Procedure for plasma boriding
SUBSTANCE: procedure for plasma boriding metal surface out of titanium, of ally on base of titanium, of steel or of ferrochromium consists in introducing KBH4 into reaction chamber, where H corresponds to halogen. KBH4 is heated to temperature sufficient for release of BH3. BH3 is subjected to plasma discharge. There are generated activated boron containing particles diffused in metal surface. In an alternative procedure of the invention KBH4 is thermally decomposed producing KH and BH3. BH3 is directed to plasma formed with inert gas. Also, composition and conditions of plasma generation are selected to facilitate decomposition of BH3 into BH2 + and H. BH2 + is diffused into metal surface.
EFFECT: wear resistant metal surface produced without change of volume of substrate at boriding and with reduced consumption of poisonous chemicals.
13 cl, 1ex
The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.
The present invention relates to a method of producing wear-resistant metal surfaces.
The prior art TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.
Borisovna known to increase the wear resistance of metal surfaces. Known various methods of Borisovna metal surfaces. Such methods create a boron layer on the metal surface. Typically these methods use a reactive boron compounds which penetrate the metal surface. Such reactive compounds include boron gaseous DIBORANE and trihalogen boron, including BCl3and BF3.
One way of Borisovna metal surfaces is a way to "solid fill". In these methods, the source of boron is in the form of solid powder, pastes or granules. The metal surface is filled with a solid boron source and then heated to release and transfer boron particles in a metal surface. This method has many disadvantages, including the necessity of using a huge excess boron source, leading to excessive formation of toxic wastes.
Another way of Borisovna metal surfaces uses a plasma charge for sposobstvo is of the migration of boron to the metal surface. Typically, the methods of plasma Borisovna used DIBORANE, BCl3or BF3where plasma charge reported gaseous boron reagent to release reactive boron particles. See, for example, the U.S. patents 6306225 and 6783794. However, these methods use corrosive corrosive and highly toxic gases, and thus difficult to implement on an industrial scale.
The processes of plasma Borisovna have a number of advantages, including speed and localized heating of the substrate. This prevents the change in the volume of metal in Borisovna piece due to annealing and controlled additional heat treatment to restore the original microstructure and crystal structure. In the result, it is desirable to have a process plasma Borisovna, which retains the advantages of plasma processing, at the same time reducing risk and costs associated with poisonous chemicals.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION of SOME embodiments
The present invention provides a method of Borisovna metal surface. According to the methods of the present invention KVH4in which X represents halogen, presented as a source of boron. The use of KVH4this has the advantage that it is a solid substance that is legados is available and easy to handle. In some embodiments, the implementation of KVH4is deposited in solid form in the presence of boeremag metal surface. Heat is supplied so that KVH4highlights gaseous BX3to which is supplied a plasma charge. Without going into any specific theory, it appears that plasma charge is the result of the formation of one or more active boron particles, which penetrate the metal surface. As used here, the term "activated boron particles" refers to any one or more boron-containing particles generated by the application of the plasma charge to the gas formed by heating KWH4. In some variants, one or more activated boron-containing particles include, but are not limited to such, In+, I+, I2+and I3+.
Used in the description of the term "Borisovna" refers to the process of introducing a boron-containing layer into the metallic surface.
As used here, the term "plasma" refers to ionized gas, and the term "plasma charge" refers to electric current, supplied to the gas for plasma formation. In some embodiments, the implementation of the plasma according to the present invention includes one or more activated boron hour is CI, including but not limited to those, In+, I+, I2+and I3+in which each X is a halogen.
As used here, the term "glow discharge" refers to the type of plasma formed by passing current with a voltage of 100 V to several kV through gas. In some embodiments, the implementation of the gas is argon or another noble gas.
In some versions, each X represents a chlorine, KBX4represents KBCl4.
In other embodiments, the implementation of each X represents fluorine, KBX4represents KBF4.
In some designs, the present invention provides a method of Borisovna metal surface, comprising the stage of:
(a) introducing KVH4in which each X is a halogen;
(b) heating KWH4at a temperature sufficient to release the I3; and
(C) the application of the plasma charge to the I3to create one or more activated boron particles for diffusion into the metal surface.
In other versions of the present invention is a method of Borisovna metal surface, comprising the stage of:
(a) introducing KVH4in which each X presented yet a halogen, in the presence of the metal surface;
(b) heating KWH4at a temperature sufficient to release the I3; and
(C) the application of the plasma charge to the I3to create one or more activated boron particles for diffusion into the metal surface.
