Multilayer building block and method of its production
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block comprises a decorative layer, a central layer arranged between an inner and outer structural layers made of ceramsite-concrete mix. The mix to make the central layer contains the following components, per 1 m3 of the mix: ceramsite gravel of 8÷22 mm fraction with apparent density of 350÷450 kg/m3 in volume of 1 m3; portland cement 130÷440 kg, polyvinyl acetate glue in volume of 1.3÷4.7 l, water in volume of 115÷125 l. The method is characterised to manufacture the multilayer building block.
EFFECT: increased strength of the block and simplified method of its manufacturing.
5 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the production of building materials used for walls of civil and industrial buildings (office buildings, high-rise residential buildings, cottages and other buildings with high demands on external decorative cladding, heat and sound insulation.
Known multi-layer building block (see similar EN 2317381, IPC IS 1/40, publ. 20.02.2008)containing three layers: decorative bearing and insulation located between them. The above layers are bonded together by polymeric rods, which complicates the design and manufacturing technology of the mentioned block.
Known multi-layer building block (see the closest analogue - EN 2208102, IPC IS 1/40, publ. 10.07.2003), containing four layers: decorative, two structural (inner and outer) and Central. The Central layer is located between the structural layer is insulating and is made of polystyrene. All layers except the decorative fastened together by bridges that can be made in the form of bars, rods, angles, as well as made of metal or plastic. When manufacturing the above-described block in the formwork lay of the Central layer, then place it at different angles jumpers and fix pre-made decorative layer, and the remaining space of the Gulf of the t mixture for outer and inner structural layers. The disadvantage is the Central layer of expanded polystyrene, which reduces the service life of the unit and facilitate the selection into the environment of hazardous substances.
The technical result aimed at removing the above mentioned disadvantages and to increase the strength of the block and at simplifying its manufacturing process.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that multi-layer building block containing a decorative layer, a Central layer located between the outer and inner structural layers made of concrete mixtures, characterized in that the mixture to obtain the Central layer contains, per 1 m3mixture: expanded clay gravel fraction 8÷22 mm bulk density 350÷450 kg/m3in volume 1 m3the Portland cement 130÷140 kg, glue polyvinyl acetate in an amount of 1,3÷1.7 l water volume 115÷125 HP
Multi-layer building block is designed so that the thickness of the decorative layer can range 7÷12 mm, the thickness of the inner structural layer may be 8÷17 mm, the thickness of the Central layer can be 354÷379 mm, the thickness D of the outer structural layer may be 6÷17 mm
The density of the unit in a dry state may be 650÷850 kg/m3.
Mix for the production of inner and outer structural layers soda is separated by expanded clay gravel fraction 0.1÷5.5 mm bulk density 450-550 kg/m 3.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method of manufacturing a multilayer construction unit in the form of a sequentially stacked outer structural, Central, internal structural and decorative layers, then kept in the range 10÷30 min, and then the decorative layer is applied texture and stand at least 11 hours at a temperature of 15÷35°C.
The essence of the technical solution is illustrated by drawings.
Figure 1 - depicts a four-layer building block.
Figure 2 shows in cross-section four-layer building block.
Figure 3 schematically shows an enlarged fragment of the Central layer of the block.
Practical implementation of the invention are described below.
Multi-layer building block 1 (next block) contains the decorative layer 2, the inner structural layer 3, the Central layer 4, the outer structural layer 5, these Central layer 4 is located between the said inner 3 and outer 5 structural layers (see figure 1).
The above-mentioned layers in thickness choose the following: the thickness of the decorative layer 2 is 7÷12 mm, the thickness of the internal construction of the layer 3 is 12÷17 mm, the thickness of the Central layer 4 is 354÷379 mm, the thickness D of the outer building layer 5 is 6÷17 mm, which ensures Ho is the left heat and sound insulation, the strength of masonry at the relative simplicity of the design block 1 (see figure 2).
The decorative layer 2 is made of mixtures with the following properties and characteristics: strength, hardness, aesthetics, getrootalias etc. In the specific example of execution of the mixture to obtain a decorative layer 2 is prepared based on 1000 kg of sand in the proportion of sand 1000 kg of Portland white 320÷340 kg, putty (dry mix) 610÷620 kg, plasticizer 0,23÷0.25 kg water volume 210÷230 liters by adding to the mixture the required amount of coloring substance is an inorganic pigment. The dye may be yellow or brown or any other color. In addition, the decorative layer 2 can be made of different textures: smooth, in the form of "torn" brick or any other relief pattern.
Outer 5 and 3 internal structural layers are made of concrete mixtures, with the following properties: strength and low thermal conductivity. In addition, the outer layer 5 is a levelling layer for finishing. In the specific example of execution of the mixture to obtain 5 external and 3 internal structural layers contains, per 1 m3mix: Portland 365-385 kg, expanded clay gravel fraction 0.1÷5.5 mm bulk density 450÷550 kg/m3in the amount of 0.9 m3 water in the amount of 105÷135 l, polyvinylacetate glue 1,3÷1,7 kg Above the outer 5 and 3 internal structural layers give the unit 1 strength, and they have created a closed porous layer redistribute heat flow in the block 1, which improves thermal conductivity index of the above-mentioned block 1.
The Central layer 4 made of concrete mixtures with high heat and sound insulation properties. In the specific example of execution of the mixture to obtain the Central layer 4 contains, per 1 m3mixture: expanded clay gravel fraction 8÷22 mm bulk density 350÷450 kg/m3in volume 1 m3the Portland cement 130÷140 kg, glue polyvinyl acetate in an amount of 1,3÷1.7 l water volume 115÷125 HP Above the Central layer 4 has a solid porous structure as grain 6 clay gravel obsolescene cement "milk" 7 and are firmly connected with each other (see figure 3), while between them there is an air space 8.
The above unit 1 is characterized by a density in the dry state 650÷850 kg/m3.
A method of manufacturing a multi-layer building block 1.
Preparation of a mixture of each of the above layers is mechano-chemical method in the concrete mixer. In metallic form, perform the function of the removable casing, preferably a chap the other 400 mm, and pre-lubricated with special grease, layers sequentially stacked outer structural 5, Central 4, the internal construction 3 and 2 decorative layers, then aged in the range 10÷30 minutes After that, the decorative layer 2, in order to avoid sticking of the mixture to the embossed roller, apply lubrication, and then textured pattern and stand at least 11 hours, preferably in the range of 11÷20 hours at a temperature of 15÷35°C. After that, the unit 1 remove from the mold. In the specific example of implementation described above is made of a plate with subsequent sawing on programmable cutting stone cutting machine for blocks 1 of the required size.
The above block 1 does not emit into the environment of hazardous substances, has a relatively simple design, is easy to manufacture and assemble, possess strength, good heat and sound insulating properties, allows you to create various architectural forms of external walls of buildings.
The above block 1 refers to porous concrete blocks with a finished exterior surface and rough plaster layer on the reverse side, which significantly speeds up the construction of the facility and leads to lower its cost.
1. Multi-layer building block containing a decorative layer, the center layer, on th the th between the outer and inner structural layers, made of concrete mixtures, characterized in that the mixture to obtain the Central layer contains per 1 m3mixture: expanded clay gravel fraction 8÷22 mm bulk density 350÷450 kg/m3in volume 1 m3Portland cement 130÷140 kg, glue polyvinyl acetate in an amount of 1,3÷1.7 l water volume 115÷125 HP
2. Multi-layer building block according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the decorative layer is 7÷12 mm, the thickness of the inner structural layer is 8÷17 mm, the thickness of the Central layer is 354÷379 mm, the thickness D of the outer structural layer is 6÷17 mm
3. Multi-layer building block according to claim 1, characterized in that the density of the unit in a dry condition is 650÷850 kg/m3.
4. Multi-layer building block according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture for the manufacture of inner and outer structural layers contains expanded clay gravel fraction 0.1÷5.5 mm bulk density 450÷550 kg/m3.
