Charging method of emulsion explosive compounds
SUBSTANCE: method provides for delivery of emulsion explosive by means of pump to charging hose and during transportation via the latter of components of emulsion explosive components the supply to annular gap between the hose wall and the flow of water composition with surface-active substance. Alkyl benzene sulphonate (NP-1 sulphanole) or alkyl sulphate of secondary alcohol (penta-surface active substances) in quantity of 0.05-0.1% is used as surface active substance.
EFFECT: introduction of surface active substances allows reducing inter-phase surface tension between emulsion explosives and wall of charging hose, which considerably reduces the pressure during the charging process and excludes the break of the charging hose.
2 cl, 1 tbl
The present invention relates to a method of loading of emulsion explosive compositions used in mining types of blasting.
Currently, the developed emulsion compositions of various types and areas of application, including for underground blasting. Common features of all of emulsion explosives and methods of their preparation are cooking at a high temperature and mechanical stirring of the aqueous phase from a solution of salts, oxidizers and flammable hydrocarbon phase containing the additive surfactant, called an emulsifier, as an individual substance or a complex composition of several components. Resulting from this procedure, the mass is called the "matrix emulsion", suggesting the possibility of adding other ingredients, such as an aqueous solution of chemical reagents for sensitization gas, or solid porous particles, microspheres, or energy fuel from metal powders and / or granules of ammonium nitrate. All components are mainly added in the process of loading special mixing-charging machines. As examples of the above emulsion explosives can cause RF patents №2123488, No. 1783759. Data of emulsion explosives manufactured in mixing-charging machines on plug units quarries, usually sensibiliser water R is the target of the sodium nitrite concentration of 5÷30%, dispersive it using static or dynamic mixers, mounted together with other units on the chassis charging machines. In the loading process it is necessary to transport the emulsion explosive over relatively large distances (several tens of meters) to wells or bore-holes on the charging hose, the diameter of which is up to 25 mm. of Course, that the hose due to the high viscosity of emulsion explosives develops high pressure, which can lead to rupture of the charging hose with traumatic consequences for staff. Often, to reduce the pressure in the charging hoses, through a special device to supply water. However, for some types of mixed emulsion explosives and especially with pellets these measures prove to be insufficient. For example, a device for loading on the patent of the Russian Federation 2312301 and device for mixing and loading wells mixed emulsion explosive according to the patent 2163344, which reduce the internal resistance in the hose by filing under pressure of clean water in the annular stream between the wall of the charging hose and the flow of the emulsion composition.
However, when the loading occurs a partial mixing of the flow of emulsion explosives and water, which progresses through the hose resistance increases and, as a consequence, there is growing pressure in it that may cause it to rupture.
The most the e closest to the claimed invention is a method of loading wells of emulsion explosives in the patent of the Russian Federation 1457501, where mixing of the components of the mixture of emulsion explosives occurs after exiting the pump immediately before charging the line in the mixer and is carried out by dividing the flow CENTURIES many jets pins along a helical line and water are separately fed through the ring in the charging hose.
The technical objective of the proposed solutions is to improve the method of loading the emulsion explosive discharge for charging hoses, namely, that applies the technique of reducing the interfacial surface tension between the emulsion explosive and wall charger hose, which significantly reduces the pressure loading.
The implementation of this task is achieved by the fact that the water in the mixing-charging machine, which is served in the charging hose is injected surfactant. It is known that the greatest influence on the formation of a hydrophilic surface of any pipeline have only a water-soluble surfactant. Influence of surfactants on selective wetting was being investigated substances, which was widely spread in the industry. Of the anionic surfactants were investigated: alkylbenzene-sulfonates - sulfonic acid NP-1 and NP sulfonic acid, 3-alkyl sulphates and secondary alcohols containing 32% of the active substance disodium salt alkanesulphonic acid (BPS). The selected reagents was determined by the surface tension of the water races the thief on the border of the emulsion and the charging hose. Surface activity of a substance is determined by its chemical structure and its state of aggregation in solution. For example, it is known that surfactants, in which the hydrocarbon radicals are branched structure, are the best wetting, representative of which is alkylaryl-sulfonate, based on the propylene tetramer (sulfonic acid NP-1). The magnitude of the kinetic wetting, characterizing the rate of adsorption of the surfactant on the phase boundary is determined by the time of loading the standard sample hydrophobic carbon powder from the surface of the surfactant solution in the liquid volume. The lower the value of the kinetic wetting, the higher the rate of adsorption of surfactants at the border section of the phases and the greater surface activity has reagent. The highest surface activity have aqueous solutions of block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene (disolved, proxanol is chosen, prokimen), sulfonal and secondary alkyl sulphates alcohols (Potapov). Of the investigated surfactants best performance results were obtained with the introduction of sulfonic acid in water (TU 6-01-1612839-90), Potapova-430 (TU 2481-019-40245042-01).
Comparative results of the impact assessment of the amount of surfactant additives in the water pressure in the charging hose of the prototype and the present invention are shown in the table.
|The amount of additive in water %||The length of the charging hose, m||Pressure when charging, ATM|
|Without the addition of surfactants||10||4,1|
|The sulfonic acid||0,01||10||3,4|
The proposed method loader provides the operational characteristics of emulsion explosives at the level of the prototype method, but significantly reduces the pressure in the charging hose. From the table it follows that the use of surfactant type, sulfonic acid, Potapova allows to reduce pressure when charged emulsion compositions and to eliminate the gap of the charging hose. The amount of surfactant should be in the range of 0.05-0.1%.
1. The method of loading of emulsion explosive compositions, including the injection pump mass composition in the charging hose with the water flow in the annular gap between the wall of the hose and the flow of composition, characterized in that water is injected surfactant.
2. The method loader emulsion explosive composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as the surfactant used Las or alkylsulfate secondary alcohol in a quantity of 0.05-0.1%.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of blast-hole drilling and may be used in various industries, using blasting in rocks with application of emulsion explosive substances (EES). In method to charge deep dry wells with emulsion explosive substance sensibilised by method of gas generation, including preparation of emulsion ES in mixing-charging machine, addition of gas generating additive into emulsion matrix and charging well with emulsion ES, according to invention, well charging is carried out in stages: at first lower charge of emulsion ES is formed with height sufficient to provide for charge tightness in bottom part, corresponding to critical diameter of emulsion ES charge detonation for this diameter of well with installation of primer in it, then charge separator is placed to lower charge of emulsion ES to transfer pressure of mass arranged above part of charge of emulsion ES at walls of well, for instance, in the form of column of cellular polystyrene with height of 4…6 diameters of well, and well charging is continued, when required, repeating procedure of charge separation into parts and arrangement of a separate primer in each part.
EFFECT: easier formation of emulsion ES charge of increased length by application of regular permanent parameters of emulsion by separation of emulsion ES charge into parts along height.
SUBSTANCE: widely spread method for explosion on earth surface is method of blasthole charges. Method for charging of horizontal blasthole consists in alternate feed of packaged explosive charges into blasthole and their pushing with punch. If blastholes are charged with gel-like explosives in polyethylene shells, there are fed into blasthole bottom by dragging. Device for realisation of proposed method consists of stem, on one end of which there is a handle provided, and on the other end - fork for engagement of loop fixed on charge. In process of charging, cartridge, with the help of loop in its front part, is engaged by fork and dragged into blasthole bottom until stop. Each subsequent charge is fed into blasthole in the same manner.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to quickly charge horizontal blastholes with lengthy charges of gel-like explosive with high density, since cavities are not available, density of blasthole charging increases, and completeness of explosives detonation is provided, proposed device is simple and cheap to produce.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for destruction of solid rocks or concrete, includes installation and driving of devices filled with mixture of substances in blast holes, initiation of combustion reactions in devices in non-detonation mode, accompanied by development of appropriate pressure in blast holes. Non-detonation mode of combustion is provided by application of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm, which fills up to 95% of sealed device volume, besides prior to installation of device into blast hole, device cover is opened, liquid hydrocarbon fuel is poured into it in stoichiometric amount, cover is closed, and device is shaken. In version of method, dry sealed blast holes are filled with mixture of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm with liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Initiation of combustion reactions is done by means of initiation facility arranged in the form of thin exploding wire, connected to source of high-voltage electric pulse.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to considerably simplify operations at site of works performance, to increase reliability of method actuation, its safety, to reduce cost of works and therefore increase landmine effect from method application.
