Catalyst for hydrogenating plant oil and fats, preparation method thereof and hydrogenation method

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts, particularly used in hydrogenating plant oil and unsaturated fats and can be used in food, perfumery, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and oil-refining industry. Described is a catalyst which contains palladium in amount of 0.1-5.0 wt % and ruthenium in ratio Pd:Ru=1-100 in form of bimetallic particles with size 1-6 nm deposited on a carbon support. Described is a method of preparing the catalyst, involving preliminary combined hydrolysis of palladium (II) and ruthenium (III) chlorides at pH 5-10 and then bringing the precursor into contact with the carbon support and liquid-phase reduction. Described also is a method of hydrogenating triglycerides of plant oil and fats at temperature 80-200°C and pressure 2-15 atm using the catalyst described above.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the method of preparing the catalyst.

2 cl, 5 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of catalysts used, in particular in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils and unsaturated fats, and can be used in food, perfumery, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and refining industries.

Known catalysts for the hydrogenation of vegetable oils based on transition metals Mo, W, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Ti, Re, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Ga, etc. (J.I.Gray and L.F.Russel, J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 56 (1979) 36-44). The most widely Ni-containing catalysts, mainly Ni-Raney, however, they are inferior in activity of the catalysts based on noble metals (palladium, platinum, ruthenium), in the presence of which requires a degree of hydrogenation of vegetable oils is achieved under milder conditions (at a relatively low temperature and pressure N2) and a lower catalyst loading (loading of palladium catalysts is about 50 ppm, i.e. from 1/10 to 1/40 from Ni-Raney). Features and prospects for the use of noble metals in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils described in reviews (P.N.Rylander (P.N.Rylander, J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 47 (1970) 482-486) and E.S.Jang al. (E.S.Jang, M.Y.Jung, D.B.Min. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 1 (2005) 22-30). They noted, in particular, that the activity in the hydrogenation of multiple C-C linkages of fatty acids these metals are arranged in a row Pd>Rh>Pt>>Ir>EN>>Os, a no education is to Finance the partially hydrogenated products of TRANS-isomers, which is undesirable for food use - Pt<Ir<EN~Rh<Pd. For platinum catalysts is characterized by high share of products of complete hydrogenation of fats. Be that as it may, the flexible use of catalysts on the basis of these metals contribute to the fact that even in the case of the most active of them - palladium - output TRANS-isomers close to that typical for Nickel catalysts. The decrease in the content of TRANS-isomers in the products of hydrogenation of vegetable oils on palladium catalysts can be achieved by controlled poisoning of the surface of the metal particles of nitrogen-containing compounds (ammonia, organic amines, nitrogen-containing heterocycles) or ions of transition metals (silver, tin, bismuth, molybdenum and others). The required modification in respect of selectivity for the TRANS-isomers without loss of catalytic activity achievable with the introduction of the catalyst the other, less active noble metal, usually platinum and ruthenium. The latter because of its cheapness and activity in hydrogenation processes are multiples of C-C links may be of interest in terms of replacing some portion of the more expensive palladium catalysts in the hydrogenation of oils.

Noble metals are applied in the form of nanoparticles on the surface of the oxide carriers (SiO2, Al2O 3, aluminosilicates, TiO2and others), insoluble salts (BaSO4), a porous carbon materials in the amount of 0.1-2 wt.%. The hydrogenation process with the participation of supported catalysts is conducted mainly in periodic mode using suspended in oil catalyst, in the temperature range of 80-250°C at atmospheric or elevated pressure by means of a flow of hydrogen into the suspension of the powder catalyst, the fraction of which does not exceed 100 microns. The role of the substrate is not only to maintain a highly dispersed state of the active component, but in the modification of its catalytic properties, which is a result of interaction between the metal carrier and the distribution of metal grains and the pores of the support. The effect of interaction between the metal carrier rather poorly investigated. It is usually masked by the influence of impurities or inherent in the structure of the carrier ions, adsorbiruyuschee on the surface of the metal particles and alter their catalytic properties. The effects sizes of the metal particles and their distribution in the grain and in the pores of the support are associated with large amounts of triglycerides of fatty acids and diffusion regime the flow of the process of hydrogenation. So, for example, catalysts Pd/C it was shown that with decreasing size of the particles of palladium and thickness korechkovogo distribute them to the NRN carbon media is increasing the activity of catalysts and their selectivity for CIS-isomers of partially hydrogenated products (B.Nohair, C.Especel, P.Marécot, C.Montassier, L.C.Hoang, J.Barbier, C.R.Chemie 7 (2004) 113; O.A.Simakova, P.A.Simonov, A.V.Romanenko, I.L.Simakova, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 95 (2008) 3-12). However, the combination of the various manifestations of all these factors, it seems, can lead to the fact that the catalytic properties of a set of randomly selected catalysts on different carriers are independent of the nature of the medium: for example, early studies have shown the absence of any advantages between palladievye catalysts on carbon and aluminum oxide, and the detail in the metal state on the media presents (..Johnston, D.MacMillan, H.J.Dutton and J.C.Cowan, J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 89 (1962) 273). When this carbon materials as carriers for such catalysts, attract attention due to its chemical resistance, a wide variability of physico-chemical properties, the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles of noble metals in relation to sintering, and also because of the ease of extraction of metals from spent catalysts.

Traditionally, the deposition of palladium on the media carried out using an acidic solution of palladium chloride(II), which is capable of firmly adsorbed on the surface of a number of media, such as aluminum oxide and carbon materials. Thus, carbon carriers (UN) graphite nature, which include Sibunit, carbon black, active charcoal, strongly adsorb to 0.1 m is mol H 2PdCl41 m2the surface of the carrier (P.A.Simonov, V.A.Likholobov, Catal. and Electrocatal. at Nanoparticle Surfaces (A.Wieckowski, E.R.Savinova, C.G.Vayenas, eds.), 2003, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp.409-454). Thus, the UNIVERSITY with the surface of 300-500 m2/g is able to adsorb up to 3-5 wt.% metal from solutions of H2PdCl4that means that we receive through contact H2PdCl4with the University of catalysts 0.1-2% Pd/C hydrogenation of fatty acids belong to the adsorption on the classification G.K.Boreskov catalysts according to the method of preparation (G.K.Boreskov, Heterogeneous catalysis, M.: Nauka, 1988). Adsorbed from solutions of H2PdCl4palladium may be in the form of coarse grains of metal (10-1000 nm), focused on the periphery of the grains of the UNIVERSITY, as well as in the form of surface complexes of palladium chloride, evenly distributed through the grain of the UNIVERSITY. When you later restore the complex form of adsorbed metal gives superfine (1-3 nm) metal particles. With increase in the content of adsorbed palladium on a carrier, the share of metal molds falls, and the complex increases. However, none of these forms of adsorbed metal may not completely satisfy the requirements that should guide the design of catalysts Pd/C, is effective in the hydrogenation of fatty acids. Metal form, although it has Korotkov the e distribution of grain to the UNIVERSITY, inactive due to a too coarse dispersion of its crystallites. Complex form, although usually leads to high dispersion of the metal particles is not very active in the hydrogenation of fats catalysts due to poor distribution of metal grains OZ (..Simakova, P.A.Simonov, A.V.Romanenko, I.L.Simakova, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 95 (2008) 3-12).

A promising approach to the synthesis of highly effective in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils palladium catalysts deposited on a UNIVERSITY, is prior to contact with the media, the hydrolysis of H2PdCl4with the formation of polynuclear complexes of palladium (II), or ISC (..Simakova, P.A.Simonov, A.V.Romanenko, I.L.Simakova, React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 95 (2008) 3-12), for which the adsorption capacity of the UNIVERSITY in tens times higher than the adsorption capacity for H2PdCl4(P.A.Simonov, V.A.Likholobov, Catal. and Electrocatal. at Nanoparticle Surfaces (A.Wieckowski, E.R.Savinova, C.G.Vayenas, eds.), 2003, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp.409-454). A number of unique properties FO - small (1-3 nm), high sorption activity and low redox potential- will contribute to the formation of catalysts Pd/C with a status of active component that meets the requirements for highly efficient catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acids.

Traditionally, the introduction of a second component prepared in bimetallism the second catalyst are carried out either by co-impregnation of the carrier metal complexes, or adding to the already prepared monometallic sample. In both cases, it is not guaranteed constancy of the chemical composition and structure of the particles of the active component of the final catalyst due to differences in solubility and interaction applied predecessors with the surface of the substrate, which can lead to segregation, as well as the discrepancy in the distribution of both components in the pores of the support. In this regard, the joint hydrolysis of salts of noble metals is very promising due to their ability to adsorb onto the hydroxides and oxides of transition metals and to form mixed complexes (Siechtum, Sorption-hydrolytic deposition of platinum metal on the surface of inorganic sorbents, Leningrad: Nauka, 1991). This approach leads to a more homogeneous composition of the active component of the bimetallic catalyst based on a noble metal (WO 2008/093243 (Int. Application. No PCT/IB2008/000754), Appl. Date 29.01.2008, Prior. Date 30.01.2007, Publ. Date 07.08 2008; U.S. Pat. RF 2146172).

The present invention provides a method of preparing deposited on a carbon powder carrier palladium-ruthenium catalyst effective in the process of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils in the periodic (cyclic) mode.

The known method (EN 2260037, SS 3/12, 10.09.2005) obtaining summary : modified compositions obtained ecofascism the hydrogenation of vegetable oils with hydrogen in the presence of a palladium catalyst, deposited on a carbon carrier, as the palladium catalyst used palladium nanocluster as a carbon carrier used nanocarbon cluster material, the process is carried out at a temperature of from 60 to 90°C.

This solution is taken as the prototype of the present invention.

The disadvantage of this method is the low speed of the process of hydrogenation of vegetable oils, obviously, due to the coarse particle size of palladium (10 nm) and, probably, the wide distribution of the active component grains of the medium, which reduces the performance of the reactor equipment (reactors), which uses the catalyst. In particular, on page 3 description of the invention (example 1) notes that the process should be performed within 6 hours Traditionally, the process of hydrogenation is carried out at significantly lower times, see patent RU 2105050, SS 3/12, 20/02/1998 (examples 1 and 2), where the hydrogenation time is 60 and 90 min, respectively.

Thus, the process of hydrogenation of the prototype at temperatures of 60-90°C provides a reduced content in the products of the hydrogenation of TRANS-isomers (30-32%) with a large time consuming process (see table, page 4), which is 4-6 hours

The present invention solves the problem of preparation of highly dispersed bimetallic produce the RA hydrogenation of vegetable fats, for carrying out the process with high productivity at a given quality of hydrogenated fat (the content of TRANS-isomers and the value of iodine number).

The problem is solved by the creation and application of applied onto the surface of the carbon carrier bimetallic catalyst containing palladium in an amount of 0.1-5.0 wt.% and ruthenium in an atomic ratio of Pd:PT=1-100 in the form of a bimetallic particle size of 1-6 nm.

As the carbon material can be used mesoporous synthetic graphite-like material or composite porous materials on the basis of pyrocarbon with a specific surface area of 10-500 m2/g, with an average size of mesopores in the range of from 4 to 40 nm.

The problem is solved by the method of preparation of bimetallic catalyst for the hydrogenation of vegetable oils, which includes a preliminary synthesis of the precursor metal joint hydrolysis of the chlorides of palladium (II) and ruthenium (III) at pH 5-10, followed by contacting the precursor with a carbon carrier, i.e. the subsequent adsorption of the obtained mixed polynuclear hydroxocomplexes of metals on carbon powder carrier (fraction 50-250 μm), liquid-phase recovery, filtering, washing the catalyst with water and final drying. The synthesis of the precursor is carried out for 0.2-60 is Ying at a temperature of 10-50°C.

The main variable parameters in the synthesis of such catalysts are: - pH (5-10), temperature (10-50°C) and aging time (0.2-60 min) solution of polynuclear hydroxocomplexes; - concentration and the molar ratio of reactants (H2PdCl4, RuCl3in the solution during the formation of polynuclear hydroxocomplexes.

Distinctive features of the present invention in comparison with the prototype are:

1) higher dispersion of deposited metal (particle size of 1-6 nm), leading to a higher activity of the catalyst,

2) bimetallic composition of the active component of the catalyst.

The process of hydrogenation of vegetable oils using the above catalyst is carried out at a temperature of 80-200°C., hydrogen pressure of 2 to 15 atmospheres and specific costs of the catalyst is 0.05-0.2 gCT/kg of vegetable oil.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. In a glass reactor equipped with a jacket, under vigorous stirring to prepare a suspension of 5 g (in terms of dry weight) powdered mesoporous synthetic carbon material brand Sibunit and 50 cm3water. The suspension is stirred 20 min at room temperature and then the temperature of the suspension (t) is adjusted to a desired value using a water thermostat. Dual Cirrus is eticheskim pump flow mixing capacity simultaneously submit a solution of palladium chloride(II) and ruthenium(III) in hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate solution, brought to the temperature of the suspension in the reactor. Space velocity solutions are supported to provide the contact time of the solution within τ=0.2-60 min. Ratio of the quantities of these reagents is to achieve the desired weight metal content in the final catalyst (palladium is 0.1 to 5.0 wt.% and ruthenium in an atomic ratio = 1-100), as well as the necessary acidity of the mixture solutions (pH 5-10). The mixture of the solution at the outlet of the mixing tank merges directly into a slurry of coal in the reactor. At the end of the dosing of the reagents, the suspension is left to grow old with moderate stirring for 1 h, and then the reactor is heated to 60°C., poured a solution of sodium formate in a molar ratio NaOOCH/(Pd+Ru)=2 and left to mix for another 1 hour. After the reactor is cooled, and the catalyst is filtered and washed with distilled water until a negative reaction mother liquor with AgNO3the presence of chlorine ions, and then dried in a vacuum Cabinet at 90°C.

Examples 2-5.

Similar to example 1.

Physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts depending on the parameters of their synthesis are given in table 1. For comparison are the data of sample No. 3 of the prototype (EN 2260037, C11C 3/12, 10.09.2005).

Testing of the catalyst is carried out in an autoclave of stainless steel is whether a volume of 150 ml, temperature-controlled and equipped with an electromagnetic stirrer. A portion of the catalyst in the amount of 180 mg and refined sunflower cooking oil in the amount of 18 g placed in the autoclave. The process is carried out at a pressure of 9 MPa and a temperature of 140°C for 30 minutes and Then the catalyst is separated in a heated filter and analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of the obtained hydrogenated fat (fatty acid composition according to GOST R, the content of TRANS-isomers according to GOST R-2003, iodine number - standard procedure) (Guide to research methods, process control and production accounting in the oil industry, Leningrad, 1982, vol. 1, s). Before reusing the catalyst is washed with a solvent. Again the catalyst is used up to 20 times.

Averaged over 20 cycles the results are shown in table 2.

Table 2
The catalytic properties of the catalysts in the hydrogenation of sunflower oil. For comparison, the data of sample No. 3 of the prototype (EN 2260037, SS 3/12, 10.09.2005)
ExampleT, °CThe process time min Iodine number, J2/100The content of TRANS-isomers, %Fatty acid composition, %
16:018:018:118:2
11403072,828,66,15,347,840,2
31405065,932,16,520,069,63,3
51602069,030,37,017,272,42,8
The placeholder
EN 2260037
9024074,532,46,617,0 67,08,1

1. Catalyst for hydrogenation of triglycerides of vegetable oils and fats containing palladium in an amount of 0.1-5.0 wt.%, deposited on a carbon carrier, characterized in that it contains palladium and optionally ruthenium atomic ratio of Pd:PT=1-100 in the form of a bimetallic particle size of 1-6 nm.

2. The preparation method of catalyst for hydrogenation of triglycerides of vegetable oils and fats according to claim 1, wherein the pre-carry out the synthesis of the precursor metal joint hydrolysis of the chlorides of palladium (II) and ruthenium (III) at pH 5-10, followed by contacting the precursor with a carbon carrier, then carry out a stage of liquid-phase recovery.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the synthesis of the precursor is carried out for 0.2 to 60 minutes at a temperature of 10-50°C.

4. The method of hydrogenation of triglycerides of vegetable oils and fats, wherein the process is carried out at a temperature of 80-200°C. and a pressure of 2-15 ATM using the catalyst according to claim 1 or prepared according to any one of claim 2 and 3.



 

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11 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts, particularly designed for hydrogenating triglycerides of plant oil and fat and can be used in food, perfumery, petrochemical and oil-refining industry. The invention describes a catalyst for hydrogenating unsaturated hydrocarbons, preferably plant oil and fat, which contains catalytically active palladium in amount of 0.1-5.0 wt % deposited on the surface of a solid support in form of active aluminium oxide with average mesopore size between 20 and 500 nm, on the surface of which there is a 3-30 nm layer of pyrocarbon. The invention describes a method of preparing the catalyst by depositing 0.1-5.0 wt % catalytically active palladium onto the surface of an active aluminium oxide support with average mesopore size between 20 and 500 nm, on whose surface there is a 3-30 nm layer of pyrocarbon, followed by drying, decomposition and reduction of palladium. Described also is a method of hydrogenating unsaturated hydrocarbons using the said catalyst.

EFFECT: high efficiency at given quality of hydrogenated fat (content of trans-isomers and iodine number).

7 cl, 3 ex, 2 tbl

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