Inflammable composition and field of use

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an inflammable composition and uses thereof. The composition contains an explosive fraction which contains at least one primary explosive substance, a redox system and binder-plasticiser. The explosive fraction in the composition makes up 9-35 wt % of the composition. The primary explosive substance is tetrazene, which makes up 95 wt % of the said explosive fraction.

EFFECT: explosive fraction does not contain lead.

21 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex

 

The present invention relates to flammable compositions designed for launching pyrotechnic chain to ensure the ignition, opening or pop action. Flammable composition is mass detonating substances, used for conversion, as a rule, mechanical actions, such as hitting, action pyrotechnic, which causes the ignition of the powder charge or explosives. The invention will be described in more detail with reference to hunting or sporting cartridges, but its use is not limited to this only and can be suitable for any system explosive deformation, for example in the automotive industry, to actuate the airbag or safety belt.

Classic flammable composition consists of explosive fraction comprising one or more primary explosives and one or more secondary explosives, the redox system and in some cases, a binder and a friction agent. Among primary explosives are no longer used explosive mercury and lead azide in pure form, as they put gun metal too strong corrosion, but also because of the environmental pollution of waste containing mercury and lead. Usually use a mixture of TRANS the ranks of explosives, selected from mixtures of trinitroresorcinate lead and tetrazene. Thus, commercially available compositions are having the following composition:

- explosive fraction comprising as primary explosives about 35 wt.% trinitroresorcinate lead and from 3 to 4 wt.% tetrazene relative to the total weight of the composition,

- redox system, and

- binder.

Previously developed flammable compositions without lead, in which the explosive fraction consists of the composition of diazodinitrophenol and tetrazene, the percentage of tetrazene can reach 40% by weight relative to the total weight of the composition.

In FR-A-2 730991 disclosed flammable composition intended for cartridges used in light weapons, including 20-40 wt.% diazodinitrophenol and 5-20 wt.% tetrazene; it also includes a redox system consisting of metals and oxides of tin. In EP-a-1 216215 disclosed flammable composition comprising 5-40 wt.% explosives selected from nitroethanol and nitramines, 5-40 wt.% tetrazene, as well as the redox system, a plasticizer and a friction agent. Most preferred of these songs always contain explosive faction, whose share is not less than 50 wt.% song.

PPD is under the least toxic and harmful to the environment tracks the applicant has discovered, that terasen, or hydrate 1(5-tetrazolyl)-4-guanyl of tetrazene can be used in flammable composition as the predominant primary explosives, as well as the only primary explosives, and even as a single component explosive faction. This discovery is interesting in several respects. First of all, explosive fraction obtained thereby does not contain lead. In addition, it was unexpectedly found that the use of tetrazene as the predominant primary explosives, or as the only primary explosives allows to reduce the share of explosive faction in flammable composition.

Thus, the invention relates to an explosive composition that contains at least (a) an explosive fraction containing at least one primary explosive substance, (b) redox system, and (C) binder - plasticizer; explosive fraction in the composition ranges from 9 to 35 wt.% composition, and the primary explosive is terasen, which is at least 95 wt.% specified explosive faction. Preferably, terasen was at least 99 wt.% explosive faction.

The composition according to this invention receive such education is a simplified way, does not require additional synthesis of another primary explosives, since the above-mentioned composition is effective without it and even without secondary explosives.

Moreover, in the industrial synthesis of tetrazine through the reaction of nitrite salts and neutral salts of guanidine get uterine solutions that handle way physico-chemical decomposition, with no formation of by - products of polluting substances containing heavy metals. More specifically, the most preferred method for industrial preparation of tetrazene involves the reaction (when shaken) aqueous solution of salt nitrite, e.g. sodium nitrite, and an aqueous solution of a neutral salt of guanidine, for example, guanidine sulfate, in the absence of an inorganic acid and in the presence of, if necessary, acetic acid and/or agent of crystallization. To obtain the composition of the invention other ingredients are then mixed, the mixture is pressed and dried.

According to the most preferred option of obtaining a mixture according to this invention developed a method that allows terasen receive in situ. According to this method, dry mix salt nitrite and neutral salt of guanidine, i.e. reagents for the production of tetrazene, as well as other ingredients that are included in SOS the AB composition. I dosed amount of this dry mixture is placed in a pilot cell, pressed, and then moisten the mixture at this stage is formed of terasen; finally, the resulting composition is dried. This method is suitable for all reagents used for the synthesis of tetrazine, in particular sodium nitrite and/or guanidine sulfate, as well as for all ingredients of the composition according to this invention. This method is extremely advantageous, since the safety of works in this case combined with safety to the environment.

Therefore, an object of the invention is also the composition described above, the explosive fraction which contains another primary explosive substance, except tetrazene, as well as the composition in which terasen is the only component of the explosive fraction.

Explosive fraction composition may contain, if necessary, at least one secondary explosive. It can choose from a secondary explosives are well known in the art, in particular from explosive aromatic nitro compounds, such as TNT (or 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene, 2, 4, 6-TNT), Melina (or picric acid) and trinitroaniline (or pyramid, or trinitramine benzene); explosives - esters of nitric acid, such as pantry is (or pentaerythritol TETRANITRATE, PETN) and nitric acid esters of cellulose; from explosive nitramines, such as RDX (or RDX, RDX), tetryl (or 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine), nitroguanidine and HMX (or cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine, NMH).

The composition according to the present invention has the following advantageous characteristics that can be considered independently or in combination.

The oxidizing agent or oxidising redox system (b) is selected from chemically resistant oxidants, such as nitrate of barium, zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, copper oxide, copper nitrate, manganese oxides and iron, potassium chlorate (bertoletova salt), sodium chlorate, chromium oxide, carbonates and mixtures thereof.

The reducing agent or the reducing agent of the redox system (b) selected from organic reducing agents, metals and metal salts, cellulose and, if necessary, its derivatives (nitrocellulose). As an example, the reducing agent or the reducing agent of the redox system (b) is selected from aluminum, magnesium, zirconium and antimony sulphide.

Lists of oxidants and reductants above are not exhaustive, and the expert can use any other stable redox system, compatible with explosive faction with whom according to the present invention, the effectiveness of the composition is not reduced.

Preferably, the share of the redox system (b) is from 65 to 81 wt.% song.

The plasticizer (C) is preferably selected from cellulose resins, such as gum Arabic, tragant and resin of acacia. If the plasticizer is needed and even necessary, its share in the composition may be very small, it usually ranges from 0.01 to 5 wt.%.

The composition according to the invention preferably contains:

from 15 to 25% of tetrazene,

from 40 to 60% of nitrate of barium,

from 18 to 30% of antimony sulphide,

from 5 to 12% of aluminum powder,

the plasticizer.

To increase the sensitivity of the explosive fraction in the composition may contain at least one chemically inert friction agent. This agent selected from: glass powder, diamond powder carbide powder, a ceramic material, nitrides such as titanium nitride. The share of friction agent preferably does not exceed 15 wt.% song.

As indicated above, the composition according to the present invention can be used in various fields, namely for military, hunting, sporting and defensive ammunition, ammunition for shotguns and rifles, in the automotive industry - the manufacture of airbags or pregnacare the oil for the belts, or any other product that uses pyrotechnic energy, and technologies driving with explosive rounds. Also, the composition can be applied in medicine for injection, for example, intradermal or subcutaneous injection of a drug or vaccine.

The characteristics and advantages of the invention, in particular settings and test results of the composition of the present invention, are illustrated in the following comparative examples.

Example 1: comparison of the ballistic characteristics of the compositions according to the present invention and compositions according to the prior art.

Compare compositions have the following composition

The composition according to the invention is:

20% of tetrazene,

48% of nitrate of barium,

8% of aluminum powder,

24% of antimony sulphide,

the plasticizer.

The proportion of plasticizer small compared to other components of the sample composition. Since the percentage of these components may vary in absolute value, the introduction of the plasticizer does not significantly change the composition.

Explosive fraction (a) within such compositions according to the present invention is only about 20% of the said composition. This composition represents a preferred variant of the present invention, the village is olcu explosive fraction (a) consists only of tetrazene.

The composition according to the prior art:

30-35% of trinitroresorcinate lead,

2-5% of tetrazene,

30-45% of nitrate of barium,

10-20% of antimony sulphide,

the plasticizer.

The above remarks concerning the proportion of plasticizer applicable in the case of compositions according to the prior art. Explosive fraction in such compositions is 32-40%.

Both of these compositions were tested in the same conditions, were conducted three tests: sensitivity to impact, ballistic test and blind ballistic test in full size.

1) sensitivity to impact

This test allows you to measure the ability of the composition to react to a blow in firearms in accordance with safety standards.

Use the standard device with a falling ball. Ball weight 56 g is released from a height H, getting on the drummer (stinger fuse)that causes the blasting or newsrevue charge. Firing the mixture is placed in the cell (chamber)in which it is protected by the blotting-book.

Based on this test displays the statistical calculations that meet the laws of Henry, which thus allows us to characterize the composition and to evaluate the limits of its safe failure and the drop height, expressing the energy at which this composition works for sure.

The result is s, obtained by the three parties of the composition according to the present invention, are shown in table 1, where H is the average height of the drop, s is the standard (or standard deviation set to this height, and the parameter H+5s corresponds to the threshold function, in which actuation is absolute.

The test composition is a composition as described in the beginning of example, and shown in the table, the share of tetrazene varies and it is accordingly replaced by nitrate of barium.

These results are similar to those obtained with a mixture made according to the old technology, which was described above and tested in the same conditions.

2) Ballistic test

During these tests measure the pressure in the barrel at the speed of bullets at predefined distances. These tests were performed according to the standards CIP and SAAMI.

Collect the ammo from the wad and skirt, filled available on the market gunpowder and charge lead that use flammable composition according to the invention or the composition according to the prior art; the cartridges are placed in the control device, the ballistic barrel.

Were held triple tests with the composition according to the invention with a charge lead 36 g and other charge 32,

Measuring the presented values are the following:

P1 shows the pressure in bars, measured in the ballistic barrel, 25 mm from the bottom of the cartridge: this measurement is carried out using a piezoelectric sensor.

Sp1 is a standard (RMS) deviation set to this pressure.

V1 indicates the speed of the lead beam, expressed in m/s and calculated at one meter from the muzzle of the barrel: this is the average of the two speeds, one of which is measured directly from the muzzle of the barrel, and the other two meters from the muzzle.

Sv1 shows the standard (RMS) deviation set for this speed.

V2 shows the average speed (in m/s) lead beam computed in the interval between the optical barrier, located two meters from the muzzle of the barrel, and an optical barrier, located 17 metres. Determine the average speed.

Sv2 shows the standard (RMS) deviation set for this speed.

Tc - time of combustion, also called barrel-time shows the time in microseconds between hitting the primer and the passage of lead in front of the cell, located near the muzzle of the barrel.

STc shows the standard (RMS) deviation set for this time.

The measurements presented in the following tables 2 and 3. Table 2 shows the tests with the charge lead is 36 g, table 3 shows the tests with charge lead 32,

From these results it follows that workers ballistic characteristics of the compositions according to the invention are reproducible and that they are at least as high as the figures for the composition according to the prior art.

3) Blind ballistic test in full size.

Arrows tested unidentified cartridges with different compositions on sports test stands and on the hunt.

Tests confirmed that the performance of the compositions according to the invention is at least similar to the characteristics of the compositions according to the prior art.

1. Flammable composition comprising at least (a)
explosive fraction, which includes at least one primary explosive substance, (b) redox system, and (C) a plasticizer, wherein the explosive fraction ranges from 9 to 35 wt.%, the primary explosive is tetrazene, and terasen is at least 95 wt.% specified explosive faction.

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that terasen is at least 99 wt.% specified explosive faction.

3. The composition according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the explosive is riccia does not contain other primary explosives, in addition tetrazene.

4. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the explosive fraction consists only of tetrazene.

5. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the explosive fraction contains at least one secondary explosive.

6. The composition according to claim 5, characterized in that one or more than one secondary explosive to explosive fraction selected from the explosive aromatic nitro compounds, such as toluene, Melina and trinitroaniline; explosives - esters of nitric acid, such as PETN, and nitrate esters of cellulose; and from explosive nitramine - such as RDX, tetryl, nitroguanidine and HMX.

7. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains no lead.

8. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the oxidant of the redox system (b) is selected from a nitrate of barium, zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, copper oxide, copper nitrate, oskido manganese and iron, potassium chlorate (bertoletova salt), sodium chlorate, chromium oxide, carbonates and mixtures thereof.

9. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the reducing agent or the reducing agent of the redox system (b) selected from organic reducing agents, metals and metal salts, cellulose and possibly nitro-derivatives of cellulose.

10. The composition according to claim 9, characterized in that VOSSTANOVITEL or a reducing agent of the redox system (b) is chosen from aluminum, magnesium, zirconium and antimony sulphide.

11. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the proportion of the redox system (b) is from 65 to 81 wt.% song.

12. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the plasticizer (C) is chosen from cellulose resins, such as gum Arabic, tragant and resin of acacia.

13. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the proportion of the plasticizer (C) is from 0.01 to 5 wt.% song.

14. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains:
from 15 to 25% of tetrazene,
from 40 to 60% of nitrate of barium,
from 18 to 30% of antimony sulphide,
from 5 to 12% of aluminum powder,
the plasticizer.

15. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains at least one chemically inert friction agent that increases the sensitivity of the explosive fraction.

16. The composition according to item 15, wherein the specified agent selected from glass powder, diamond powder carbide powder, a ceramic material, nitrides such as titanium nitride.

17. The composition according to item 15 or 16, characterized in that the proportion of friction agent does not exceed 15 wt.% song.

18. The use of a mixture according to any one of claims 1 to 17 for the manufacture of military, hunting, sporting and defensive ammo.

19. The use of a mixture according to any one of claims 1 to 17 for the manufacture of airbags and pre-tensioners for p is MNA security.

20. The use of a mixture according to any one of claims 1 to 17 in the technologies driving with explosive bullets.

21. The use of a mixture according to any one of claims 1 to 17 in medical injection techniques.



 

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FIELD: chemistry.

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FIELD: explosives.

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17 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: explosives.

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19 cl, 13 dwg, 4 tbl

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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5 tbl

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1 tbl

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3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: production and packaging of small-sized capsules-igniters.

SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding capsules-igniters from vertical channel, wherein capsules-igniters are positioned for rolling; vibrating pallet having capsules-igniters thereon, with cells in pallet being provided with axially aligned cylindrical slots in bottom part, said slots having diameter substantially equal to height of capsule-igniter cap; forming walls of cells as cylindrical surface having height constituting 1/3 the height of cap and diameter equal to diameter of cap, and forming said surface as inverted cone having diameter of its lower part equal to diagonal of capsule-igniter longitudinal section.

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EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of composition.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry; other industries; production of the high-temperature electric detonators.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of the high-temperature electric detonators. It presents the high-temperature electric detonator consisting of the tube, containing the cap charged with the blasting explosive and the electric spark igniter fixed in the tube by the method of compaction of its mouth. The electric igniter contains the igniting composition containing potassium perchlorate, potassium picrate, polyphenylsilane resin and polybutylmethacrylate resin. The invention has the purpose to ensure the reliable operation of the electrical detonator at the temperatures of 200-210°С.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the reliable operation of the electrical detonator at the temperatures of 200-210°С.

2 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to blasting cartridges and blasters for charges of low-sensitivity industrial explosives. According to first embodiment, blasting cartridge consists of polymeric case having longitudinal side grooves, annular furrows, and cover and incorporates two-layer explosive charge obtained from pulse-sensitive loose explosive, initiation means disposed in top part of polymeric case, and molded explosive capable to detonate from loose explosive and disposed in bottom part of polymeric case. According to second embodiment, blasting cartridge differs from the first one by that interface between two explosive layers is located below upper annular furrow when molded explosive is disposed in bottom part of polymeric case and above upper annular furrow when loose explosive is disposed in bottom part of polymeric case. Blasters in the two embodiments contain, as intermediate detonator, first- and second-embodiment blasting cartridges, respectively. Initiation means are inserted in longitudinal side grooves or in longitudinal side grooves and annular furrows of polymeric case in the lose explosive zone. Thin-walled polymeric cylinder is constructed with rounded edges in its bottom part protruding on bottom part of polymeric case. Diameter of hemisphere of protrusions of thin-walled polymeric cylinder is equal to half height of lower annular furrow of polymeric case and they are shifted by pairs to half height of lower annular furrow such that longitudinal grooves of thin-walled polymeric cylinder enter into longitudinal side grooves of polymeric case and press primary initiation means to polymeric case along all their length. Third-embodiment blaster contains second-embodiment blasting cartridge and polymeric case filled with molded explosive, wherein polymeric cases are arranged in bottom-to-bottom manner and inserted into thin-walled polymeric cylinder. Fourth-embodiment blaster consists of one or two second-embodiment blasting cartridges and two or three polymeric cases filled with molded explosive and disposed in the covered polymeric case. Initiation means are located in a similar manner as in the first-embodiment blaster.

EFFECT: increased blasting operations efficiency.

19 cl, 13 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: production of blasting means, applicable in production of blocks used as intermediate detonators, as well as for geophysical operations.

SUBSTANCE: the cast trinitrotoluene block-detonator is made of trinitrotoluene granules containing gas inclusions, whose content makes up 10 to 44 percent by weight, the gaps between them are filled with cast trinitrotoluene, it is provided with a polymeric housing. to enhanced the reliability of operation at a content of granulated trinitrotoluene below 30 per cent, modifications of the block were developed. The cast trinitrotoluene block-detonator may be provided with a vertical insert with an opening for the detonator of cast mixture of trinitrotoluene and tetronitropentaerythritol of composition 50/50 percent by weight, or cast mixture of trinitrotoluene and hexogen of composition 60/40 percent by weight, or have a layer in the active part area of the detonator containing a cast mixture of trinitrotoluene and tetronitropentaerythritol of composition 50/50 percent by weight, or a cast mixture of trinitrotoluene and hexogen of composition 60/40 percent by weight. The cast trinitrotoluene block-detonators are receptive to standard means of initiation, posses a high water resistance, feature a simple and safe production practice, may be produced with a mass within 0.5 to 3 kg.

EFFECT: simple and technologically effective manufacture of the block having the required water resistance, reliability of operation and a high power.

17 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: explosive cartridge includes cylindrical shell, wherein an explosive charge is disposed with an end-to-end channel and detonator socket, their inlets being connected by a groove. The cartridge explosive composition comprises 20-30% of tetranitropentaerytrite (TEN), 65-50% of trinitrotoluene (TNT) with addition of 15-20% of granulotol. The bottom end of the cartridge is protected with a polymeric disc.

EFFECT: reducing the sensitivity of explosive agent and manufacturing costs of the cartridge on retention of its explosive and operational performance.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: devices for measuring action time of means for initiation.

SUBSTANCE: two proposed variants of a device for determining actuation time of an initiatorless primer/ detonator fitted with an impact wave tube in a transparent envelope used to conduct the pulse from an initiating device. The device according to variant 1 comprises a chronograph, a chronograph start photosensor responding to the radiation of a detonation front which propagates inside the impact wave tube after initiation of the later, a chronograph stop sensor responding to the impact effect upon actuation of the primer/detonator. The device according to variant 2 comprises a photosensor being used as a chronograph stop sensor responding to the radiation upon actuation of the primer/detonator, disposed around the later and placed into a bushing with a not less than 5 mm wide and 3-10 mm long slot cut therein.

EFFECT: invention ensures reliable, safe and precise measurement of the actuation time of initiatorless primers/detonators in a multiple use device.

6 cl, 3 dwg

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