In some versions boerema metal surface is a ferrous metal. Ferrous metals are well known to the specialist in the art and include steel, ferrochrome with a high content of chromium and titanium alloys. In some embodiments, the implementation of the ferrous metal is a stainless steel or 4140 steel. In other versions of the stainless steel shall be elected from steel grades 304, 316, 316L. According to one variant of implementation of the ferrous metal is a steel selected from grades 301, 301L, A, 1080 or 8620. In other versions of boerema metal surface is a titanium or titanium containing metal. Such such metals include titanium alloys.
In other embodiments, the implementation of KVH4is introduced in solid form into the chamber containing boeremag metal surface. KVH4is heated to release the I3. Plasma charge is attached the opposite side of the chamber to create a plasma, comprising one or more activated boron particles. The temperature at which KVH4heated, is sufficient to discharge from it I3. In some versions KVH4heated at a temperature of from 700 to 900°C.
The number of KVH4used in the methods according to the present invention, it is sufficient to maintain a pressure from about 10 to about 1500 PA inside the reaction chamber. In some versions the pressure is from about 50 to about 1000 PA. In other embodiments, implementation of the pressure is from about 100 to about 750 PA. Specialist-technologist will be clear that thermal decomposition KVH4with the formation of I3has the result of increasing the pressure inside the reaction chamber. Without going into any specific theory, it appears that the number of moles formed gaseous BX3can be calculated by measuring the pressure rise.
In some embodiments, the implementation of the hydrogen gas is introduced into the chamber with KVH4and obtained from thermal decomposition of I3. Without going into any specific theory, it appears that elemental hydrogen facilitates the decomposition of I3one or more activated boron particles when exposed to plasmin is on charge. In some versions of gaseous hydrogen is introduced in an amount which is equal to the number of redundant I3or is the molar excess compared to the last.
In some embodiments, the implementation of the gaseous BX3and optional hydrogen are introduced into the plasma stream of inert gas, for example argon. Plasma can accelerate the diffusion of the reactive elements and provide high-speed impact of a reactive boron particles on the treated metal surface. In some versions plasma is a plasma glow discharge. The substrate can be any material that is suitable for use in the methods of plasma processing, such as steel or titanium alloys. KVH4may be subjected to decomposition in a separate chamber for the decomposition connected with a plasma chamber, or as decomposition and plasma processing can occur in separate zones of a single reaction vessel.
As described here, the methods according to the present invention include the stage of application of the plasma charge to create one or more activated boron particles. In some embodiments, the implementation of the plasma charge is a pulsed plasma charge. In other embodiments, and the implement attached plasma charge in which the voltage is adjustable from about 0 to about 800 C. In still other embodiments, the implementation of the current is about 200 And the maximum.
Other variants of the invention will be apparent to the specialist-technologist from consideration of the description or the practice of the disclosed invention here. It is assumed that the description and examples be considered only as illustrative, with the true scope and meaning of the invention indicated by the following claims.
Steel item is placed in the reaction chamber together with 50 g KBF4in the crucible of boron nitride. Reaction chamber vacuumized to a pressure of 0.01 PA. The crucible is heated to a temperature of 900°C, leading to the decomposition of KBF4with the formation BF3. A gas mixture of H2/Ar with 10%hydrogen is added to the reaction chamber to a pressure of 500 PA. The electric discharge is attached at a voltage of 600 V and current of 150 A. the Reaction is continued for about 3 hours or until until you achieve the desired introduction of boron.
1. How Borisovna metal surface of the titanium alloy based on titanium, steel or ferrochromium, including introduction to the reaction chamber KVH4in which X represents halogen, heating KVH4at a temperature sufficient to highlight the I3and the application of the plasma discharge to the I 3to create the activated boron particles for diffusion into the metal surface.
2. The method according to claim 1, in which KVH4injected into the reaction chamber containing the metal boeremag surface.
3. The method according to claim 1, in which the activated boron-containing particles are selected from The+, I+, I2+or I3+.