5. A method of manufacturing a multilayer construction block according to claim 1, characterized in that in the form of a sequentially stacked outer structural, Central, internal structural and decorative layers, then kept in the range 10÷30 min, and then the decorative layer is applied texture and stand at least 11 hours at a temperature of 1÷35°C.
SUBSTANCE: method for production of multilayer structural material includes mould filling, subsequent supply of layer materials, moulding, soaking, withdrawal from mould. At the same time serial filling of layer materials is carried out through placement of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto mould bottom, placement of foam polyurethane layer onto layers of basalt-plastic with further laying of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto foam polyurethane layer, with intermediate arrangement of carbon threads in between. Ends of carbon threads are taken outside. Moulding and soaking of all layers is carried out simultaneously in process of heating up to temperature of 60°C and pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa until resin hardens. At the same time ratio of foam polyurethane layer thickness to basalt-plastic layer thickness makes 20-80:0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties and reduced process cycle.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of building materials used in particular in low-rise and frame housing and also during building of civil and industrial projects with high requirements to decorative outer cladding of buildings, heat- and acoustic insulation of rooms, for example of multistorey apartment houses, cottages and other buildings. Set of blocks includes sets of main, corner and aperture blocks containing face layer with thickness A, bearing layer with thickness C and heat-insulating layer with thickness B located between them, they are attached to each other by polymeric bars, at that basic thickness of blocks in each set is chosen discretely either 300 mm or 400 mm, at that relation of thickness B of heat-insulating layer to sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers, i.e. (B:(A+C)) is chosen completed with basic thickness of blocks 300 mm either 0.50 or 0.67, and completed with basic thickness of blocks 400 mm - either 0.60 or 1.00, at that sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers is constant for all sets, at that each set consists of two groups of blocks. Thickness A of decorative layer in each group increases in arithmetic progression according to relation Ai=A0+10·n, where A0 is chosen not less than 40 mm, and n is integral number and corresponds to range from 1 to 6, and thickness C of bearing layer decreases in arithmetic progression in each group correspondingly. Blocks in each group are made according to regional weather conditions requirement and are characterised by thickness B of heat-insulating layer being constant in group for region. Each group is provided additionally with belt blocks made one-piece and consisting of face and bearing layers, and with air-exchange block provided with through-hole and ventilating grill rigidly fixed in it. Blocks of corner type are made in two forms, one of them is provided with equidistant L-shaped face and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened bearing layer is located. The other form of blocks is provided with equidistant L-shaped bearing and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened face layer is located.
EFFECT: improvement of universalisation of set of blocks and enhancement of their use in low-rise and high-rise house building under various weather conditions, simplification of technology of walls construction observing all required technical and technological parametres, optimisation of ratio of all layers dimensions, improvement of their strength properties and cheapening of building.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial construction materials, and more specifically to double-layer structures and method of making such structures, particularly non-sparking double-layer tiles, meant or covering floors in category A and B fire safety buildings. The non-sparking double-layer tile is in form of a concrete monolithic body with a face layer, which has a regular or irregular geometrical shape, where material for both layers is a mixture, used in semi-dry state, containing, wt %: composition of the mixture of the base layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 20.55 to 22.78, construction sand with particle size 5 mm with fineness modulus of not less than 2.4 72.89 to 75.34, Poliplast MB-1 0.20-0.30, water - the rest; composition of the mixture of the face layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 23.98 to 26.19, limestone in form of sand from siftings from crushing sedimentary rocks with strength grade of at least 400 with particle size 2 to 4 mm and fineness module of not less than 2.4 69.84-71.94, Poliplast MB-1 0.23 to 0.30, water - the rest, where the face layer has thickness of not less than 10 mm. The method of making the said tile involves preparation of each of the said mixtures with moisture content of 6-8% in mixers by successive loading the given filler, additive, portlant cement, stirring dry components for 30 to 60 s, then, while stirring, adding water and continue to stir the mixture for the base layer for 30 to 40 s, and the mixture for the face layer - for 2 minutes, placing the mixture for the base layer into a mould, preliminary compacting with light vibration or ramming without vibration, placing the mixture for the face layer on top of the compacted base layer, final compacting with vibrocompression for 20 to 23 s of the said mixtures and solidification in a steam curing chamber at temperature of 40°C, moisture 95 to 100 % and rate of increase and decrease of temperature not more than 25°C/h. Invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: increased compression and bending strength, reduced wearability.
4 cl, 4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: masonry unit consists of a lightweight block with face being coated with decorative-protective layer. The vertical grooves are made on lightweight block face during forming. The face of block is implemented with a plate, which is glued leak tightly to the said block after solidification or represents pigment stained layer of highly strong concrete mix as forming open-end vertical channels in masonry unit parallel to block face.
EFFECT: wide functional applications of masonry unit due to increase gas permeability.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: security facilities.
SUBSTANCE: according to the first version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure based on composite plates can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected and comprises low-density basalt-fibrous material layer, adhesive interlayer and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate which are sequentially adjacent to the above surface. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers are chosen so that to provide for evaporation of water containing in the outer layer and adhesive interlayer, diffusion of the produced water vapour into the inner basalt-fibrous layer and under further heating evaporation of moisture condensed on the fibres surface, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface. According to the second version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected with an air gap. The adhesive interlayer is made from heat-expanding material which is characterised by sooting when heated. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers in this version are chosen so that to provide for precipitation of carbon particles on the inner layer fibres surface resulting from cracking of hydrocarbons which are included into the composition of the products of thermal decomposition of the adhesive interlayer organic or polymer part and for formation of an additional layer of foam coke resulting from thermal decomposition and swelling of the adhesive interlayer containing thermally expanding graphite, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface . Fire protective structure layers are made with the consideration of physical effects appearing under heating and leading to the alteration of the adjacent layers composition; this fact allows blocking of radiant-convection heat flow coming from the flame to the surface of the facility being protected.
EFFECT: increasing up to the specified level fire resistance ratings of supporting and enveloping building structures primarily in high-rise buildings.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to heat-insulating constructions. Heat-insulating block element consists of internal air-proof shell made from flexible material, and external air-permeable shell that protects internal shell from damage. External element shell has areas where it is firmly connected with internal shell as well as areas wherein there is no firm connection of external and internal shells. External shell is made, fully or partially, from air-permeable material at the location of latter areas; total external surface of internal shell equals or exceeds total internal surface of external shell. Internal cavity of air-proof shell is filled with gas and/or heat-insulating material capable of reversible deformation. Method of manufacturing heat-insulating enclosure from heat-insulating block elements is described.
EFFECT: reducing material consumption, improving enclosure heat-insulating characteristics, and providing possibility to produce heat-insulating enclosure of any configuration.
13 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrogenerating masonry unit contains an obverse layer, concrete building layers and a heat-insulation layer located between them. The masonry unit has the box-shaped case from a monolithic concrete layer and a heat-insulation layer in the form of the porous core placed in the box-shaped case and closed by an obverse layer with terminal screws, executed in the form of two goffered punched plates from an electro wire material and planar solid-state electrolytic diaphragm located between them, made of a material, for example: "Nafion" or MF-4SK with the deposits of electrodes - the anode and the cathode located on opposite sides of the diaphragm. Two channel apertures located on the largest possible distance from each other are brought from the surface to the diaphragm through the body of the case and a porous core with fixed tubes for possibility of leading and assignment of fuel gas.
EFFECT: improvement of an operating ability of a masonry unit.
6 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building brick for building wall erection includes inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 which have reinforced structure and are located at some distance from each other. Clearance 40 between building bricks is filled with cement. Outer wall 20 consists of decorative plaster board. Foamed polymeric material 30 fills the space between inner wall 10 and outer wall; at that, inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 are pieced by foamed polymeric material 30. Protrusion 31 is created in foamed polymeric material 30 and stands out of inner wall 10 and outer wall 20. Clearance 40 between building bricks in front of and behind relative to protrusion 31, at that, inner wall 10 and outer wall 20 are embedded into foamed polymeric material 30 at some depth, and embedment of parts 11 and 21 results in adhesion strength increase.
EFFECT: increase of brick adiabatic and soundproof characteristics.
FIELD: construction, superstructures.
SUBSTANCE: principle applies to construction, in particular to production of face tiles and blocks and can be used in the preparation of wall blocks with face tiles from natural rock, or wood panels and also ceramic tiles. The technical result is to ensure the functional capability of blocks during cost reduction of its preparation. Firstly, flat decorative elements (FDE) are prepared, which can be done in the form of one or more tiles of natural rock or in the form of one or more wood panels, and also a combination of these. FDE may consists of number of fragments of each, and side surfaces of FDE are preliminary polished and are fitted one to the other and then placed in the frame, tightly tuck together and inundated with a liquid building mixture. One or more ready FDE is placed in a shaped tray and concrete is poured and the tray is put on a vibration press and vibrated to complete compaction of the concrete and then the ready block is dried under natural conditions. A formwork for a ready construction block is then prepared. Construction blocks can also be prepared from foam concrete, in which the foam concrete layer is placed in a vertical plane from the internal side of the block. In this case the foam concrete layers are made in the form of separate inserts or layer of foam concrete is made by pouring foam concrete into a tray frame using parting metallic plate, which is removed after the tray has been filled up by concrete and foam concrete. For the preparation of flat decorative elements, a moulding box with clamps is used. For the strengthening of the attachment of flat decorative elements to the surface of the construction block, a number of ways are used to preliminary work on rear surfaces of the flat decorative elements. To widen the nomenclature of construction blocks, blocks can be made in form of half-blocks, corner blocks or double sided polished blocks. For work convenience, blocks are prepared with an opening at the top with an undercut for proper handling and hand grip.
EFFECT: ensuring functional capability of a block and reduction of its production cost.
14 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fixed constructions.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum concrete block comprises dense concrete outer envelop and more porous core. The outer envelop of the block has a gas-tight surface. The core of the vacuum concrete block has a gas-tight envelop. The core is connected from its centre with the outer envelop surface by means of a tube which is hermetically connected with the core envelop and the outer envelop surface having a locking device for closing in the tube hole, and capable of connecting to a vacuum pump. The method of making a vacuum structural block is defined.
EFFECT: enhancement of heat-insulating properties.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.
EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of hollow block filling.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.
SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.
17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction industry; methods of manufacture of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of construction industry, in particular, to the method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes, which may be used at erection of the external walls of the buildings and structures. The technical result of the invention consists in the capability of production of the wall products from the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, and also the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding the possibility of destruction caused by delamination or spalling. The method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer providing for preparation of the molding mass, its piling into the mold and the bilayered molding differs by the fact, that the molding mass for the facial surface finish layer is prepared from the cement-sand admixture with addition of the ferric oxide pigments of different colors, and the molding mass for the primary layer is prepared from the light-concrete mixture including the natural or artificial porous fillers, which is placed in the mold in the form of collapsible or detachable formwork with the mounted in it plug-in technological molding bed. Then exercise compaction by light pressure of the light-concrete admixtures and, in the mold volume formed after the compaction of the light-concrete admixture place the layer of the cement-sand admixture with the added the ferric oxide pigments, on which the upper punch with lower die, the dimension and the form of which are identical to the formwork and the mounted in it the plug-in technological pan, then, exercise the molding with the simultaneous compression and the vibration compaction of the layers being in the mold.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the wall products made out of the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding destruction caused by delamination or spalling.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multilayered units, for instance, concrete articles, namely building blocks and slabs for envelope forming during industrial, civil and other building structures erection.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce multilayered building block on the base of rigid cement mixes and including one at least one heat-insulation layer of light-weight concrete and at least two fine concrete layers involves serially pouring different concrete mixes in form. After at least two different concrete mix layers pouring in two horizontal parallel planes upper block part is covered with additional form part. Then form with laid concrete mix layers is rotated through 90° about horizontal axis. Form part is removed from top part of the block and form is built up to adapt form for upper fine concrete layer pouring so that upper fine concrete layer is transversal to previously poured layers. After that all layers are subjected to vibroforming and curing up to cement mix stiffening. Finally form is removed.
EFFECT: improved heat insulation properties of straight and corner wall areas, window and door openings, increased strength, possibility to erect high buildings and buildings characterized by varying number of stories without the use of additional structural members to cover opened heat-insulation layers at wall corners and in window and door opening edges.
FIELD: construction, particularly multilayered construction blocks and stones used for building wall erection and adapted to stabilize temperature inside room.
SUBSTANCE: construction block has several layers formed of cement based material. Block includes two extreme layers, one core layer and one face layer. Block is provided with the second face layer. Extreme layers are heat-insulating ones and are formed of porous concrete. Core layer is arranged between extreme ones and is made of fine concrete having high heat capacity and heat conductivity. Face layers lie in planes transversal to extreme and core layers and are arranged from opposite construction block ends. Face layers are hollow and made as sealed panel of two-ply sheet provided with inner stiffening ribs. Each cavity of sealed panel is defined by concrete layer in inner space of two-ply sheet along face panel perimeter. Each sealed panel has two connecting pipes with valves to be linked to pipelines. Fluid supply device is also discloses.
EFFECT: increased cold- or heat-accumulation capacity, possibility of inward and outward heat radiation.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly production of multilayered building blocks provided with pneumatic structural members used for building and building structure wall erection and having ability of heat conductive properties change in response to ambient temperature change.
SUBSTANCE: building unit comprises concrete layer made of concrete mix preferably based on rigid cement and heat insulation layer. Concrete layer is box-like member with faces defining cavity for heat-insulation layer receiving. Heat-insulation layer is made as sealed bag of air-tight elastic material. The bag is secured inside the cavity and has inlet and outlet orifices provided with two chambers. The first chamber has mechanical thermocontroller to close outlet orifice if ambient temperature is greater than predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of decreased ambient air pressure. The second chamber has the second mechanical thermocontroller to close inlet orifice if ambient temperature is below predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of increased ambient air pressure.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties and possibility of building block usage as load-bearing member.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: air conditioning, particularly laminated building blocks used for building wall erection and having properties facilitating dust removal from ambient air passing into building.
SUBSTANCE: filtering building block for load-bearing wall enclosure erection comprises outer concrete layers formed of material mainly based on rigid cement mixes and porous layer arranged in-between. Porous layer is located in sealed cavity defined by outer concrete layer. Inlet and outlet orifices are made in opposite cavity sides. The inlet and outlet orifices are communicated with two chambers located near porous layer. The first chamber is provided with one-way valve assembly so that if ambient air pressure increases the valves are brought into opened state. The second chamber has one-way valve assembly and opens the valves if ambient air pressure decreases.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation and sound-proofing properties of filtering building block used in load-bearing building structure.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly heat-insulation materials used for all-purpose building frame filling structure erection.
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulated modular structure comprises multilayered shell defining inner cavity and made as plastered reinforced net. Filler is placed in the cavity. The shell is made as rectangular parallelepiped with height h equal to b or 2b, where b is parallelepiped width. Parallelepiped length is equal to b, 2b or 4b. The shell is covered with air-tight heat-shrinkable film. Modular structure comprises stiffening members made as ribs extending along diagonal lines connecting cavity corners and crossing each other. The ribs are provided with slots formed in rib centers to insert the ribs one into another to connect the ribs in cross structure.
EFFECT: facilitation of structure sides mating, increased efficiency of heated building and building structure space filling, improved rigidity and manufacturability, as well as storage and transportation ability.
3 cl, 14 dwg