SUBSTANCE: proposed borehole tamping represents a cylinder with diametre commensurable with borehole diametre. Said solid cylinder is accommodated in the borehole at the depth of mass with intensive fracturing. Note here that cylinder top face is skewed and secured by ropes to crossarm arranged above borehole head. Cylinder skewed part top has a cut made parallel to bottom face with width making 0.1-0.2 diametre of tampering wherein one or several rods extended above them by 1-1.5 cm. Below skewed part bottom and perpendicular to borehole wall, one or several rods are arranged to extend above them by 1-1.5 cm. End of two ropes are secured to face skewed part at 2-3 cm from tamping edges. Note that one rope is secured nearby edge of tamping skewed part, while another end is secured to bottom edge.
EFFECT: intensified rock crushing, reduced consumption of explosive, lower costs.
SUBSTANCE: spaced-filled tamping consists of section above charge of ES (explosive substance) or air interval filled with loose material; metal spacing tamping is located above this section; tamping is made, for example in form of hollow cylinder cut along axis wherein hollow spacing cone is inserted from beneath. The tamping out of inert material is filled from top onto the metal spacing tamping at height not less, than three diametres of a borehole. The section above charge or air interval is filled with loose material at height of diametre of the borehole.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of explosive rock breaking due to blockage of products of detonation in charge cavity and elimination of metal tamping escape from borehole after destruction of rock around it.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of blasting in mining and may be used in blasting of rocks by borehole charges of explosives in open pits. Method for blasting provides for drilling of blastholes, formation of gas cavity in bottom part of one or several blastholes, arrangement of explosive charge in each blasthole over air cavity with intermediate detonator and facilities for initiation of the latter and execution of explosion. Drilling of blastholes is carried out until elevation of underlying ledge foot, and prior to formation of gas cavity, reflector of shock waves is installed at the bottom of blasthole. As reflector of shock waves, it is possible to use loose substances with various density, value of which is in direct proportion to rock pressure. Intermediate detonator is installed over gas cavity in active part of explosive charge at the distance from lower end of specified charge within the limits of 1-1.5 of gas cavity height. Gas cavity may be formed with the help of elastic reservoirs filled with compressed air or other gas with maximum nondestructive pressure for these reservoirs or filled with granulated cellular polystyrene.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of blast-hole drilling works and to reduce scope of drilling works.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry for maximum unloading of mine soil rocks, which are inclined to dynamic destructions. Method for prevention of rock bursts in rocks of mine soils, including drilling of wells into layer of hard rock, their charging and explosion of explosive charges. In lower part of layer, wells are charged with more powerful charges and exploded in tillage mode, and in upper part pf layer wells are charged with reduced charges, and controlled blasting is carried out. Wells in upper part of hard rock layer are charged in a row. Wells are arranged in rows symmetrically versus longitudinal axis of mine. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle to mine soil in plane of mine cross section. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle versus mine soil in planes arranged at the angle to plane of its cross section. Wells are drilled in such a manner so that they cross vertical plane, passing through longitudinal axis of mine, at the height of 0.15-0.25 m from lower limit of hard rock layer, where m is layer strength.
EFFECT: invention provides for increased efficiency of dynamic events prevention in mine soil and safety of mining works execution due to differential softening of some parts of hard rock layer, which lies near mine soil.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and may be used to charge blast holes in process of blasting performance. Method for dispersal of charge in blast hole includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic well sealer, diametre of which exceeds well diametre. Sealer is placed into bag, transverse dimension of which is more than well diametre, is freely fastened in bag, compressed till transverse dimension that is less than diametre of well, lowered into well onto connector tube to a specified depth, which is adjusted with the help of connector tube. Sealer is pumped with air till specified pressure, connector tube is separated from pneumatic well sealer and is extracted from well. Primed cartridge and part of charge are placed onto sealer. The next pneumatic well sealer is lowered as compressed on the same connector tube to a specified depth, and the whole sequence of actions is repeated to achieve economically and technically justified number of pneumatic well sealers in a well. As pneumatic well sealer they use toroid leak-tight inflatable chamber with nipple, outer diametre of which exceeds well diametre.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to disperse charge in wells of any diametre and to reduce charging prime cost.
SUBSTANCE: method for dispersal of charge in watered well includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic locks, prior to lock lowering into well, a sinker is fixed onto connection tube, connection tube with fixed sinker and attached pneumatic well lock is lowered into well down to a specified depth. Lock is pumped with air up to a specified pressure, connection tube is separated from it and is withdrawn together with sinker from well. Then the whole sequence is repeated. Sinker is made in the form of welded structure, which consists of hollow cylinder with cover framed with dome, which is made of bars, in cylinder cover there is a hole made with diametre equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, at the same time lower ends of dome bars are fixed to lower ring of oval shape, made of the same bar, upper ends of dome bars are fixed to upper ring, internal diametre of which is also equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, lower part of cylinder is fixed to dome by means of links, and with its cover it is fixed to dome.
EFFECT: reduced specific consumption of water-emulsion explosives.
2 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: combined plug, including thrust part, for instance in the form of cylinder with expanding top-down cavity into which from below by cable traction it is draw in thrust cone. Cylinder is implemented in the form of sleeve from elastic material, for instance from rubber. Walls of sleeve allow variable elasticity maximal in bottom. Thrust cone, implemented of organic material, for instance from plastic mass, rest into bottom of sleeve. In cavity of sleeve and from above up to wellhead it is located particulate part, for instance from drilling sludge.
EFFECT: reliability growth of detonation products locking in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of surrounding rock.
FIELD: earth or rock drilling, particularly means adapted to reduce mutual impact influence of explosives during well development and operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging one or more shock-absorbing members near one or more explosive doses, which prevent propagation of shock caused by detonation of the explosive doses. Shock-absorbing members include porous material, for instance gas-filled liquid or porous solid material, having 2%-9% porosity. Shock-proof screen may be arranged between detonating cord and explosive doses. Hollow charges may be placed in capsule.
EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity.
57 cl, 30 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making well charge of individual members of the blasting agents that receive one or several strikers. The members are separated with spaces filled with a liquid with a density of 800-1400 kg/m3. The strikers are actuated so that the detonation of blasting agent is completed simultaneously in the bulk. The height of the active section of the charge of blasting agent interposed between the boundaries of the liquid and location of the striker are calculated from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining art; performing drilling and blasting operations at stripping and open cuts.
SUBSTANCE: proposed indicator has cover fastened to base, reel and spacer mechanism. Novelty of invention consists in availability of spacer screw with movable nut and twin spacer levers provided with spacer plates and tenons articulated on them.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency due to possibility of using at boreholes of different diameters; simplified construction.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operations in hard rocks at open pit mining, applicable in various branches using spare blasting operations and blasts under a shelter in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the thrust stemming is made in the form of a metal cylinder having a tapered expansion with several rows of shoulders from the outside in the lower part and at least three longitudinal slots inserted in which is a metal thrust cone with an inner cavity, provided with a tubular tie-rod with a thread on the upper end, freely passing through the axial channel of the bearing ring positioned above the cylinder.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting crushing of rocks due to locking of the detonation products in the charge cavity of the thrust stemming up to the moment of complete destruction of the environment.
FIELD: mining art, applicable for charging of deep holes at blasting in mining art and in construction.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in production of air gaps with the aid of deep-hole gates whose diameter exceeds the deep-hole diameter, lowering of them into the deep hole to a preset depth, installation of live primers in each deep hole, installation of the detonating cord. Air gaps are produced with the aid of an elastic deep-hole gate, which in the deformed state is placed in a transportation container and on a rod rigidly linked with the transportation container. They are lowered into the deep hole that is adjusted with the aid of the rod, where the elastic deep-hole gate is pushed out of the transportation container. The transportation container is taken out of the deep hole, and the live primer and a portion of the charge is placed on the elastic deep-hole gate. Then, the same elastic deep-hole gate in a deformed state is placed into the next transportation container, lowered into the deep hole to a preset depth and all operations are repeated in the same sequence up to the feasibility studied quantity of elastic gates in the deep hole.
EFFECT: reduced labor content of deep-hole charging by distributed charges, reduced specific cost of the gate of the ultimate cost of the installed charge, reduced cost of deep-hole charging by distributed charges, simplified process of charge distribution in a deep-hole.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining art, applicable for charging of deep holes at blasting in mining art and in construction.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in production of air gaps with the aid of an elastic deep-hole gate made of a rubber-containing material, which in a deformed state and bound by an additional rope is lowered on the main rope into the deep hole to a preset depth that is adjusted with the aid of the marks made on the main rope, then the elastic well gate is freed of the ropes with the aid of one of the ends of the main rope bound to the additional rope. After that the ropes are taken out of the deep hole, and a thickener is placed on the elastic well gate, the live primer and a portion of the charge are placed on the thickener. Then, the next elastic deep-hole gate is bound to the same main rope in the deformed state, lowered into the deep-hole to a preset depth and all operations are repeated in the same sequence up to the feasibility studied quantity of elastic gates in the deep hole.
EFFECT: reduced labor content and cost of deep-hole charging by distributed charges, reduced specific cost of the gate of the ultimate cost of the installed charge, simplified process of charge distribution in a deep hole and salvaging of the used rubber-containing materials.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operations in hard rocks, applicable in various branches using blasting operations in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the suspended tamping bar of blast holes represents a split cylinder with at least three longitudinal slots and a tapered expansion of the cavity down from the bottom with a collet grip fastened through the center of its outer surface. A hollow spacer cone is inserted from the bottom into the split cylinder, the cone is connected to a rope haulage which passes through the collet grip, and with the upper end through a shackle with holes it is fastened an a lever installed on a bedplate. The rope haulage passes through the spacer tube fastened on the bedplate from the bottom.
EFFECT: provided locking of blast products in the charge cavity before destruction of the mass, enhanced efficiency of use of the blast energy for crushing of the rock.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operations in hard rocks, applicable in various branches using blasting, operations in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the spacer tamping bar represents a split cylinder with at least three longitudinal slots and a tapered expansion of the cavity down from the bottom, which is connected to the supporting ring through a spacer tube. A hollow spacer plug is inserted in the split cylinder from the bottom, it consists of tapered and cylindrical parts with at least three longitudinal slots, provided with a tubular haulage with a thread on the upper end, freely passing through the holes in the cylinder and supporting ring.
EFFECT: provided locking of blast products in the charge cavity before destruction of products in the charge cavity before destruction of the mass, enhanced efficiency of use of the blast energy for crushing of the rock.
FIELD: drilling and blasting operation in hard rocks, applicable in various branches using blasting operations in hard rock masses.
SUBSTANCE: the spacer tamping bar represents a cylinder with a tapered expansion composed at least of three parts that can move in the horizontal direction on fingers fastened above and inserted in the guide bushes on the bottom. The split cylinder is connected in the upper part to a supporting ring through a spacer tube, and a hollow spacer cone is inserted in the inner cavity of the split cylinder, the cone is provided with a tubular haulage with a thread of the upper end, freely passing through the holes in the cylinder bottom and supporting ring.
EFFECT: provided locking of blast products in the charge cavity before destruction of the mass, enhanced efficiency of use of the blast energy for crushing of the rock.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, construction of mixing-charging machines used for mechanized preparation and charging of holes at open mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: the machine has a transportation base carrying a vessel for emulsion with a charging door closed with a cover, vessels for the gas-generating agent, water and petroleum product, ammonium nitrate bin. The transportation line, proportioning pumps for supply of emulsion, gas-generating agent, water and petroleum product, static mixer of emulsion and gas-generating agent, as well as the ammonium nitrate feeder are also positioned there. The vessel for emulsion is made minimum with one additional fire-fighting hatch that is positioned in the lower part of the vessel for emulsion and has a cover installed on the body of the mentioned vessel for automatic opening of the hatch due to self-destruction of the components of its cover and/or of its locking device at heating of the vessel body for emulsion in case of fire. The cover of the charging door is made in the form of a ring installed for pressing to the door ring edge, and membrane closing the central axial hole of the ring. The membrane is made for destruction under the effect of the maximum allowable pressure of vapors inside the, bin emulsion in case of emergency.
EFFECT: enhanced operating safety of the machine due to its equipment with devices for prevention of origination of a blast at a rise of pressure or temperature in its vessel for emulsion.