Method for production of pectin from palma christi fruit shells

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry, in particular - to a technology for release of pectin from plant raw material. The method envisages fruit shell drying and milling, removal of impurities. Then one degreases the milled fruit shell with acetone during 24 hours. One performs removal of polyphenols, salt - and water-soluble proteins. Then one performs the raw material with drinking water (2-3-times). Then one proceeds with hydrolytic extraction with a 0.3-0.5% solution of citric acid during 120 minutes at a temperature of 85-90°C, duty of water being 1:10. One separates the liquid phase. For pectin substances coagulation acetone is utilised. Then the coagulate is dried and ground.

EFFECT: invention allows to process previously unused secondary raw material resources of Palma Christi fruits, to ensure high yield of standard quality dry pectin from Palma Christi fruit shells.

 

The invention relates to the process of extracting pectin from plant materials.

A known method of producing pectin from pre-dried inflorescences-baskets sunflower, providing preliminary drying, milling, hydrolysis-extraction with the use of hydrochloric acid, separating the liquid phase upon completion of the process of hydrolysis-extraction, coagulation pectin extract from a chloride of aluminum, three-stage purification from admixtures of aluminum with a mixture of ethanol reagent, drying, grinding [Donchenko L.V. Technology of pectin and actinomadura. - M.: new Delhi, 2000, s-137].

A known method of producing pectin from the folds of cotton, providing them crushing, purification of polyphenols, salt - and water-soluble proteins, proizvoditel 3%sodium chloride solution at the process temperature of 70-75°C and water ratio of 1:6 for half an hour, followed by 2-3-fold washing with drinking water, hydrolysis-extraction with the use of 0.3-0.5%solution of oxalic and 0,8-0,9%-aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid is carried out in two stages at a water ratio of 1:6, the separation of the liquid phase and the selection of the target product through salt polyvalency metals, then the following two-stage cleaning from coagulating agent ethanol, podkolesin hydrochloric acid and ammonia, drying pectin is Augusta [Donchenko L.V. Technology of pectin and actinomadura. - M.: new Delhi, 2000, p.143-150].

Common disadvantages of these methods are low purity of pectin as a result of the use in the process of hydrochloric acid for hydrolysis-extraction and salts of polyvalent metals for coagulation of pectin, as well as the high cost of ethanol for subsequent purification of pectin coagulate.

The present invention solves the problem of recycling of secondary raw materials of the production of castor seeds, not previously used.

The technical result of the invention to provide a dry pectin standard quality of fruit shells of castor.

The technical result is achieved in that the method includes drying and grinding fruit shell, removal of impurities, purification of polyphenols, salt - and water-soluble proteins, 2-3 fold washing with drinking water, hydrolysis-extraction, separation of the liquid phase after the completion of the process of hydrolysis-extraction, coagulation of the target product, drying and grinding of coagulate, according to the invention spend degreased crushed fruit shell acetone for one day, followed by one-step hydrolysis-extraction of 0.3-0.5 th% solution of citric acid for 120 minutes at a temperature of 85-90°C and water ratio 1:10, and is vagulely pectin carried out with acetone.

Comparative analysis of the claimed solution with the known methods of making pectin from fruit shells industrial crops leads to the conclusion that the claimed method of producing pectin has the criterion of NOVELTY, as it allows you to get the pectin from fruit shells castor-oil plant not previously used.

The inventive method of producing pectin meets the criterion of INVENTIVE step, as it allows to increase the yield of pectin by degreasing of raw materials acetone and receive pectin standard quality by using advanced settings maintenance process of hydrolysis-extraction, and the use of acetone as a coagulating agent allows to exclude the use of ethanol.

The claimed technical solution meets the criterion of INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY, as it can be used in any enterprise pectin production.

Degreasing of raw materials used as a degreasing agent acetone allows to obtain a high yield of pectin hydrolysis of amniotic membrane containing a certain amount of lipids that are impeding progress. The total content of pectin fruit shells of castor (on dry basis)not subjected to degreasing, are presented in table 1.

Table 1
SampleFraction PVThe number of PV fractions, %Σ, %
Fruit shell castorhydrocompaction1,84,3
> protopectin2,5

Table 1 demonstrates that not defatted samples the output of pectin substances, insufficient for this type of raw material like dried fruit shell.

The total content of pectin in fruit shells castor-oil plant (on dry basis), resulting from the processing of raw materials different extractants listed in table 2.

Table 2
SampleThe extractantΣ, %
Fruit shell castoracetone20,5
hexanethe 17.3
ethanol-chloroformthe 5.7

The best extractant for lipids fruit shells of castor is acetone, as from a sample of raw, treated with this solvent was extracted the greatest amount of pectin (table 2).

Degrease the crushed fruit shell proposed acetone during the day, because one day the lipids of raw materials extracted most fully, therefore, to exceed the specified time is not feasible; reduce the extraction time is also undesirable, because a shorter period lipids not extracted in full.

Citric acid is used as gidrolizuemye agent, provides the highest yield of pectin substances from the feedstock, and the concentration of a solution of 0.3-05% is optimal for the process.

The streamlining of the process of hydrolysis-extraction and release of pectic substances detected at a water ratio of 1:10. When the water ratio of 1:6-1:8 is formed mushy mass, there is no free movement in the phase transition pectin is complicated and is not provided at the appropriate level. When increasing the water ratio above the optimal concentration of extracted pectin in the solution decreases and, although qualitative indicators of pectin increased water ratio is not affected, in the technological cycle in parallel increases, over the d acid, congestion of containers and equipment, as well as energy consumption.

The optimum temperature for the hydrolysis of 85-90°C. With increasing temperature the diffusion coefficient increases as decreases the viscosity of the extract, however, excessive increase of the temperature causes degradation of pectic substances, resulting in worsening of their physico-chemical characteristics. At a temperature of 5-10°C below the optimal hydrolysis is slower, which significantly increases the cycle length.

The duration of hydrolysis of 120 minutes is optimal when other accepted optimal process parameters. With decreasing cycle time directly correlates to the amount of extractable pectin, however, increasing the duration of the process on the yield of pectin substances are not severely affected, with increased energy consumption and utilization of equipment.

The use of acetone as a coagulating agent instead of the salts of polyvalent metals allows to achieve the supposed purity of pectin coagulate, thereby eliminating the use of ethanol in the subsequent cleanup.

The method is implemented as follows. Separated fruit shell castor subjected to drying and grinding, then there is the removal of impurities, degreasing of raw materials acetone for one day, cleaning it of the polyphenol solution of sodium chloride within half an hour. Followed by 2-3-fold washing of the raw water, one-step hydrolysis-extraction, separation of the liquid phase after the completion of the process of hydrolysis-extraction, coagulation of the target product, drying and grinding of coagulate.

An example of implementation of the proposed method

Separated during processing of the fruit of the castor fruit shell is dried and crushed to particle size of 1-3 mm, degreased with acetone for one day, then make clean polyphenols 3%sodium chloride solution for 30 minutes at a temperature of 75°C, followed by three washing of raw drinking water. Hydrolysis-extraction carried out with 0.5%solution of citric acid for 120 minutes at a temperature of 85°C and water ratio of 1:10. Upon completion of the process of hydrolysis-extraction of the separated liquid phase and precipitated from it pectic substances acetone; coagulate dried and crushed to powder. The yield of dry powdered pectin coagulate is 20%.

A positive effect in the implementation of the developed method consists in solving the problem of recycling of secondary raw materials of the production of castor seeds, not used previously; in increasing the yield of pectin from fruit shells of castor in the degreasing them with acetone; m is simalem the release of pectic substances in the selection of optimal process parameters of the hydrolysis-extraction, and also used as a coagulating agent is acetone.

Specified positive effect is achieved only when the combination of the described process parameters, which allows to obtain the claimed technical result.

Production validation of the developed technology held in the unique "Technologist" (Kuban state agrarian University) in 2008-2009 to Develop recommended for implementation in production.

The method of producing pectin from fruit shells, castor-oil plant, providing drying and grinding fruit shell, removal of impurities, purification of polyphenols, salt - and water-soluble proteins, 2-3-fold washing with drinking water, hydrolysis-extraction, separation of the liquid phase after the completion of the process of hydrolysis-extraction, coagulation of the target product, drying and grinding of coagulate, characterized in that after removal of the impurities is conducted additionally degreased crushed fruit shell acetone for one day, one-step hydrolysis-extraction exercise 0,3-0,5%solution of citric acid for 120 min at a temperature of 85-90°C and water ratio of 1:10, and coagulation pectin carried out with acetone.



 

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