Raw material grinding method for production of pectin and juices and device for its implementation

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology and devices for raw material grinding, in particular - to production of pectin and juices and other products in food and chemical industry. The method involves raw material grinding in a disintegrator and subsequent fine grinding whereby pulp, discharged from the disintegrator (1), is directed in the form of a stream through a nozzle (8) onto a barrier (9) with the help of a high-pressure pump (6), stream rate being V≥k·[12σδε/(pd)]0,5 where σ is strength of the cell membrane cellulose part, δ is thickness of the membrane cellulose layers, ε is elongation at rupture, d is the cell radius, p is the intracellular medium density, k is the coefficient that accounts for the difference between theoretical and actual impact parameters equal to 1.3…1.5. The device is designed in the form of a disintegrator (1) rotor drives whereof are designed in the form of active hydraulic turbines (3), on the blades (9) whereof one delivers (through the nozzles (8)) pulp injected by the high-pressure pump (6). One delivers the pulp (6) to the pump inlet in the form of raw material ground in the disintegrator (1) and filtered. The device turbines (3) blades (9) are designed as planes with corrugated or rough working surface. In the second version of the device the blades (9) are fixed immediately on the disintegrator (1) rotors and the nozzles (8) for pulp delivery are built into the disintegrator (1) body.

EFFECT: invention allows to increase the grade of pectin extraction from vegetable raw material.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a process and apparatus for fine grinding of raw materials, in particular for the production of pectin, as well as in the production of juices and other products in the food and chemical industries.

It should be clear that the sheath cells of vegetable raw material for pectin and juice consists of macromolecular polysaccharide is pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose microfibrils shell, fulfilling the role of elastic wire mesh, immersed in an amorphous substance consisting mainly of insoluble pectic substances. Therefore, to increase the yield of pectin should destroy not only the integrity of the cells, but also of its shell, which contains a significant portion of the pectin.

There is a method of grinding plant raw materials with the purpose to receive pectin and juice, in which the preliminary grinding of raw materials is performed in a liquid medium in a rotary disintegrator. In such disintegrator speed collision comminuted material with the working elements of the device usually does not exceed 150 m/s, There are more high-speed disintegrator, to drive using the motor with the frequency of the supply voltage up to 400 Hz [1].

However, they are used mainly for grinding of dry substances, as when working with liquid environments need powerful is industry-driven high-speed disintegrator quickly nonlinear increases with the frequency of rotation of the rotors. Thus, the disadvantage of the rotary disintegrator that they are suitable mainly for pre-grinding plant raw materials.

Also known two-stage grinding method, which is particularly applicable in the technology of extraction of pectin. In this way, after preliminary grinding of plant material, it is subjected to additional grinding in hydroacoustic the cage [2]. Since the grinding process is conducted in the liquid, there is a simultaneous hydrolysis and extraction of pectic substances. In hydroacoustic cage mill grinding of raw materials occurs under the action of cavitation caused by ultrasonic vibrations.

The lack of hydroacoustic disintegrator is relatively small performance and volatility of the achieved result. When aiming to increase the intensity of the ultrasound radiated into the liquid, there is a decrease in acoustic impedance of the medium, which prevents efficient transfer the increased power to the emitter. The density of the input sound energy is also limited by the capacity of the used high-frequency generators and emitters ultrasound [3]. In addition, the effect of ultrasound on the material comes with different efficiency, which depends on the characteristic time is ' destructible objects, and from the acoustic properties of the raw material and the working fluid.

Also widely used method of grinding and homogenization of raw materials in the so-called hydrodynamic two - or rotor cavitation homogenizers. These homogenizers are designed for grinding and mixing of multi-component media with the aim of obtaining suspensions and emulsions in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. According to the device they are close to centrifugal pumps, but instead of the impeller have a concentric movable and stationary perforated cylinders [4]. During the rotation of the cylinder with a frequency of up to 3000 rpm the conditions for cavitation as a result of pressure variations in the fluid flow. In this way the movement of fluid along a spiral trajectory, caused by centrifugal forces, is interrupted by the walls of the rotating perforated cylinders.

The lack of homogenizers, built on the principle of centrifugal pump, is that they cannot provide the fine grinding plant cells in view of the insufficient mechanical impact on the product.

Closest to the claimed method should be considered as the grinding method and the improved uniformity of heterogeneous products equipped with plunger pumps, homogenizers, which are used in food andchemical industry. In them the product, such as milk or fruit and vegetable juices, pump with a plunger pump at pressures up to 25 MPa in one or two consecutive homogenizing head. Product components, passing at high speed through a narrow gap between the valve seat and a spring-loaded valve, crushed and homogenizers in the hydrodynamic effects [5].

The homogenizers with piston pumps the following disadvantages. First, the operating pressure existing homogenizers not enough to thin the destruction of the membranes of plant cells with the passage of the material through the slit valve. Secondly, despite the fact that the pumps, homogenizers have a high overall efficiency, directly on grinding the dispersed phase takes less than 0.5% of total pump energy. The rest energy of the flow is converted into heat.

The aim of the invention is more complete destruction of the cell membranes of plant raw material to increase the yield of pectin and quality of products while improving the efficiency of energy use for grinding of raw materials.

This objective is achieved in that after preliminary grinding of raw materials in the cage the resulting slurry using a high-pressure pump is sent in the form of a compact jet through a nozzle on a solid obstacle, p. and this jet speed V set in accordance with the expression:

V≥k·[12σδε/(ρd)]0,5,

where σ is a temporary tensile strength of the pulp part of the membrane of the cells, δ - thickness of the pulp layer shell, ε is the elongation at fracture, d is the minimum transverse dimension of the cell, ρ is the density of the intracellular environment, k is a correction factor taking into account the difference of the parameters of a real hit from theoretical equal to 1.3...1,5.

Device for grinding raw materials made in the form of double cage, which drives made in the form of active hydraulic turbines, the blades are mounted on a turbine disk or directly on the rotor cage, scapula serves under high pressure to the slurry in the form of ground in a disintegrator and filtered raw materials.

The turbine blades to drive the rotor cage is made with corrugated or roughened working surface.

The device for implementing the method are presented in figure 1 and 2.

The figure 1 shows: 1 - double cage, 2 - supply of raw materials in the cage, 3 - simplified active hydraulic turbine, 4 - output of the pulp disintegrator, 5 and 10 filters, 6 - high-pressure pump, 7 - piping for feeding the pulp into the nozzle 8 nozzle, 9 - turbine blade with grooved working surface, 11 - piping to return the detainees filters particles of raw material in de the integrator, 12 is a pipe for feeding the crushed pulp for further processing, 13 - adjustable choke.

The figure 2 shows the design of the device, in which the turbine blade 9 is fixed directly to the rotors of the cage. All symbols in figure 2 are the same as in figure 1.

The device operates as follows (figure 1). Plant material 2, diluted to the optimum degree water, or contains a sufficient amount of fluid is fed into the receiving hopper of the cage 1. Active hydraulic turbine 3 simplified design result in rotation of the rotors of the cage 1. Pre-crushed in a disintegrator 1 raw materials in the form of a slurry through a pipeline 4 through the filter 5 is supplied to the high-pressure pump 6. From the pump 6, the slurry is pumped through the pipeline 7 in the nozzle 8 and acts on the vanes 9 of the turbine 3. Blades 9 turbine 3 is made with corrugated working surface to achieve the so-called "instant" stop the jet of pulp under high speed impact her barrier with the purpose of grinding particles of the raw material. Do not pass filters 5 and 10 particles of raw material are returned through the pipes 11 in the cage 1. Finely ground raw materials through pipelines 12 and an adjustable inductor 13 is supplied via a filter 10 for further processing.

The device shown in figure 2, slightly modified. This is instrukcii the cage rotors are driven by the turbine blades 9, fixed directly on the rotor of the cage 1. Pre-crushed in a disintegrator 1 (figure 2) raw material in the form of a slurry through a pipeline 4 through the filter 5 is supplied to the high-pressure pump 6. From the pump 6, the slurry is pumped through pipelines 7 nozzle 8 and high speed acts on the turbine blades 9 mounted on the rotor of the cage 1. Do not pass filters 5 and 10 particles of raw material are returned through the pipes 11 in the cage 1. Finely ground raw materials through the pipeline 12 is fed through the filter 10 and the adjustable orifice 13 for further processing. That is, the principle of operation of the modified device, in essence, not different from that of the device shown in figure 1.

In the present method is the following mechanism subtle destruction of the membrane of the cells. Submitted plunger high-pressure pump 6, the slurry containing the particles of the raw material ejected from the nozzle 8 in the form of jets and high speed hits the barrier. Here, under the barrier refers to the vanes 9 of the turbine 3. In the "instant" stop the stream and the particles of the raw energy of motion is transferred in elastic energy of the excess fluid pressure within the plant cells. This pressure breaks the shell of the cell. The magnitude of the jet velocity to achieve the necessary pressure can be found from the expression:

V≥k·[12 who δε/(ρd)] 0,5,

where σ is a temporary tensile strength of the pulp part of the membrane of the cells, δ - thickness of the pulp layer shell, ε is the elongation at fracture, d is the minimum transverse dimension of the cell, ρ is the density of the intracellular environment, k is a correction factor taking into account the difference of the parameters of a real hit from theoretical equal to 1.3...1,5.

In accordance with the calculations required speed of the pulp for the destruction of the cells of most types of plant materials is in the range from 200 to 250 m/s exit Velocity of the pulp from the nozzles 8 should be higher on the value of the peripheral velocity of the turbine blades 9 3. In criticism analogues was noted above that the rotors of the cage 1 are in a liquid medium with a frequency of no more than 3000 rpm When the typical size of disintegrators this corresponds to the peripheral speed of 50 m/S. With this in mind, the speed of the jet should be in the range of from at least 250 to 300 m/sec the rate can provide the pump with a discharge pressure from 32 to 45 MPa.

As follows from the performed calculations and descriptions of the invention, the claimed method and device is technically feasible. The use of the claimed invention allows to increase the degree of extraction of pectin from plant material and its application in the production of fruit and vegetable juices will increase the nutritional value and taste of the e-quality products due to the high degree of size reduction and homogenization of the starting material. Engineering calculation also shows that the energy required to drive high-pressure pump, enough not only for fine dispersion of the raw materials due to the high velocity impact of turbine blades, but also to drive the rotors of the cage for the preliminary grinding of raw materials.

Sources of information

1. Disintegrator technology // proceedings of 6-th all-Union seminar. Tallinn: NGO "Disintegrator". - 1989. - 164 S.

2. RF patent 2066962. A23L 1/0524, SW 37/06. Published 27.09.1996.

3. Fundamentals of calculation and design of machines and machines for food production. Ed. Sokolova YA M: engineering. - 1969. - 637 S.

4. The homogenizer of rotor-cavitation, 2009. http://www.zavprogress.ru/gomogen_obsh_161008.html.

5. Mukhin A.A. Kuzmin and other Homogenizers for the dairy industry. M: Food industry. 1976. - 64 S.

1. The method of grinding the raw material for the production of pectin and juice, including a preliminary grinding of raw materials in the cage and the subsequent fine grinding, characterized in that the obtained pulp disintegrator using high-pressure pump is sent in the form of a compact jet through a nozzle on a solid barrier, the stream velocity V is set in accordance with the expression V≥k·[12σδε/(ρd)]0,5where σ is a temporary tensile strength of the pulp part of the membrane cells; δ - casinoclassic layers of the shell; ε is the elongation at break; d - the minimum transverse dimension of the cells; ρ is the density of the intracellular environment; k is a correction factor taking into account the difference of the parameters of a real hit from theoretical, equal to 1.3-1.5.

2. Device for grinding raw material, made in the form of double cage, characterized in that the motor drives the rotors of the cage is made in the form of active hydraulic turbines, the blades are mounted on a turbine disk or directly on the rotor cage, scapula serves under high pressure to the slurry in the form of ground in a disintegrator and filtered raw materials.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the turbine blades are made with corrugated or roughened working surface.



 

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