4. The method according to claim 3, in which plasma discharge is a plasma glow discharge.
5. The method according to claim 1, in which KVH4heated at a temperature of from 700 to 900°C.
6. The method according to claim 1, in which additionally at the camera with KVH4introducing hydrogen gas.
7. The method according to claim 6, in which gaseous hydrogen is introduced into the argon flow.
8. Method of plasma Borisovna metal surface of the titanium alloy based on titanium, steel or ferrochromium, including introduction to the reaction chamber KVH4in which X represents halogen, thermal decomposition KVH4with the formation of the HH and I3the direction of I3in the plasma is generated with an inert gas, and the composition and conditions of formation of plasma pick up so that I3decomposes at I2+and X-and by the diffusion of I2+in the metal surface.
9. The method according to claim 8, in which X represents the t of a fluoride.
10. The method according to claim 8, in which X represents chlorine.
11. The method according to claim 8, in which X represents bromine.
12. The method according to claim 8, in which additionally at the camera with KVH4introducing hydrogen gas.
13. The method according to item 12, in which gaseous hydrogen is introduced into the argon flow.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices in tended for surface hardening and can be used for borating profile-iron bending rolls elements. Proposed device comprises cylindrical case with ID D=d(10δ+0.7), mm, where d is OD of elements subjected to borating, mm, δ is thickness of produced borated layer, mm, and cylinder height making H=(1.2…2.0)D. Case bottom is furnished with jack to lift element foot. Case cover is screwed in said case to vertically move inside it. Case and cover are made from heat resistant steel and coated by heat isolation. In particular cases, in borating elements of aforesaid rolls used for continuous forming of bent sectional bars, case ID makes D=(1.2…1.6)d. Cylindrical case bottom has hole to jack screw. Device cover has a thread on lateral surface mating that in cylinder top inner part.
EFFECT: reduced production costs in preparing rolls for operation.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure for nitriding steel items in glow discharge consists in vacuum heating items corresponding to cathode in plasma of nitrogen of higher density. Plasma of nitrogen of higher density is formed in a near cathode area with a beam of electrons generated and accelerated with an auxiliary anode. Electrons emitted from an electron gun are directed to the anode and to the auxiliary anode generating electron gas flow facilitating collision of electrons with neutral particles and maintaining plasma existence. Velocity of electrons motion is controlled with the auxiliary anode connected to its own source of power.
EFFECT: intensified nitriding, increased contact durability and wear resistance of strengthened layer.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in placement of item into plasma chamber, in supply nitrogen or gas mixture into discharge interval between cathode and anode at low pressure of 0.01-1 Pa, also gas mixture consists of mixture of nitrogen and of at least one of following gases: argon, neon, helium or hydrogen, in applying voltage between cathode and anode with fine-structure mesh and in ignition arc or glow low voltage discharge with cold cathode creating plasma emitter of electrons in zone of fine structure mesh. Further, negative voltage of 0.1-1 kV is supplied between the anode and grounded walls of the plasma chamber, surface of the item is ion-cleaned from oxide films by means of supplying negative bias voltage 100-500 V relative to walls of the plasma chamber onto the item. The item is heated to working temperature facilitating diffusion of nitrogen atoms into volume of the item by growth of voltage between the anode and grounded walls of the plasma chamber and current of discharge between the anode and cathode. Atoms of nitrogen are diffused into volume of the item at values of negative bias voltage on the item 0-150 V relative to the grounded walls of the plasma chamber or at floating potential of the item.
EFFECT: raised surface hardness of item, elimination of deformation after treatment, increased fatigue point and wear resistance of processed item.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: according to invention steel items are nitrided in glow discharge by means of vacuum heating in plasma of nitride of increased density; further, items are quenched. Also, plasma of nitride of increased density is generated in a circular region of rotation of electrons caught with magnetic field, power lines of which are parallel to treated surface. Notably, electron cloud is maximally localised at the part-cathode.
EFFECT: intensified process of nitriding, increased contact service life and wear resistance of strengthened layer.
1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: items out of steel and alloy are subjected to cathode sputtering and vacuum heating in plasma of glow discharge of increased density; also, plasma consists of mixture containing nitrogen and inert gases; mixture is formed between item and shield. Notably, non-uniform plasma of glow discharge is formed by means of the shield with cells, thus a differential structure in material is created by forming heterogeneous structures. Additionally, the transition section between sections with different structures has a micro-non-uniform structure with gradual transition from one kind into another.
EFFECT: increased contact service life and wear resistance of strengthened layer, expanded functionality.
3 ex, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in positioning part in vacuum chamber, in connecting part to high voltage power source, in vacuum chamber sealing, in generating high vacuum in it, in successive changing it with atmosphere of pure nitrogen, and in generating stable plasma of glow discharge in atmosphere of pure nitrogen by means of high voltage power source and electron flow from tungsten filament arranged parallel to axis of vacuum chamber. Filament heated to temperature 2000-2500°C generates flow of electrons. Also flow of electrons is compressed with electromagnetic field, thus, there is produced plasma of glow discharge in form of disk of volume where D is internal diametre of the vacuum chamber, t is length of the tungsten filament.
EFFECT: increased wear resistance and fatigue durability of parts of machines owing to ion nitriding.
1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: combined ion-plasma treatment is performed in gas-discharge plasma containing argon ions, followed by diffusion saturation. During the latter, ions of components of solid substance, that makes a part of applied coat, are introduced into has-discharge plasma in magnetron sputtering of target-cathode together with assisting effect of gas-discharge plasma. Transition from diffusion saturation to coat application is carried out by reducing negative shift potential on treated product. In particular cases, gas-discharge plasma, wherein diffusion saturation or coat application is effected, contains argon and nitrogen ions, and is produced by gas plasma generator.
EFFECT: higher wear resistance.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of items out of pseudo-α or (α+β) titanium alloys, designed for continuous operation in friction pairs with polymer or metallic materials and biological tissues. First a stock is produced, then it is subject to thermo hydrogen treatment by means of saturation with hydrogen by thermo diffusion method till concentration of hydrogen reaches 0.5-0.9% in weight at temperature of 700-850°C. Then holding is carried out with successive cooling to an ambient temperature at the rate 0.1-10 deg/sec. Further there is performed firing in vacuum at not less, than 5-10-5 of mercury column at temperature of 550-700°C with holding within 4-20 hrs till concentration of hydrogen reaches not more, than 0.01 wt %. Polishing is carried out till obtaining of surface roughness parameter of Ra from 0.02 to 0.08 mcm. Then vacuum ion-plasma nitriding is executed at temperature of 300-700°C, till the thickness of nitrated layer is not less, than 50 mcm. With above described method there is produced an item containing nitrated surface layer consisting of nitrides of titanium of composition from Ti2N to TiN and sub-layer out of solid solution of nitrogen in titanium and a core.
EFFECT: creation of complex process facilitating high wear resistance and low friction ratio, also high corrosion resistance of items in corrosive, including biological, mediums.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: production methods.
SUBSTANCE: it is made the azotization and bright hardener by vacuum heating in plasma of heighten density, formed between the product and screen by creating the effect of full cathode. The plasma of heighten density is formed from mixture with the following ratio, mass %: azoth 50-80, argon 10-25, acetylene 10-25. The azotization is produced under the temperature 700-850°С. the bright hardener is realized by heating from the temperature of azotization up to 900-1100°С, holding during 15-30 min and sudden cooling in the stream of helium, which exceeds the critical temperature of steel hardiness. Then it is done the deep drawing under 250-350°С.
EFFECT: it is increased the contact longevity and durability of harden layer.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy industry; mechanical engineering; other industries; methods of the vacuum-arc treatment of the metal products.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the vacuum-arc treatment of the metal products before deposition on them of the coatings and may be used in metallurgy industry, mechanical engineering and other industries. The method provides for the vacuum-arc refining of the product-cathode and deposition of the coatings. Before deposition of the coatings the vacuum-arc refining is combined with the simultaneous complete or local oxidation of the surfaces, for example, up to the yellow, blue, violet, brown, black colors and-or tints and the combinations of the colors and tints. During the treatment of the long-sized products the local oxidation can be conducted in the form of the longitudinal and-or transversal straps and areas. The mode of the oxidation is exercised due to vibrations of the arc or the arcs, and-or due to for example the change - the increase of the power of the arc and-or the power emitted by the product caused by the electric current passing through it in the section from the electric current feeder from the power supply or the power supplies feeding the arc or the arcs to the product-cathode up to the electric arc or the arcs. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the technological capabilities of the method of the vacuum-arc treatment, improvement of the quality and the extension of the assortment of the depositing coatings.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities of the method of the vacuum-arc treatment, improvement of the quality and the extension of the assortment of the depositing coatings.
FIELD: heat and chemical treatment, namely ionic nitriding processes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of nitriding at low pressure and at voltage bias created between part and hot electrode. Rotating magnetic field is created around vacuum chamber. Amplitude value of rotating magnetic field density is determined according to given relation where m - mass of positive ion; U -negative potential fed to treated part relative to housing of vacuum chamber; q - charge of positive ion; φcr - critical incline angle of positive ion relative to treated surface; d -minimum diameter of part opening; B - amplitude value of density of rotating magnetic field. In concrete variants of invention rotating magnetic field is created due to alternatively turning it on in horizontal and in vertical directions.
EFFECT: enhanced operational properties of complex-configuration parts due to uniform nitriding of them.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in pulse radiation of treated surface with ions of plasma jet generated by products of electric explosion of conductor in form of carbon-graphite fibre or aluminium foil in pulse mode. The procedure is carried out by simultaneous alloying surface of a tool with powders of chemical substances or their compounds placed in explosion area. Also, there is maintained intensity of effecting surface within the range 5.0-7.6 GWt/m2.
EFFECT: increased operational resistance of hard alloy.
4 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: coating contains adhesion, transient and wear resistant alloys out of refractory compounds. Also, an adhesion layer contains at least one element from composition of a transient layer and/or its compound. The transient layer contains a refractory compound of metals of IV and/or V groups of the periodic table, at least one of which is taken from composition of a wear resistant layer. The wear resistant layer contains refractory compounds of metals from IV and/or V, and/or VI groups alloyed with aluminium and has nano-crystal structure.
EFFECT: upgraded indices of tool functionality, increased efficiency of processing and increased physical-mechanical characteristics of processed surfaces of parts.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in ion-plasma treatment of surface of blade with successive application of alternate layers on it with thickness from 10 nm to 30 nm; layers consist of metals or compounds of these metals with other metallic or non-metallic elements. Upon application of each layer there is performed implantation treatment with ions of other metallic or non-metallic elements till there is produced a continuous imbedded into surface layer of thickness from 1 to 9 nm. Also, as metals for application of the layer there are used Ti, Zr, Hf, Cr, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Al, La, Eu, while as implanted ions there used ions of Cr, Y, Yb, C, B, Zr, N, La, Ti or their combination under condition of heterogeneity of metals applied as layer and metals implanted into this layer.
EFFECT: raised resistance and cyclic service life.
20 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of parts on the device in vacuum chamber, application of negative electrical potential to parts, ionic cleaning of parts surface and application of coating to them by means of electric arc evaporation of materials. Arc is excited and kept between anode and at least one flat long cooled cathode L long by alternating connection of its opposite edges to electric power supplies. Frequency f of alternating connection of opposite edges of cathode is chosen during coating application depending on longitudinal size of evaporation zone from the condition: /f= ν/1, where ν - movement speed of cathode spot area under influence of electromagnetic arc current field.
EFFECT: high quality of applied coating on parts of composite shape.
27 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hard alloys surface hardening by electro-blasting alloying, particularly to procedure for tungsten-cobalt hard alloyed surface hardening of drilling and mine cutting tools. The procedure consists in pulse radiation of treated surface with an ion component of a plasma jet. As a source of the ion component there are used products of aluminium foil electro-blasting. Radiation is carried out in a pulse mode facilitating intensity of effect onto treated surface in the interval of 5.0÷7.6 GWt/m2.
EFFECT: increased surface hardness, wear resistance and operational resistance of hard alloys of TC (tungsten-cobalt) group.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to procedure and facility for fabrication of coating. Coating is produced by ion sedimentation on a preliminary cleaned substrate. Sedimentation is performed from axial zone of flow of jet diaphragm discharge with power of E ions corresponding to condition: Ebond<E<Esputter, where Ebond is power of atoms bond of synthesised substance of coating layer, keV, Esputter, is power of sputtering substance in the synthesised layer of coating, keV, of specified duration. When coating is settled, an item is annealed during an interval sufficient for re-combination of between-nodular atoms and vacancies, for saturation of not filled chemical bonds in the layer of coating and for creation of stable chemical compounds upon completion of chemical absorption on surface of coating. A separating chamber and a sedimentation chamber of the facility are pressure tight connected to the discharge chamber. The separating chamber is arranged before the sedimentation chamber and has an inlet window in kind of a screen with a mould and an orifice of diametre equal to diametre of the axial zone of discharge jet, it also has an outlet window in form of a geometric nozzle, dimensions and shape of which facilitate super sound acceleration of plasma flow. High voltage pulse source of electric current ensures specified amplitude of discharge current.
EFFECT: invention facilitates stable fabrication of high qualitative coating out of wide range of materials of high adhesion to substrates out of metals, dielectrics and transistors.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex