Biodegradable thermoplastic composition using natural filler

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a biodegradable thermoplastic composition used in making films and various hot-moulded articles in form of consumer packaging. The composition contains polyethylene, a copolymer of ethylene and vinylacetate, starch, nonionic surfactant and schungite.

EFFECT: composition has good rheological characteristics and is biodegradable under the effect of light, moisture and soil microflora.

2 tbl, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to the production of plastics based on polyethylene used in the manufacture of films, termoformovannyh products (consumer packagings, utensils, etc.)operated in contact with food and technical purposes, for packing of goods economic purposes.

In a complex world environmental situation, the use of biologically erodible polymeric materials for manufacture of products of mass consumption is a key priority to reduce the amount of solid waste, so as to ensure their rapid decomposition under the action of climatic factors and microorganisms.

One of the possible ways of obtaining biologically decomposable material is a modification of traditional polymers. The combination of a synthetic polymer with natural active filler can give the material a new set of properties.

Such materials are filled system, where as the active filler is starch. The most important quality of these compositions is their ability to degradation under the influence of natural environmental factors: light, heat, microorganisms. Known biologically decomposable packaging material based on starch (France, 2691467, CL 5 C08J 5/18, B65D 1/10, 65/46, C08L 3/20).

In the last time there were a significant number of patents and scientific publications, contains information about the use of starch as a filler for imparting polymer compositions biological destructible (U.S. patent 5248702, C08J 9/12, publ. t, No. 4; U.S. patent 5298267, C08J 9/02, 9/12, publ. 03.05.2004, t, No. 1; patent RU 2095379, publ. 30.06.98; patent RU 2180670, publ. 06.01.2000; patent RU 2174132, publ. 23.06.2000; patent 1338405 EPO, MLK VS 67/24, C08J 5/06, publ. 27.08.2003; U.S. patent 6054510, MPK7 C08L 63/00, publ. 25.04.2000).

Company Archer Daniels Midland, USA developed the concentrate of the brand Poly Clean polyethylene-based to obtain biodegradable films. The concentrate contains 40% starch and oxidized additive, the amount of starch in the final product is 5-6%. The disadvantage of this composition is that biological destruction undergoes only the starch component.

Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result of the present invention is the composition according to the patent of Russian Federation №2349612:

A copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate59,5-of 79.5 wt.%
The cocoaof 20.0-40.0 wt.%
Surfactant0.2 to 0.5 wt.%

The objective of the invention is the creation of a thermoplastic composition using bi the degradable filler starch (potato), products which decompose under the action of light, moisture and soil microflora.

This is achieved by the fact that biologically erodible thermoplastic composition according to the invention contains polyethylene (63,5-to 86.4 wt.%), a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (3.0 to 5.0 wt.%), biodegradable filler, which is used as starch (10.0 to 30.0 wt.%) and processing AIDS, which use shungite (0.5 to 1.0 wt.%), and nonionic surfactant laurilumiste (0.1 to 0.5 wt.%).

According to the invention as a biodegradable filler, stimulating the process of biological destruction of the final products made of a mixture of polyethylene and a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, starch is used in the amount of (10-30) wt.%.

Used for filling potato starch has the following physical specifications:

Mass fraction of moisture, %17-20
Mass fraction of total ash calculated on the dry substance, %, not more than0.3 to 1.0
Acidity - the consumption of 0.1 n NaOH solution to neutralize 100 g dry matter, ml, not more than6,0-20,0

For the filling you can use starch times the primary nature: corn, potato, rice, wheat, etc. But preference is given to potato starch. Grains of potato starch are oval in shape, their size varies from 15 to 100 μm, and the grain structure, mainly amorphous, such starch is easier processed.

According to the invention as processing AIDS used shungite.

Shungite consists of microporous aluminosilicate framework and fills up the frame is carbon. Shungite carbon has an amorphous structure, characterized by a high reactivity in thermal processes, has a high sorption and catalytic properties, electrical conductivity. Due to its composition and structure, shungite has a large inner surface and, respectively, high sorption capacity.

The mineral composition of the material shungite is characterized by the following indicators: carbon - 25%; silicon - 65%; the rest 10%.

Physico-chemical properties:

the carbon contentfrom 20 to 30%
mechanical abrasion90%
- adsorption activity of iodine11.6 mg/l
- to fficient heterogeneity 1,4
- the total pore volume in the water0,087 cm3/g

Shungite can be used as a filler in rubber, plastics, mastics and other composite materials to replace carbon black and carbon white and create materials with new properties. In agriculture shungite used as feed in the form of shungite-dolomite mixture, which contains calcium and magnesium, necessary for growth of plants, minerals - potassium, phosphorus, vanadium, cobalt, copper, Nickel, zinc, accelerating the growth of plants.

Black color beans shungite regulates thermal regime of soils: accumulation of persistent and slow return of absorbed per day of solar heat. Feeding loosens the soil with grains of shungite diameter of 1...3 mm

Biodegradable material containing shungite, composting may be a specific pocketcomm.

Surfactant was chosen to reflect the necessity of creating a heterogeneous system with specified values of effective viscosity in the selected temperature range processing. Surfactant - laurilumiste (ALM-7), the General formula R-O(CH2CH2O)nH, where n=7; R is an alkyl residue containing mainly (12...14) and the Ohm carbon. This surfactant used in the composition to improve the compatibility of the ingredients and achieve homogenization, as well as the initiator of biodegradation.

As the polymer, the role of the dispersion medium, there was used a polyethylene LDPE 15803-020 that have the following characteristics:

density, kg/m3- 919,0

MFR, g/10 min under a load of 2.16 kg 2,0

As a polymer that acts as a modifier used is a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (CMEA), which has the following characteristics:

the vinyl acetate content of 5 to 30 wt.%

density 0,928-0,945 g/cm3

elongation tensile (600-800) %

ultimate tensile stress at break 9-12 MPa

We offer a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate has a sufficient water absorption (1-3)%that promotes biodegradation of finished products for disposal. In addition, the CMEA is large enough compatibility with starch, and in the processing composition is a better distribution of starch in the polyethylene matrix.

This composition has rheological characteristics that meet the requirements of materials for recycling on traditional for plastics equipment (extruder, molding).

Articles of the proposed compositions have the specified performance parameters.

The choice of the optimal proportions of polymer, filler, additives due to theoretical limit of the filling, which is determined by the strength of the interaction at the phase boundary.

The proposed composition is made as follows.

Example 1. 10 wt.% starch is mixed with 86,4 wt.% polyethylene, 3.0 wt.% copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, 0.5 wt.% shungite, 0.1 wt.% Surfactants in high-speed turbomachine within 5 minutes the mixture to the extruder for homogenization. The temperature of the melt at the exit of the extruder crosshead (140-150)°C.

The resulting Assembly is cooled by a stream of cold air and cut into granules with a size of 3-5 mm From the obtained pellets by extrusion blown at a temperature of 130-135°C produced the film.

Example 2. The preparation of the composition of example 1. The quantity of starch 30 wt.%, the number of polyethylene of 63.5 wt.%, the amount of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate 5.0 wt.%, the number of shungite 1.0 wt.%, the amount of surfactant 0.5 wt.%.

The granules obtained from this composition is used for the manufacture of the sheet from which is formed into consumer containers of various shapes and sizes.

Example 3. The preparation of the composition of example 1. The quantity of starch 20.0 wt.%, the number of polyethylene of 75.0 wt.%, the amount of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate to 4.0 wt.%, the number zhung is that of 0.7 wt.%, the amount of surfactant 0.3 wt.%.

The granules obtained from this composition, used for the manufacture of films by extrusion.

Formulations of compositions according to the examples shown in table 1. In the examples given their optimal number.

Table 2 shows the methods for the determination of properties, providing objective of the invention.

Table 2
№ p/pName indicationsTest methods
1.The temperature of the processing composition, °CGOST 11645-73
2.The melt flow index of the composition (MFR) at a temperature of 190°C. and load of 2.16 kg g/10 minGOST 11645-73
3.Determination of physico-mechanical properties (elongation, %tensile strength, n/m2)GOST 14236-81
4.Method for determination of resistance to chemical environmentsGOST 12020-72
5. Microbiological stabilityGOST 9.053-75 GOST 9.049-91

Biologically erodible thermoplastic composition for products, characterized in that it contains a polyethylene, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, degradable filler, which is used as a starch, and processing AIDS, which are used nonionic surfactant, shungite, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Polyethylene63,5-86,4
A copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate3-5
Starch10-30
PAV0,1-0,5
Shungite0,5-1,0



 

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