Method and device for particle board production

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises crushing chipwood into shavings. The latter is dried, glue is applied thereon and shavings is filled thereon to produce shavings carpet to be compressed thereafter at certain temperature. Prior to cutting, water steam is fed onto wood chipwood. Wood chipwood, at least, frozen partially through is used. Prior to cutting, it is thawed and dried. Proposed device comprises machine tool to produce chipwood, chipwood drier, appliance for glue application and press. Proposed device differs from known designs in that in incorporates hopper intended for feeding steam onto chipwood contained therein, steam temperature and amount regulator, and chipwood drier. Note here that steam temperature and chipwood amount are controlled to implement above described method.

EFFECT: high process rate using perfected device for production of particle boards.

16 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing particleboard, in which wood chips are cut into chips, dried chips, put on chips glue and fill the chips with the formation of a bonded carpet, which is then pressed under pressure and temperature, as well as to an apparatus for the production of particleboard from wood chips, containing a machine for harvesting chip, the device for drying chips, a device for applying glue, a device for the distribution of chips in the formation of a bonded carpet and the press.

This method is described, for example, in the lexicon of the wood (Holzlexikon), 4th edition, publisher DRW.

To known chipboard production to ensure continuity of production, always produce a supply of chips. It is stored on the street or in large bunkers. Then the chips are processed in machines for harvesting and chip into a chip, which then must be dried for the possibility of filing for further processing steps in the production of particleboard.

The disadvantage is that located in the intermediate storage of wood chips during storage outdoors exposed to weather. First of all, when winter temperatures are staged on the street or in bunkers chips gets frozen and/or partially mixed with snow. Then when the chips are processed in p the HUS and is followed by drying of the chips, power devices for drying is often insufficient. This leads to the fact that the throughput rate of the process must be slowed down to increase the time of passage of the chip, which reduces the produced quantity and, thereby, increase production costs, or have to live with lower quality chips, and thus, and as produced from them chipboard.

Along with chips can be moved and also other impurities, such as sand or stones. They can cause damage, for example, a machine for harvesting chips.

Therefore, the basis of the invention is to maintain high process speed in the production of chips regardless of weather conditions, and improvements known from the prior art devices for the production of chipboard so that there was the possibility of performing such a method.

According to the invention this problem is solved due to the fact that known from the prior art method before cutting into wood chips served water vapor, and use wood chips, which is at least partially frozen, and before cutting it thawed and then dried.

By supplying the chips of water vapor the chip moisture content increases, which is an advantage especially in the summer when the chips under the influence of the summer is perator is dried. After filing the chips of water vapor again it is drying to obtain a certain value of residual moisture.

Preferably the drying of wood chips is accomplished by extrusion of the contained water by the so-called sealing screw, as it is known, for example, for the production of fibers from wood chips from UR 1775376 A2. Such mechanical drying compared to drying by evaporation contained in the wood chips moisture is particularly energy-saving. Due to this reduced energy costs and thereby the cost of production of chips.

Particularly preferably, the chips were dried to a predetermined residual moisture. Thus, regardless of weather conditions the wood chips is fed to further processing steps with a certain humidity. Therefore, the chips produced from wood chips with a uniform moisture content, is not dependent on weather conditions consistent quality, due to which the quality of her subsequent products, such as particleboard, is also consistently high.

Preferably, when applying the sealing screw is already pre-grinding chips. Due to this relieves the load on the machine for harvesting chip because it is served in smaller chips. Due to this machine for harvesting chips can Perera is processed chips in large quantities, that leads to increased productivity and, thereby, to reduce production costs.

Particularly preferred if the steam which is fed to the chips, at a pressure of 2 bar has a temperature of ~ 130C.

Preferably the water vapor at a pressure of 12 bar has a temperature of ~ 190C.

The used steam is preferably saturated steam, i.e. steam without liquid component. The use of saturated steam provides, in contrast to superheated steam or hot air, the transfer of a large amount of heat in the shortest time.

Preferably, residual moisture, which is the drying of wood chips, is from 80 to 100% of absolutely dry wood, that is absolutely dry wood with a moisture content of 0%.

At least partially frozen chips, it is preferable to thaw the flow of water vapor. This occurs primarily when stored outdoors chips adhering under the influence of winter temperatures. If stored in chips additionally gets snow, falling snow into the machine, along with chips gets plenty of moisture. After drying of wood chips, it is irrespective of weather conditions is dried to a certain residual moisture. This residual moisture does not depend on the initial moisture content, which in winter is up to 200%, and in summer the use of the but from 35 to 50% recycled wood and wood residues from sawmills, and about 74% of roundwood.

Also other impurities that can get into the installation, along with chips, for example, sand or stones, reliably separated at this processing step so that the resulting damage in subsequent production steps, for example, in a machine for harvesting chips, can be excluded.

Due to the proposed method, the process of manufacturing particleboard can save and also in winter or extreme summer weather conditions of high speed and high quality. Due to the high quality of the manufactured chips, it was found that usually a bit lower technological parameters "winter particleboard made from this "winter chip", now meet the standard requirements or even exceed them.

The proposed installation for the production of particleboard characterized by the presence of a bunker, which provides the possibility of water vapour contained in the chips and which is equipped with a control of the temperature and quantity of steam, and drying the chips, and the control of the temperature and quantity of steam is configured for carrying out the invention method.

After raw materials, primarily wood, has been redesigned chipping machine in chips, which were temporarily stored on the face or in large bunkers, the chips, which during storage were subjected to weather conditions, is fed into the hopper, where it is served water vapor. Due to this frozen winter chips thawed and dried out in the summer of chips - moistened. Then, the chips served in located in the direction of the process device for drying of wood chips, where the chips are dried, particularly preferably to a predetermined residual moisture. Only after that, the chips, now with the optimum moisture content, is fed to further processing by cutting chips and drying.

Preferably, the device for drying chips are made in the form of a sealing screw with a few turns. When the chips are moving through the auger and permanently sealed. Due to this, pressed contained in the wood chips water. This type of drying is especially energy-saving, as contained water is not evaporated, and energy is needed only for the rotation of the screw.

Preferably, the sealing screw is input and output, and the distance between the coils of the sealing screw is reduced in the direction of exit of the sealing screw. Due to this being moved to the sealing auger chips are compacted and pressed it contains water.

In order to seal floating in the sealing auger chips, the tilt coils sealing screw, for example, increases towards the structure to the output o of the screw. Preferably, the ratio of the inclination of the orbits at the entrance sealing screw to tilt coils at the output o of the screw is from 1:2 to 1:1. Of course, also possible to realize a combination of changing the inclination of the orbits of the sealing screw and changing the distance between the coils.

Next, using the drawings will be explained in more detail an example implementation of the invention:

Figure 1 - schematic implementation of the proposed method,

Figure 2 - schematic representation of the hopper, having the opportunity to work with steam, followed by drying by sealing the screw.

Figure 1 shows a schematic sequence in the form of a block diagram of the production of wood chips from the chip technologically situated in front of it production chips. Stored on a wood stock raw wood is fed into the chipping machine, which converts it into chips. She temporarily stored chips. Alternatively, the chips can also be purchased from outside. Such supplies chips temporarily (intermediate) are stored in the open storage area for wood chips. Such intermediate storage on the street leads, first of all, in winter, to a significant loss of quality of the chips, as, for example, it can get snow or she can smartnotes.

Warehouse chips chips served in a machine for harvesting chip is e directly while initially directed into the hopper. In the bunker on chips served water vapor preheated to a temperature of 130-190C. due to this frozen chips thaws, and perhaps captured the snow melts. If the chips in the storage of wood chips dried out, which happens primarily in the summer when high temperatures and strong solar radiation by water vapor in it again enters the moisture.

After passage through the hopper chips are fed into the drying device. It chips dried up, preferably, a predefined value of the residual humidity of 80-100% with respect to absolutely dry wood, that is absolutely dry wood with a moisture content of 0%. This can be done through various mechanisms of drying, for example, evaporation accumulated in chips water. Particularly energy-efficient and thus cost-effective and environmentally friendly, is feeding wood into sealing screw, in which the chips continuously compacted, due to which the contained water is wrung out. Such sealing screw is used, for example, in order to apply the wood chips in the digester for fetching wood fiber. After drying, the chips regardless of weather effects is dried to a certain residual moisture. This residual moisture does not depend on the initial moisture content, which faced the t in winter up to 200%, and in the summer from about 35 to 50% recycled wood and wood residues from sawmills, and approximately 74% of roundwood.

Now the chips with the optimum moisture content is fed into the machine for harvesting chip, which converts wood chips into wood chips that are transmitted after the subsequent drying step in the drying device chip for further processing.

Through the use of a sealing screw 10 during the drying of wood chips is a preliminary grinding. Due to this reduced the load on the machine for harvesting chip, and it can process a larger number of chips. Consequently, this increases productivity and reduces production costs.

Thanks to this method, supported by high speed in the production of wood chips for the production of particleboard in essence, regardless of weather conditions with simultaneously high quality chips.

Figure 2 schematically shows the hopper 1, which can be served hot steam, followed by drying in sealing screw 10. With laydown chips is introduced into the hopper 1 in the direction of the arrow A. There with the unit 2 steam it steam is fed. It is possible frozen chips thaws, and, for example, dried under the influence of too strong sunlight chips receives moisture. C is the chip falls into the charging port 4. This boot hatch 4 using the temperature sensor 6 measures the temperature. The results of this measurement to control flow rate of 8 pair. Thus it is guaranteed that the chips, which falls through the loading hatch 4 always has a constant temperature.

After falling through the loading hatch 4 chips go on the sealing screw 10. The coils 12 of the sealing screw 10 in figure 2 have a constant rise, however, the distance between the two coils 1 continuously decreases in the direction from input to output o of the screw. Sealing screw 10 rotates in the direction of rotation R around its longitudinal axis, and thus delivers in Fig. 2 falling right through the charging port 4 on the sealing screw 10 chips.

Due to the decreasing distance between the two coils 12 sealing screw 10 being transported through the sealing screw 10 chips permanently sealed. Additionally, the diameter of the pipe 14, which is the sealing screw 10, decreases towards the right. It also leads to additional seal being transported through the sealing screw 10 chips and preliminary grinding of the chips in the sealing screw.

On the right in Fig. 2 the outlet pipe 14 is of the arrester 16. It in the direction P is applied pressure, and thereby maintaining high the th pressure in the pipe 14. In the pipe 14 chips is sealed, and the contained water is wrung out. For this purpose around the pipe 14 is a drain 18 through which a given serving of chips water.

1. The method of manufacture of chipboard (particleboard), in which wood chips are cut into chips, dried chips, put on chips glue and fill the chips with the formation of a bonded carpet, which is then compressed under pressure and heat, wherein before cutting into wood chips served water vapor, and use wood chips, which is at least partially frozen, and before cutting it thawed and then dried.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the drying of wood chips from her squeeze it in the water.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the water squeezed through the sealing screw (10).

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the sealing screw (10) is pre-grinding chips.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the chips are dried to a pre-set value of residual moisture.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the water vapor at a pressure of 2 bar has a temperature of about 130C.

7. The method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the water vapor at a pressure of 12 bar has a temperature of about 190C.

8. The method according to claim 5, the tives such as those what chips are dried up to 80-100% residual moisture content relative to the absolutely dry wood.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least partially frozen chips thawed by feeding it water vapor.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the defrosting occurs by controlling the temperature and quantity of steam.

11. Installation for the manufacture of chipboard (particle Board) of wood chips, containing a machine for harvesting chip, the device for drying chips, a device for applying glue distribution device chip and the press, characterized in that it comprises a hopper (1), which provides for the possibility of water vapour contained in the chips and which is equipped with a control of the temperature and quantity of steam, and the device (10) drying of wood chips, and the control of the temperature and quantity of steam is configured to implement the method according to one or more of claims 1 to 10.

12. Installation according to claim 11, characterized in that the device for the drying of wood chips is the sealing screw (10) with several coils (12).

13. Installation according to item 12, characterized in that the sealing screw (10) has an input and output, and that the distance between the coils (12) sealing screw (10) decreases in the direction of the exit.

14. Installation according to item 13, characterized in that the lifting of coils (12) in letsitele screw (10) increases in the direction of the exit.

15. Installation according to item 12, characterized in that the ratio of lift coil (12) sealing screw (10) at the entrance to the rise of a coil (12) the output is from 1:2 to 1:1.

16. Installation according to item 13, wherein on the output side of the sealing screw (10) is provided by the holder (16).



 

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4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

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1 tbl

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31 cl, 2 dwg

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