Diagnostic technique for malignant process in human body

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to diagnosing malignant processes in a human body. A diagnostic technique for a malignant process in a human body consisting in sampling a patient's living tissue, grinding, mixing with physiologic saline to a state of suspension, keeping and agitating under certain conditions, then centrifuging, separating supernatant and detecting cancer-specific markers by an immunochemiluminisent assay.

EFFECT: method exhibits a simple and high degree of malignant process detection in the human body, both at the early, and following stages of disease.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to medicine, namely to the diagnosis of malignant processes in the human body. Cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death, often at a young age. Successful treatment is possible only in the early stages, which requires early detection. Determination of tumor markers makes it possible to successfully prevent and treat this severe pathology. The tumor markers are specific substances that are formed as a result of life of cancer (and sometimes normal) cells and are usually found in the blood and/or urine in cancer patients. They are extremely diverse in their structure, although in most cases are proteins or their derivatives. Some of them have high specificity, i.e., characteristic of one type of tumor, but can be found in other forms of cancer. Purposeful search specific and cheap nowadays. New tumor markers became an official numbered names, such as CA 19-9 for rectal cancer and pancreatic cancer, CA 15-3 for breast cancer and CA 125 for ovarian cancer. Many other open markers for the diagnosis of these types of cancer have not received further study because they did not show its advantages over the above But, unfortunately, even the specificity and sensitivity of recognized tumor markers leaves much to be desired. First, almost every person can be detected in the blood of a small number of tumor markers, which complicates the diagnosis at an early stage of tumor development. A significant increase in the level of tumor marker is often observed in the later stages, when the tumor is already quite advanced. Secondly, even when a relatively high level of tumor markers in the blood, many of them are non-specific: CEA, originally opened as a marker of colon cancer may be increased in patients with lung cancer and mammary glands, and the high level of CA 125 common in women with gynecological diseases non-neoplastic nature. Despite the fact that the tumor markers were developed for early (even at asymptomatic stage) cancer diagnosis, in practice, only prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to meet its purpose. In all other cases, accurate diagnosis of cancer is established only on the results of study under the microscope biopsy (sample of tissue) tumor. The main use of tumor markers in clinical diagnosis - monitoring of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment, obtaining prognostic information. One of the tasks solved by the use of tumor markers is in the opportunity, in combination with other diagnostic methods, early differential diagnosis of tumors and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. The dynamics of increasing levels of tumor markers usually allows to make a conclusion about the presence and nature of disease and metastasis and is of more interest than a single level, taken by itself. With regular monitoring of markers informative for tumor-specific localization, it is possible to detect metastasis in 4-6 months before clinical detection. During treatment or after surgery no decrease in the concentration of tumor markers indicates the inefficiency of the selected method of treatment. Unfortunately, still not characterized by any one tumor marker, with 100% specificity with respect to any authority.

Closest to the claimed method is the morphological diagnosis of malignant processes, which consists in extracting the tissue sample of the patient, maintaining the fabric in a fixed condition with the help of clamps, dehydration and further fill with paraffin. After pouring the wax and hardening of the sample make the drug by using a microtome. Then the sections from paraffin sample is placed on a glass slide, remove the paraffin, produce staining and cover top is glass. The mixture is placed under a microscope to determine the ultrastructure of cells and their components and diagnosis of malignant processes (Eliseev VG and others 1972).

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the process of preparing a diagnostic agent as well as a greater likelihood of obtaining a false result because when the diagnosis is investigated not the whole amount of tissue extracted from the body of the patient, and only the sections that difficult diagnosis in the early stages of tumor development.

Closest to the claimed device is diagnostic of malignant processes, which includes serially connected unit fixation, dehydration unit, thermostat, microtome, block staining, microscope (Eliseev VG and others 1972).

A disadvantage of the known device is the complexity of the process of preparing a diagnostic agent as well as manual labor on some stages, which reduces the quality of the final product and the reliability of the diagnosis of malignant processes in the human body.

The technical result is achieved in the present method of diagnosing malignant process is the simplicity and high degree of probability of detection of malignant processes in the human body as in the early stages of the disease, and n is the later. This is due to the fact that the level of a tumor marker can indicate the presence of abnormalities not only in the area from which the sample was collected tissue, but also about the extent of the distribution of ecoprocess.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method for the diagnosis of malignant process in the human body take the living tissue of the patient, crushed, mixed with 2 ml of physiological solution to a state of suspension, and then incubated for 5 minutes at a temperature of 20°C, then mix and again incubated for 5 minutes at 20°C, and the stages of incubation and mixing the suspension was repeated 3 times, then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 2 min, take the supernatant and immunochemiluminescence method determines the tumor markers.

The method is implemented as follows.

A tissue sample of the patient is placed in a test tube and crushed with a sterile tip or special pestle. To the minced tissue add 2 ml of physiological solution and stirred on the vortex to obtain a suspension. Then the test tube is placed in a thermostat at 20°C for 5 minutes. Remove the tube from the refrigerator, mix on a vortex and again placed in thermostat. Procedures cooling, stirring and cooling was repeated 3 times. Then the tube with the tissue in physiological solution centrifuger the t at 10,000 rpm for 2 minutes. In a clean test tube select the supernatant, which carried out the determination of the marker using standard immunochemiluminescence method. The table shows the levels of the tumor marker in diagnosis by blood and by the present method.

The level of the marker in the blood and in the tumor tissue in cancer patients depending on the stage of the disease
Patient No. East./diseaseThe diagnosis of the diseaseThe level of the marker in the bloodThe level of the marker in the tumor tissue
B-Naya A. No. 23Breast cancer T1NoMoSA-3: 0.10 u/mlSA-3: 73.82 u/ml
B-Naya R. No. 43Breast cancer T1N1MoSA-3: 6.10 u/mlSA-3: 123.8 u/ml
B-Naya K. No. 48Breast cancer T3N2M1SA-3: 46.1 u/mlSA-3: >200 u/ml
B-Noia. No. 13Stomach cancer T1NoMoREA: 0.74 ng/ml REA: 35.7 ng/ml
B-Neue. No. 63Stomach cancer T2N1MoREA: 3.74 ng/mlREA: 43.74 ng/ml
B-Naya K. No. 73Stomach cancer T3N1M1REA: 23.74 ng/mlREA: 146.74 ng/ml
B-Naya K. No. 48Cancer of the uterus T3N1M1REA: 23.74 ng/mlREA: 223.84 ng/ml
B-Naya K. No. 48Ovarian cancer T1NoMoSA: 2.0 u/mlCA 125: 56.10 u/ml
B-Naya K. No. 48Ovarian cancer T3N2M1CA 125: 196.10 u/mlCA 125: >200 u/ml

The normal concentration in the blood serum: SA-3 and SA - less than 30 u/ml; REA - 10 ng/ml.

The table shows that diagnosis of the disease at the level of the tumor marker in the blood has a very low rate of detection of diseases (actually at the stage of having the appearance of metastases).

The inventive method allows to detect the disease at earlier stages, when treatment is more effective and depending on the level of the marker to correct stage of illness the project.

The inventive method for the diagnosis of malignant process in the human body is a high-tech, simple diagnostic test that allows a high degree of accuracy to detect malignancies in humans, both early and later stages of the disease and correct treatment.

A method for diagnosing a malignant process in the human body, which consists in the fact that I'm living tissue of the patient, crushed, stirred in 2 ml of physiological solution to a state of suspension, and then incubated 5 min at 20°C, then mix and again incubated 5 min at 20°C, and the stages of incubation and mixing was repeated 3 times, then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 2 min, take the supernatant and immunochemiluminescence method for the determination of the marker.



 

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2 ex, 3 tbl

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