ethylene polymers, each of which has different degree of complexity of long chain branching. Polyethylene composition is practically linear and has average index of branching constituting 0.85 or less. In addition, composition has density 0.935 g/cm3 or less, dullness - 10% or less and stability to falling load impact - 100g/mm or more, determined according to ASTM D-1709 methodology.
EFFECT: polyethylene compositions possess definite combination of required properties and characteristics, good optic properties and strengthening characteristics.
15 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains crystalline propyelen polymer, elastomeric copolymer of ethylene and propylene and polyethylene. When combined with components with certain values of polydispersity index and characteristic viscosity in given ratios, the composition exhibits high hardness, impact resistance and resistance to bleaching under loading. The composition has flexural modulus higher than 1300 MPa, resistance to bleaching during impact corresponding to diametre of the bleaching area not greater than 1.7 cm, caused by a die falling from a height of 76 cm and diametre of the bleaching area not greater than 1.2 cm, caused by a die falling from a height of 20 cm, and Izod impact resistance at 23°C greater than 14 kJ/m2 and at least equal to 6.5 kJ/m2 at -20°C.
EFFECT: composition has good balance of mechanical properties, is suitable for making articles through pressure casting, such as casings of batteries and consumer goods, and during hot shaping processes.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex