Image reproduction and security microoptical system

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed microoptical systems for artificial magnification include a pictogram matrix; and a matrix of pictogram focusing elements (microlens); where the matrix of pictogram focusing elements and the pictogram matrix arranged relative each other in such a way that at least one artificially magnified image having a motion effect is provided. Each of the said pictogram matrices and matrices of pictogram focusing elements have their own separate design features, for example the matrix of pictogram focusing elements can have thickness less than 50 micrometres and/or the effective diametre of the base of pictogram focusing elements can be less than 50 micrometres.

EFFECT: possibility of using disclosed engineering solutions on objects for everyday use, which are subjected to multiple mechanical effects and deformations without breaking down and deterioration of characteristics of microoptical system for artificial magnification with provision for high magnification and obtaining a clear image of protective micro-structured elements.

103 cl, 33 dwg

 

Cross-reference to related applications

This application demonstrates the advantage and gives priority to the Provisional application for U.S. patent No. 60/524281, filed November 21, 2003, Provisional application for U.S. patent No. 60/538392, filed January 22, 2004, and Provisional application for U.S. patent No. 60/627234, filed November 12, 2004, each of which, if allowed, is included in the Description of the invention in full by reference.

The scope of the invention

This invention relates to artificial magnifying microoptical system, which in the embodiment shown as an example, designed as a polymer film. Unusual optical effects obtained through different variants of the embodiment of the invention, can be used as safety devices for open and hidden certifying the fact of exchange, documents and products, as well as for visual monitoring of products, packaging, printing materials, consumer goods.

The level of technology

Various optical materials are used for the authentication exchange, documentation, to identify and distinguish the authentic products from the fake and to provide visual observation of manufactured products and their packaging. Examples include topographies is their image and other images including lenticular structures and matrices of spherical microlenses. Holographic images are increasingly being used for credit cards, driver's license and wear on clothing labels (badges).

Example lenticular structure to ensure the protection of the document is presented in U.S. Patent 4892336 Kaule et al. regarding security threads, which is included in the document to provide measures against fraud.

The security thread is transparent and has a printed pattern on one side, on the opposite side stepped lenticular structure (based on Fresnel lens) is coordinated with the printed pattern. Lenticular structure is described as consisting of a set of parallel cylindrical lenses or, alternatively, spherical or mesh lenses.

U.S. patent 5712731 Drinlwater et al. describes a security device comprising a matrix of microimages (pictograms) together with the matrix, consisting mainly of spherical microlenses. These lenses can also be astigmatic. Each of the lens usually has a size of 50-250 microns with a typical focal length of 200 microns.

All these variants of the embodiment have the same drawback. They have a relatively thick structure, which is not suitable for use in the authentication of documents. Use what has been created in these embodiments, cylindrical or spherical lenses provide a narrow field of view, that leads to a blurry image and requires precise and sophisticated setting the focal point of the lens relative to the image. In addition, they have proven to be particularly effective as a security measure or measures against fraud.

Because of this and other shortcomings in the industry there is a need to secure and visually unique optical materials that allow open authentication exchange, documents, industrial products, and in optical materials, providing a visual increase in industrial products, products and packaging.

Description of the invention

The proposed group of inventions aimed at ensuring the possibility of using the proposed technical solutions on objects of everyday use that are subjected to repeated mechanical stress and deformation, without destruction and degradation microoptical artificial increase with the provision of high quality magnification and the image is clear protective microstructured elements.

The present description relates to a film material utilizing a regular two-dimensional matrix feasibility lenses to increase microimages, here called pictograms or icons (the graphic is Kimi images), and forming artificially enlarged image with the combined work of many individual lens systems image or icon-based systems image. Artificially enlarged image and the background can be either colorless or colored, and either the background or image, or both together can be transparent, translucent, pigmented, fluorescent, phosphorescent, optical display different colors, metallic or have a significant reflective abilities. Material displaying color images on a transparent or colored background, especially suitable for combined use with the appropriate printed information. When a fragment of such material is superimposed on the printed information, printed information and images are visible at the same time, spatial or dynamic communication with each other. Such articles can also be placed under the printed information, i.e. to have a seal put on the top surface (the lens) of this material. Alternatively, displaying color images material (any color, including white and black) on a translucent or substantially opaque background of any color, especially suitable for stand-alone use of the Finance or coated with a printed information, and not in combination with printed below information.

The achieved size of the artificial increase can be adjusted by selecting different factors, including the degree of inclination between the axes of symmetry of the lens and the axis of symmetry of the matrix of icons. Standard periodic matrix have axes of symmetry defining lines that structure could reflect in space without changing the underlying geometry of the structure and which, for an ideal matrix, there is an infinite number. A square matrix, for example, may have an impact around any diagonal or square without changing the relative orientation of the matrix: if the sides of the squares are aligned with the axes x and y in the plane, then these parties will also be aligned with the same axis, after reflection, taking into account the fact that all parties are identical and indistinguishable.

Instead of mirroring the square matrix a matrix can be rotated by an angle equal to the angle between the symmetry axes of the same type. In the case of a square matrix a matrix can be rotated at 90 degree angle, the angle between the diagonals to get the orientation matrix, which does not differ from the original matrix. Like above, the matrix of regular hexagons can be reflected or rotated around the axes simme the series, including the "diagonal" hexagons (the lines connecting opposite vertices) or median dividers" (the line connecting the center point of the opposite surfaces of the hexagon). The angle between the axes of symmetry of both types is 60 degrees, leads to orientation of the matrix, which does not differ from the original orientation.

If the matrix of lenses and a matrix of icons initially agreed with their planar dimensions that define their respective plane x-y, one of the axes of symmetry is chosen to represent the x-axis in the first matrix that corresponds to the type of the axis of symmetry (for example, diagonal symmetry axis) is chosen to represent the x-axis in the second matrix, with two matrices, divided essentially uniform distance in the z axis direction, then in this case, the matrices have zero inclination angle, if the x-axis of the matrix seem to be parallel to each other and if the matrix is viewed from the direction of the z axis. In the case of a hexagonal matrix the rotation matrix for an angle of 60 degrees or a multiple turn angle of 60 degrees again aligns the matrix, i.e. there is no angle, as in the absence of tilt when you rotate matrix 90 degrees or a multiple of rotation at an angle of 90 degrees in the case of a square matrix. Any angular difference between the axes x, different from the quiet turn with a zero angle", are called angles. Small angle, for example 0.06 degrees can create a significant increase, more than 1000 times, and a large angle, for example 20 degrees, creates much less of an increase, potentially in 1 time. Other factors such as the relative magnitude of the two matrices and the focal length of the lens, can affect both the degree of artificial zoom, and the degree of its rotation, ortopedicheskoe movement and obvious spatial depth.

There are many distinct visual effects that can be obtained thanks to this material ("Unison" for the material in General, or by the names of "Unison Motion", "Unison " Deep", "Unison SuperDeep", "Unison Float", "Unison SuperFloat", "Unison Levitate", "Unison Morph" and "Unison 3-D" for material Unison, producing these effects) or its various variants of execution, producing each of the above effects, in General described as follows.

Unison Motion is the effect of showing ortopedicheskoe movement (OPM): when the material is tilted, the image move in the direction of tilt is perpendicular expected under normal parallax direction. Unison Deep and Unison SuperDeep represent the image lying in the spatial plane, usually deeper than the thickness of the material. Unison Float and Unison SuperFloat represent the keys images lying in a spatial plane above the surface of the material at some distance; and Unison Levitate is the picture that is emerging from Unison Deep or Unison SuperDeep Unison to Float or Unison SuperFloat as you rotate the material on this angle (i.e. 90 degrees), and Vice versa, as you rotate the material at the same angle. Unison Morph represents the image, changing the shape, form, size as you rotate the material or review it at different angles of view. Unison 3-D image is showing a large three-dimensional structure, such as a facial image.

Numerous effects Unison can be combined in a single film, such as film, containing numerous image plane Unison Motion, which may differ in shape, color, direction of motion and increase. Another film may contain the image plane Unison Deep and the image plane Unison Deep, at the same time as another film can be designed to combine levels Unison Motion", "Unison " Deep", "Unison Float", in the same color or in multiple colors, images having the same or different graphic elements. Color, design graphics, optical effects, zoom and other visual elements of multiple image planes are largely independent; with some exceptions, the data plane visa the selected elements, can be combined in any order.

For many applications in the field of protection of exchange, documents and products preferably have a total film thickness less than 50 microns (also referred to in this document as µ or um), for example, less than 45 microns, and, as further examples, in the range of 10 to 40 microns. This, for example, can be achieved through the use of focusing elements with an effective base diameter of less than 50 microns, and in subsequent examples, less than 30 microns, and further in the range of 10 to 30 microns. As a further example can be used focusing element with a focal length of less than 40 microns, then the focal length in the range from 10 to 30 microns. In a particular example can be used focusing element with an effective base diameter of less than 35 microns and a focal length of 30 microns. Alternatively, a hybrid refractive/diffractive variant embodiments can be implemented with a thickness of 8 microns.

Thus, the film largely protected from a fake because of its complex, multi-layered structure and because of its high performance characteristics in the field aspect ratio that can not be playback using widely available production systems.

Thus, the present system provides microoptical the forge system, mostly in the form of a polymeric film, having a thickness that when considering the naked eye in reflected or transmitted light produces one or more images, which are:

i. show ortopedicheskoe movement ("Unison Motion");

ii. in the spatial plane seem to be deeper than the thickness of the polymer film ("Unison " Deep" and "Unison SuperDeep");

iii. seem to be lying in a spatial plane above a surface of the polymer film ("Unison Float" and "Unison SuperFloat");

iv. turn between a spatial plane deeper than the thickness of the polymer film, and a spatial plane above a surface of the polymer film when the azimuthal rotation of the film ("Unison Levitate");

v. transformed from one form, the type, size, color (or some combination of these properties) - in another form, type, size, color (or some combination of these properties) ("Unison Morph"); and/or

vi. seem realistic three-dimensional ("Unison 3-D").

More specifically, this paper presents microoptical system artificially, and the method of performing artificial increase, including:

(a) one or more optical spacers;

(b) micro-image comprised of a periodic planar (flat) matrix set of icons, with the axis of symmetry near at least one is its planar axes of symmetry and located on or behind the optical spacer; and

(C) a periodic planar (flat) matrix of focusing elements pictograms, with the axis of symmetry next, at least one of its planar axes of symmetry, and this symmetry axis is the same axis of symmetry, as in the case of planar matrix of icons (microimages), and each focusing element is or multi-zone focusing element with a polygonal base, i.e. the lens, and provides a larger field of view over the width of the corresponding icon so that the peripheral edges of the respective icons do not fall out of the field of view, or aspheric focusing element with an effective diameter of less than 50 microns.

This system can include one or more of the above-mentioned effects. Provides a way to selectively enable the above-mentioned effects in the system.

This description, in the future, is a protection device that is suitable for at least partially implemented in or on, or for use in, or together with the document for which security is required, label, tear tape, a device for indicating unauthorized intervention, sealing device, or other determination of the authenticity of the secure device or means that contains at least one microoptical system, as defined above. More to the particular, this description is the remedy of the document and the method of implementation of protection that includes:

(a) one or more optical spacers;

(b) micro-image that consists of a periodic planar (flat) matrix set of icons, with the axis of symmetry next, at least one of its planar axes of symmetry and located on or behind the optical spacer; and

(C) periodic plenary (flat) matrix of focusing elements pictograms, with the axis of symmetry next, at least one of its planar axes of symmetry, and this symmetry axis is the same axis of symmetry, as in the case of planar matrix of icons (microimages), and each focusing element is either multi-zone focusing element with a polygonal base, i.e. the lens, and provides a larger field of view over the width of the corresponding icon so that the peripheral edges of the respective icons do not fall out of the field of view, or aspheric focusing element with an effective diameter of less than 50 microns.

Additionally, this description represents a device or tool to visually increase, which includes at least one microoptical system described above and having the above-described effects, to increase visual coverage C the protective layer, documents, printed materials, manufactured goods, packaging, bar codes, publications, advertising slogans, sports goods, financial documents and payment cards and other goods.

Also presents the document or label security, having at least one means of protection, as defined above, at least partially embedded in the document or label or mounted on it.

Other characteristics and advantages of this description will be visible to an ordinary user from the subsequent detailed description and the associated drawings.

Other systems, tools, methods, features and advantages will become obvious to experienced specialists in the study of subsequent drawings and detailed description. All such additional systems, tools, methods, features and advantages intentionally included in this description, the relevant Scriptures, and is protected by the accompanying claims.

Unless defined otherwise, all scientific and technical terms have the common sense to common specialists in the field, which belongs to this invention. All publications, patent applications, patents, and other references listed here are included in their full entirety. In case of doubt should be referred to n the present specification, including the definitions. Additionally, the materials, methods and examples are illustrative only, and should not be limited only to them.

A brief description of graphic materials

Many aspects of the description are understood better with reference to the drawings. The features of these figures are not necessarily real, but just clearly illustrate the principles of this invention. Moreover, in the drawings, reference numbers designate corresponding parts in several reviews.

Figa is a cross-section of microoptical system, representing one of the variants of realization or embodiment of the present invention, providing ortopedicheskoe movement of the imaging system.

Figb is an isometric view in section of a variant embodiment in Figa.

Figa describes the effect ortopedicheskogo movement of the artificial image of a variant embodiment in accordance with Figa, B.

Figb-to demonstrate the visual effects of Deep and Float variants of embodiments of the present system.

Figure 2 d-f show the visual effects are obtained due to the rotation Levitate variant embodiment of the present system.

Figa and are the horizontal projections, demonstrating the different variants of embodiment, with fill factors of various structures of this system SIMM is trionyx two-dimensional lens arrays.

Figure 4 is a graph showing various combinations of effects Deep, Unison Float and Levitate embodiments, created by variations in the ratio of the period item/ period lenses.

Figa-in are the horizontal projections of how artificial increase of icons (microimages) can be controlled through changes in relative angle between the axes of the lens matrix and the matrix of icons of this system.

Figa-in are the horizontal projections showing variant embodiments of the effect of transformation artificially enlarged images of this system.

Figa-b are cross sections showing different ways embodiment of the level icons of the present invention.

Figa-b are the horizontal projections, and demonstrating "positive"and "negative" embodiment of the elements of the icon.

Fig.9 is a cross section showing a variant embodiment of the layered material to create artificially enlarged image, which have different properties.

Figure 10 is a transverse cross-section, showing another variant embodiment of the layered material to create artificially enlarged image, which have different properties.

Figa-b are operacnymi sections, demonstrate reflective optical variant embodiments and variant embodiments optics with point aperture of the system.

Figa-b are cross sections, allowing you to compare the structure of the embodiment superlassig material with an embodiment of the hybrid refractive/diffractive material.

Fig is a transverse cross-section, showing the so-called "peel-to-show variant embodiments of display distortion or falsification, or unauthorized access).

Fig is a transverse cross-section, showing the so-called "peel-to-change" variant embodiment indication of unauthorized access or tampering.

Figa-g are cross sections showing different ways embodiment bilateral systems.

Figa-e are cross sections and the respective horizontal projections, showing three different ways to create a halftone or continuous tone pictures of the items icons and subsequent artificially enlarged images of this system.

Figa-g are cross sections illustrating the use of this system along with printed information.

Figa-e are cross sections illustrating the use of this system together with, or embedded in various substrates (or sublayers) and in combination with the printed information.

Figa-b are cross sections for comparison, the focal field of view of a spherical lens with focal field of view of an aspherical lens with a flat field, where each of them is implemented in a real system.

Figa-b are cross sections showing two practical advantages of using a thick layer of icons in the current system.

Fig is the horizontal projection, representing the possible application of this system in the currency as a windowed security thread.

Fig is a variation of the embodiment ortopedicheskogo motion of this system of images, combined with the "window" protective thread.

Fig shows the halftone processing artificial image of this system.

Figa shows the use of this system to create a combined artificial image, smaller than the smallest characteristic or trait of an individual artificial image.

Figb shows the use of this system to create a narrow gaps between the elements of the icon.

Fig shows the introduction of a hidden, hidden information in pictograms of this system.

Fig shows the creation of a fully three-dimensional images using this system.

Fig is the way design is the generation of the icons for the three-dimensional variant of the embodiment, as Fig.

Fig is an icon, as a result of the method is demonstrated on Fig.

Fig shows, as demonstrated by Fig method can be applied in complex three-dimensional synthetic image.

Fig shows the focal properties of the Central zone of the experimental hexagonal multi lens with an effective diameter of 28 microns.

Fig shows the focal properties of the Central zone of a spherical lens with a diameter of 28 microns.

Fig shows the lateral zones of the hexagonal lens on Fig.

Fig shows the outer zones of the spherical lens on Fig.

A detailed description of the invention

Next, you will perform detailed description of the variants of the embodiment of the present invention in accordance with the drawings. Although several variants of the embodiment of the present invention is described in accordance with the drawings, it does not limit the invention only to these presented here options of its embodiment. On the contrary, the authors try to cover all alternatives, modifications and equivalents.

On Figa presents one of the variants of realization or embodiment microoptical system 12 that provides ortopedicheskoe movement of the imaging system.

Microlens 1 microoptical system 12 have at least two essentially odinakovije symmetry and included in a two-dimensional periodic matrix. The diameter of the lens 2, preferably less than 50 microns ("µ"), and the time interval between lenses, preferably 5 microns or less. (The authors use the symbol "µ" and "μm" for the same units). The microlens 1 focuses the image of the item icons 4 and projecting the image in the direction of the observer. This system is widely used in situations with the presence of normal levels of General lighting, so the glow icons occurs due to reflected or passing the General lighting. Item icons 4 is one of the elements of the periodic matrix of icons, with periods and dimensions substantially similar to the periods and the size of the lens matrix, including the lens 1. Between the lens 1 and the item icons 4 are optical strip 5, which may come into contact with the material of the lens 1 or the choice may be a separate substrate 8, in this embodiment, the lens 9 is separated from the substrate. Elements 4 icons to choose from, can be protected by a sealing layer 6, preferably of a polymeric material. The sealing layer 6 may be transparent, translucent, colored, pigmented, matte, metallic, magnetic, variable optical characteristics or to have any combination of the above properties, which provides the desired protected areas the economic effects and/or additional functions for the purposes of protection and authentication, including provision of automatic authentication exchange, confirmation, tracking, counting and detection using the detection optical effects, electrical conductivity or capacitance, magnetic fields.

The total thickness of 7 system, typically less than 50 microns; the actual thickness depends on the index of the diaphragm of the lens 1 and the diameter of the lens 2 and the thickness of the additional grounds of protection or level of visual effects. The repetition period 11 of 20 items icons 4 is substantially identical to the repetition period of the lens 1; "conversion factor" is the ratio of the repetition period of the icons to the repetition period of lenses is used to create different visual effects. Axial simagine performance multiplier, equal to, basically, 1,000, lead to autoparallelization effects Unison Motion when the axis of symmetry of the lens and icons shifted axially symmetric metrics conversion rate of less than 1,000 lead to effects Unison Motion Unison and SuperDeep, when the symmetry axis of the lens and icons, to a large extent, coincide, and axially symmetric metrics conversion rate of more than 1,000 lead to effects Unison Float and Unison SuperFloat, when the symmetry axis of the lens and icons, largely coincide. Axially symmetric on the simple conversion factor, such as 0,995 in the direction of the axis X and 1,005 in the Y axis direction, lead to the effect of Unison Levitate.

Effects Unison Morph achieved by the large-scale distortions or the repetition period of the lens, or the repetition period of the icons, or periods of repetition and lenses, and icons, or through the introduction of the changing spatial relationship information in the structure of pictograms. Effects Unison 3-D is also achieved thanks to the introduction of changes in the spatial information in the structure of the icons, but in this variant embodiment is information represents different points of observation of the three-dimensional object from a specific location substantially corresponding to the location of the icons.

Figb is an isometric view of the present system, as shown in cross-section on Figa with patterns of square matrices of lenses 1 and 4 icons, with periods of repetition 11 and the optical thickness of the spacers 5 (Figa does not apply to the structure of a square matrix, but is a transverse cross-section structures of the standard periodic matrices). Elements 4 icons shown as "$" image, clearly visible in the frontal section. Although there is considerable mutual-to-one correspondence between the lenses 1 and the elements of the icons 4, the axis of symmetry of the matrix of lenses, in General, will not be accurate, is about aligned with the axes of symmetry of the matrix of icons.

In the case of the variant embodiment of the material Unison (ortopedicheskogo motion), as Figa-b, with a conversion factor 1,0000, when the symmetry axis of the lens 1 and item icons 4 are essentially the same, the resulting synthetic image elements icons (in this example, a large "$") "arise" and increased by the factor, theoretically approaching infinity. A small angular displacement of the axes of the lenses 1 and the axes of the elements 4 icons reduces the magnification of the artificial image elements pictograms and causes rotation of the artificial image.

Factor artificially variants embodiment Unison Deep, Unison Float and Unison Levitate depends on the angular displacement of the axes of the lenses 1 and the axes of the elements 4 icons, as well as from the multiplier system. When the multiplier is not equal 1,0000, maximum magnification, obtained from the substantial alignment of these axes is equal to the absolute value of 1/(1,0000-(conversion factor)). Thus, the material Unison with Deep conversion factor 0,995 would give the maximum increase in 11/(1,0000-(0,995)1=200. Similar material Unison Float with a conversion factor 1,005 would give the maximum increase in 11/(1,0000-(1,005)1=200. Similar variant embodiment Unison Motion with a small angular offset of the axes of the lenses 1 and the axes of the elements pictograms 4 variants of the embodiment Unison Deep, Unison Float and Unison Levitate reduces the magnification of the artificial image elements pictograms and causes rotation of the artificial image.

Created structures icons Unison Deep or Unison SuperDeep artificial image is oriented vertically in accordance with the orientation of the structures icons Unison Deep or Unison SuperDeep, while the established structures of icons Unison Float to Unison SuperFloat artificial image is inverted and rotated 180 degrees in accordance with the orientation of the structures icons Unison Float and Unison SuperFloat.

On Figa schematically shows a counter-intuitive effects ortopedicheskogo movement, visible in the variant embodiment of the Unison Motion. On the left side Figa shows a portion of the material Unison Motion 12 in a horizontal projection, 18 oscillating around a horizontal axis 16. If artificially enlarged image 14 moves in accordance with the parallax, it will appear to be floating up and down (as shown in Figa)as item 12 fluctuates around a horizontal axis 16. This apparent parallactic motion is typical for images of real objects, classic print and topographic images. Instead of submitting the parallactic motion artificially enlarged image 14 is ortopedicheskoe movement 20 - d is iunie, perpendicular to the normal of the expected direction parallactic motion. On the right side Figa presents a perspective view of part 12, with the view ortopedicheskogo movement artificially enlarged image 14, as its fluctuations 18 about the horizontal axis 16. Dotted line 22 indicates the position of the artificially enlarged image 14 after its movement to the right autoparallel axis, and the dotted line 24 shows the position of the artificially enlarged image 14 after its movement to the left in autoparallel axis.

Visual effects options embodiments Unison Deep and Unison Float depicted isometrically on Figb, century Figb of the material Unison Deep 26 is an artificially enlarged image 28 that seems stereoscopically visible below the plane of the material Unison Deep 26 when considering the observer 30. On FIGU part of the data Unison Float 32 is an artificially enlarged image 34 appearing stereoscopically above the plane of the material Unison Float 34 when considering the observer 30. Visual effects Unison Deep and Unison Float are visible from all azimuth angles and a wide range of different angles from the vertical projection (for example, line direct visual observation from the observer's eye 30 on the material Unison Deep 26 or mate the ial group Unison Float 32 perpendicular to the surface) down to the corner surface of the projection, that is, as a rule, less than 45 degrees. Visibility Unison Deep and Unison Float visual effects in a wide range of angles and orientation, provides a simple and convenient way of differentiating data Unison Deep and Unison Float against forgery using cylindrical lenticular lenses or holography.

The effect of a variant embodiment Unison Levitate illustrated in Figv-d using isometric images, demonstrating the perceived stereoscopically deep position artificially enhanced image 38 with three turns on the azimuthal angles of the material Unison Levitate 36, and the corresponding horizontal projection material Unison Levitate 36, and artificially enhanced image 38, considered by the observer 30. Figv depicts artificially enlarged image 38 ("image"), seeming stereoscopically visible below the plane of the material Unison Levitate 36 when the orientation of the above-mentioned material, as shown in the horizontal projection. Large dark line in the horizontal projection serves as the point of reference azimuthal orientation 37 clarity. It should be noted that the pivot azimuthal orientation at 37 Figv aligned in the vertical direction and the image 38 are aligned in the horizontal direction. Figure 38 appears in the position Unison Deep, because the conversion factor is Aven less than 1,000 along the first axis material Unison Levitate 36, which is almost parallel to the line connecting the pupils of the observer's eye (hereinafter referred to stereoscopic conversion factor). Stereoscopic conversion material Unison Levitate 36 more than 1,000, along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, thus, leads to Unison Float effect image 38, when the second axis is aligned almost parallel to the line connecting the pupils of the eyes of the observer, as shown in Figa. It should be noted that the pivot azimuthal orientation 37 in a horizontal projection on this Figd shows intermediate azimuthal orientation of the material Unison Levitate 36, which creates the effect ortopedicheskogo image Unison Motion as stereoscopic conversion factor in this azimuthal orientation essentially equal to 1,000.

The visual effect Unison Levitate image 38, the moving bottom material Unison Levitate 36 (High), and up to the level of material Unison Levitate 36 (Figd), and the next higher level of material Unison Levitate 36 (File), at least the rotation of the material in the azimuthal plane can be intensified by combining material Unison Levitate 36 with classic printed information. Immutable stereoscopic depth classic printed information serves as a reference plane, in order to better understand the movement of the 38 images in stereoscopic depth.

When lighting the Institute of material Unison, using a directional light, such as source "point" of light (i.e. flood light or led light source) or a collimated source of radiation (i.e. sunlight), you can see the "shadow image" icons. These shadow images are not normal. While artificial presented Unison the image is not moving as traffic lighting, created a shadow image are moving. Moreover, while various artificial image Unison can lie in different visual planes, non-material plane, the shadow image always lie in the plane of the material. Color of the shadow image is color icons. So black icons create black shadow image, a green icon create a green shadow image and white icons create white shadow image.

The movement of the shadow image when the movement of the illumination angle is associated with a specific Unison effect of depth or movement, similarly present in the artificial image visual effect. Thus, the movement of the shadow image when the angle of illumination is similar to the movement shown by the artificial image, when the angle of view. In particular:

moving shadow image of engines is carried out oroperations as the movement of the light source. Deep shadow image move in the same direction as the light source. Float shadow image moving in the direction opposite to the light source direction. Levitate shadow image moving in directions, which are a combination of the foregoing;

Levitate Deep shadow image move in the same direction as the light source, from left to right, but opposite to the movement of light from top to bottom; Levitate Float shadow image moving in the direction opposite to the light source direction, from left to right, but in the same direction of the movement of light from top to bottom; Levitate Motion of the shadow images show ortopedicheskoe movement relative to the movement of light;

Unison Morph the images show a smooth conversion of the image as you move the light.

More unusual effects of the shadow images are seen when the point source ambient light, such as led moving toward and from the film Unison. When the light source is on, then its scattered rays are stronger closer to collimated light, and a shadow image created artificial images Unison Deep, Unison SuperDeep, Unison Float, Unison SuperFloat, seem to be approximately the same size as the artificial image. When the light is brought closer to the surface Unison Deep, Unison SuperDeep, materials su which are stated, because the light is strongly scattered, at the same time, the shadow image materials Unison Float and Unison SuperFloat expanded.

When covering these materials diffuse light is the expansion of the shadow images Unison Deep, Unison SuperDeep to sizes larger than themselves artificial image, while the Float and SuperFloat materials are narrowed.

The shadow image of the material Unison Motion does not significantly change the scale when you change the convergence or scattering of the light, but rather the data of the shadow images are rotated around the center of the lighting. Shadow image Unison Levitate narrow in one direction and expands in the perpendicular direction when changing the convergence or scattering light. Shadow image Unison Morph change specific Morph patterns by changing the convergence or scattering of light.

All of these effects shadow images can be used as an additional means of authentication for materials Unison, used for protection as protivovospolitelnyh measures to protect brand image and other similar applications.

Figa and is the horizontal projection, demonstrating the different variants of the incarnation and the fill factors of various structures of symmetric two-dimensional matrix of microlenses. Piga, g and izobrajaut microlens 46, 52 and 60, respectively, prepared in the standard structure of a hexagonal matrix 40 (dashed line matrix structures 40, 42 and 44 show the symmetry of lens structures, but does not necessarily represent any physical elements of this matrix). Lens on Figa have almost circular base geometry 46, lens Figg have almost hexagonal base geometry 60 and lens on Figg have intermediate basic geometry, which is rounded hexagons 52. A similar sequence of geometric shapes of lenses used in a square matrix 42 lenses 48, 54 and 62, where these lenses have a basic geometric shapes range from round 48 to rounded 54 square, or almost square shape 62, as shown in Figb, e and Z. Accordingly equilateral triangular matrix 44 has a lens with basic geometric shapes range from almost all 50 to rounded triangle 58, or almost triangular 64, as shown in Figv, E., I.

Patterns lenses on Figa and are structures that can be used for this system. The intermediate space between the lenses is not directly affected by the artificial increase of the images. Material created using one of the above-mentioned lens structures, as well as on the elements in the system matrix elements icons agreed on the same geometry and at approximately the same scale, allowing the difference in scale to create effects Unison Motion, Unison Deep, Unison Float and Unison Levitate. If the intermediate space is large, for example such as shown in Figv, this means that the lenses have a low fill factor, and the contrast between image and background will be reduced by the use of multiple elements pictograms light. If the intermediate space is small, this means that the lenses have a high fill factor, and the contrast between image and background will be high, provided that the lenses have a good focal properties and items icons are located in the focal planes of the lenses. In General, it is easier to form a microlens with high optical qualities with a circular or almost circular base than with a square or triangular. A good balance between the characteristics of the lenses and the minimization of the intermediate space is shown in Figg: hexagonal matrix of lenses with basic geometric dimensions are rounded hexagons.

Lenses having a small index aperture (F#), are particularly suitable for use in the present system. Under low index aperture means less than 4 and especially for Unison Motion is about 2 or less. Lenses having a small index of the diaphragm, have high curvature and therefore a greater thickness of the bend or center in proportion to their diameter. Typical lenses Unison with the index apertures have a width of 0.8 hexagonal base 28 microns and the thickness of the center of 10.9 microns.

A typical lens Drinkwater with a diameter of 50 microns and a focal length of 200 microns is F#equal to 4, and the thickness of the center of 3.1 microns. If the lens Unison made on the same base size, it has almost six times greater bending than the lens Drinkwater.

The authors found that multi lens with a polygonal base, such as multispectral lens with hexagonal base, have important and unexpected advantages over spherical lenses with circular base. As explained above, multi-zone lens with hexagonal base significantly increase the processability due to its geometry, which allows to remove internal stresses, but there are unexpected additional optical advantages obtained through the use of multispectral lenses with hexagonal base.

The authors call these lenses multispectral, because they have three optical zones, each of which provides different and unique advantages for the present invention. These three zones consist of a Central zone (occupying approximately half the area of the lens), the lateral zones and corner zones. Multi lenses have an effective diameter which is the diameter of the circle inside corner areas okrugcertain zone, including lateral areas.

The Central zone multi-zone lens with hexagonal base, described in this invention has an aspherical shape (for example, a form determined [y=(5,E)X4-(0,01679)X3+(0,124931)X+11,24824] for lenses with a diameter of 28 microns with a nominal focal length of 28 microns)that focuses the light, at least as a spherical surface with the same diameter and focal length. On Fig shows the focusing properties 782 Central zone 780 multispectral lenses 784 with hexagonal base, with a nominal focal length of 28 microns in polymer substrates 786 (lens and the substrate is n=1,51), and Fig shows the focusing properties 790 Central zone 788 spherical lenses 792 diameter of 28 microns and a nominal focal length of 30 microns in the polymer substrate 794 (lens and the substrate is n=1,51). The comparison of these two figures clearly shows that multi-spectral lens with hexagonal base 784 related inventions, work at least as well as spherical lenses 792. The Central area 780 multispectral lenses 784 with hexagonal base provides high resolution images and a small depth of field of view at different angles.

Each of the six sides 796 multispectral lens 784 with hexagonal base related to the invention has a focal distance with a complex dependence on and the location, but this should cause the spread of the focus of the lateral zones 796 range of indicators 798, approximately +/-10% of the focus of the Central zone, as shown on Fig. This vertical blur 798 focal point effectively increases the depth of field of the lenses in these areas 796 and provides equal flat lens benefits. The functioning of the external zones 800 spherical lenses 792 shown in Fig. This vertical blur focal point 802 is significantly less than for spherical lenses 792 than vertical blur for multi lenses with hexagonal base 784.

This is especially important for observations not normal angle of view: increased depth of field and effectively higher sharpness to soften the sharp erosion of the image, it is possible for a spherical lens at the Department curved focusing surface from the plane of the icons. Further, the material Unison using multispectral lens with hexagonal base, displays the synthetic image, more gently stretching out of focus when viewed at higher angles than the equivalent material Unison, using spherical lenses. This is desirable, because it increases the effective angle of view of the material and, consequently, increases its usefulness as a remedy or means of presentation of the image is to be placed.

Corner zones 806 multispectral lenses 784 with hexagonal base on Fig have a scattering focal properties that provide unexpected advantages scattering 808 ambient lighting on the plane icons and, thus, reduce the sensitivity of the material Unison to the lighting conditions. Spherical lens 792 on Fig not diffuse ambient lighting on such a wide area (this can be seen due to the absence of scattered rays on the areas 804 plane icons), so materials Unison, created using spherical lenses are more variations of the artificial brightness of the image when viewed at different angles than the materials Unison, created using multispectral lenses with hexagonal base.

The advantage obtained by using the experimental multispectral lenses with hexagonal base, then increases as multispectral lens with hexagonal base have a higher fill factor (the ability to cover a plane)than spherical lenses. Intermediate distance, or the interstitial space between the spherical lenses, in fact, do not provide scattering of ambient light, while such nerasseivayushchee areas is significantly less than in the case of multispectral lenses with hexagonal base.

So about the time, it is seen that despite lower the focusing properties of multispectral lenses with hexagonal base, in comparison with a spherical lens, according to the classical optical standards, in the context of this invention multispectral lens with hexagonal base have unexpected advantages in comparison with spherical lenses.

Any type of lens can be improved by adding scattering or diffusing microstructures of materials deposited on or embedded in the intermediate space of the lens to increase the scattering of ambient light on the plane icons. Moreover, the intermediate space of the lenses can be filled with a material which forms a convex-concave lens with a very small radius, with either reducing or dispersing the focusing properties to direct ambient light on the plane icons. The methods can be combined, for example through the introduction of light-scattering particles in the material filling convex-concave lens with a very small radius. Alternatively, the intermediate zone of the lens may initially be carried out with suitable intermediate scattering zones of the lenses.

Spherical lens with these proportions are very difficult to produce because of the high angle between the surface of the film and the edge of the lens serves as the drive tension for relatively forces, to separate the lens from the tool during production. These high tension contribute to the adhesion of the lens with film and complexity of the film removal from the tool. Moreover, the optical characteristics of a spherical lens with a small index of the diaphragm gradually deteriorate for radial zones with distance from center of lens: spherical lenses with a small index of the diaphragm is bad focus, except for the area near the Central area.

Lenses with hexagonal base have significant and unexpected advantages over lenses with almost circular base: hexagonal lenses are separated from the instruments with less force detachment than the equivalent optical lens with almost circular base. Hexagonal lenses have the form, gradually passing from the axially symmetric near their center to the hexagonal symmetric, with corners that serve as drives tension in their databases. Formed a sharp base angles drives tension reduces the overall strength of the detachment necessary to separate the lens from the mould during manufacture.

The significance of this effect is very high - strength detachment can be reduced when producing two or more times for lenses hexagonal base compared with lenses with almost circular base.

The contrast material may increase the Hanks filling intermediate spaces lenses absorbing (dark color) opaque pigmented material, effectively forming a mask for lenses. This eliminates the reduction in contrast, increasing from multiple level icons light through the intermediate space of the lens. An additional effect of the intermediate fill is that the overall image is dark due to the blocking of the passage of the incoming ambient light through the intermediate space on the plane icons. The clarity of the image created by the lens with a unique focus on their periphery, may also be improved opaque pigmented interspace filling, provided that the filling is blocking the peripheral lens area with atypical focus.

Can be obtained another effect by filling the intermediate space lens white or slightly colored material, or a material having a color suitable to the color of the substrate used in the material Unison. If slightly colored material filling the intermediate space of the lens is sufficiently dense, and plane icons is a strong contrast between the elements of the icons and the background, the artificial image Unison will be substantially invisible when viewed in reflected light, however, will be clearly visible when viewed in refraction between the lens and the light, but will not be visible when browsing from pictor the guide. It provides innovative effect of protection on one-sided image, visible only in the refracted light, and on one side only.

Fluorescent materials can be used as a cover lens in the intermediate spaces, instead of or together with the visible pigment as an additional means of determining the authenticity. Figure 4 shows the effect of changing stereoscopic conversion factor SSR (the repetition period of the element icons/ recurrence matrix lens) along the axis of this material. Zone system with SSR more 1,0000 provide Unison Float and Unison SuperFloat effects, zone system with SSR, almost equal 1,0000 provide effects ortopedicheskogo movement (OPM) Unison Motion, and zone system with SSR less than 1,0000 provide Unison Deep and Unison SuperDeep effects. All of these effects can be created and transformed into each other in various ways along the axis of the film system. This figure shows one of the endless variations of such combinations. The dotted line 66 shows SSR, almost equal 1,0000, the dividing line between Unison Deep Unison and SuperDeep, and Unison Float and Unison SuperFloat, and the index of SSR, which demonstrates the ORME. In the zone 68 SSR material Unison equal 0,995 that creates Unison Deep effect.

The nearby area is an area of 70, in which SSR ranges from 1 0,995,005, forming a spatial transition from Unison Deep to Unison Float effect. SSR next zone is equal to 1.005, which creates Unison Float effect. The following area 74 creates a smooth transition down from Unison Float effect to Unison Deep effect. Area 76 passes stepwise from Unison Deep effect to the ORME and Unison Float effect, and area 78 abruptly jumps back to ORME. The necessary variations in the repetition period, to create these effects, and they are most easily performed on the item-level icons. In addition to changing SSR in each zone may be desirable to change the angles of rotation of each zone data matrix, preferably within the boundaries of the matrix elements pictograms to keep artificially enlarged image such that corresponded to their size.

The easiest way the meaning or interpretation of this graph is to consider the transverse profile of its stereoscopic depth along the axis of the sample material system. Therefore, it is possible to create stereoscopically composed image area, the simulated visual surface, controlling SSR in place and by choice due to local control of the rotation matrix. Stereoscopically prepared surface can be used to display an unlimited range of shapes, including a person's face. Structure elements icons, creating the effect of stereoscopics the th lattice or periodic points, may be particularly effective for displaying complex surfaces.

Horizontal projection on Figa-to depict the effect of turning one structure of the matrix relative to another in the production of this material system. On Figa shows the lens matrix 80, with the space 82 standard periodic matrix without significant changes in the angles of the axes of the matrix. On Figb shows the matrix elements of the icons 84 with consistently tiltable axis orientation matrix 86. If the lens matrix 80 is combined with the matrix elements pictograms 84 by moving the matrix lens 80 on the matrix icon 84, as shown, then approximate the resulting visual effect is shown in Figv. On FIGU material 88 that is created through the connection matrix of lenses 80 and matrix icons 84, creates a structure artificially enlarged images 89, 90, 91, which are different in scale and angle of the material. Towards the top of the material 88 image 89 is large and has a small angle of rotation. The image 90 in the direction of the upper middle section of material 88 is smaller and is rotated at a considerable angle relative to the image 89. Various scales and rotations between images 89 and 91 is the result of the difference in angular displacement of structure 82 whether the PS and patterns of item icons 86.

On Figa-in shows how the transformation of one artificially enlarged image from the ORME 98 (effect ortopedicheskogo motion) in another artificially enlarged image 102 as the movement of the first image across the border 104 in the structures of the elements pictograms 92 and 94. The element structure of the pictogram 92 has elements icons 98 round shape, shown in enlarged tab 96. The structure of the element icons 94 has elements icons 102 a star shape shown in the enlarged tab 100. Structure elements pictograms 92 and 94 are not separate entities, but are United in their border 104. When the material is collected using the integrated elements pictograms, resulting ORME image will show the effects of the transformation is displayed on Figb-century Figb shows a circular image 107, moving to the right across the border 104 and appearing at the border as a star image 102, also moving to the right. The image 106 is in a transitional state, partially circular, partially zvezdoobraznoe because it crosses the border. On FIGU shows the image after the movement further to the right: the image 98 is now closer to the border 104, and the image 106 is almost completely crossed the border to complete your own transformation from a circle in C is the drive. The effect of the conversion can be performed less dramatically by creating a transition zone from one structure element icons to another instead of a sharp boundary 104.

In the transition zone of these icons will be gradually transformed from circles in stars, going through several stages. The visual smoothness of the transformation result ORME images will depend on the number of stages used for the transformation. The range of graphic possibilities are endless. For example, a transition zone may be designed to appear the circle seemed to be narrowed or reduced, while the top stars will pop up from it, or, in the alternative, the circle may seem curving inward to create a shortened star, gradually becoming more sharply until it reaches its final form.

Figa-b are cross sections of the materials of the present system, illustrating alternative embodiments of elements icons. On Figa shown material having a lens 1, the separated optical strip 5 from the elements icons 108. Elements icons 108 formed structures colorless, colored, slightly stained or painted material applied to the upper surface of the optical strip 5. Any of the many is esta common printing methods, for example inkjet printing, laser printing, letterpress, flexography, Rotogravure and gravure printing can be used for drawing elements icons 108 such, until the print resolution is good enough.

On Figb shows a similar diagram of the material with various embodiments of the elements of the icons 112. In this variant embodiment the elements pictograms are formed from colorful and ground dyes or particles embedded in the support material 110. Examples of this variant of the embodiment of the elements of the icons 112 in the support material 110 include silver particles in gelatin, photographic emulsion, pigmented or colored ink absorbed by the ink receiving coating, sublimation dye receiving coating dye and a photochromic and thermochromic image on the film.

On FIGU shows a microstructural approach to the formation of elements icons 114. This method has the advantage of virtually unlimited spatial resolution. Elements icons 114 can be formed from voids in the microstructure 113 or solid regions 115, separately or in combination. Cavity 113, a choice can be filled or covered with another material, such as metal-coated material having different coefficie what you reflect, or painted or primed (pigmented) material.

On Figa, b shows the positive and negative ways to implement elements of the icons. On Fig shown positive elements icons 116, which is colored, dyed or pigmented 120 on a transparent background 118. On Figb shown negative elements icons 122, which is transparent to colored, dyed or pigmented background 120. The material of the present system is able to choose to contain both negative and positive elements icons. This method of creating positive and negative elements of the icons is particularly well-suited for items icons microstructure on Figv.

Figure 9 shows the cross-section of one of the alternative embodiment of the material of the picture element of this system. This alternative embodiment includes areas with lenses 124 with a short focus lens and other lenses 136 long focus. Lens with a short focus 124 design image 123 elements pictograms 129 in the plane icon 128, located in the focal plane of the lens 124. Lens long focus 136 design image 134 elements pictograms 137 in the plane icons 132, located in the focal plane of the lens 136. Optical strip 126 separates the lens with a short focus 124 from svyazannosti icons 128. Lens long focus 136 are separated from their associated plane icons 132 due to the total thickness of the optical spacer 126 plane icons 128 and the second optical spacers 130. Elements pictograms 137 in the second plane icon 132 is out of the focal depth of the lens with a short focus lens 124 and, therefore, do not form a clear artificially enlarged images in the zones of the lens with a short focus. Similarly, elements, icons 129 are too close to the lens long focus 136 to form a clear artificially enlarged image. Accordingly, zones of material with a lens with a short focus 124 will display image 123 elements pictograms 129, while the zones of material with lenses of long focus 136 will display the image 134 elements pictograms 137. Projected image 123 and 134 may vary in design, color, direction ORME, factor artificially and effects, including the above-mentioned effects Deep, Unison, Float and Levitate.

Figure 10 is a cross-section of an alternative embodiment of the material of the pixel area of the current system. This alternative embodiment includes areas with lenses 140, raised by mesoblast of objectiterator 144 above base not lifted lens 148. Focal length of the raised lens 140 is rasstojanie with the placement of the focus data of the lenses in the first plane icon 152. Focal length not lifted lens 148 is the distance 160 with the placement of the focus data of the lenses in the second plane icon 156. These two focal lengths, 158 and 160 may be equal or not equal. Raised lens 140 to project the image of 138 items icons 162 in the plane icons 152 located in the focal plane of the lens 140. Not lifted lens 148 project images 146 elements icons 164 in the plane icon 156, located in the focal plane of the lens 148. Raised lens 140 are separated from their associated elements icons 162 through the joint thickness mesoblast of objectiterator 144 and the optical strips 150. Not lifted lens 148 are separated from their associated elements icons 164 through the joint thickness of the optical strips 150 level icons 152 and gaskets (separator) icon 154. Elements icons 164 in the second plane icon 156 is out of the focal depth of the raised lens 140 and, therefore, do not form a clear artificially enlarged images in the raised areas of the lenses. Similarly, elements, icons 152 are too close to not lifted lens 148 to form a clear artificially enlarged image. Accordingly, zones of material with a raised lens 140 will display the image 138 items icons 162, at the time as a zone of material not lifted lenses 136 will display the image elements 146 icons 156. Projected image 138 and 146 may vary in design, color, direction ORME, factor artificially and effects, including the above-mentioned effects Deep, Unison, Float and Levitate.

Figa, b are cross sections illustrating rarefraction variants of the embodiment of the present system. On Figa depicts a variant embodiment using a focusing reflector 166 instead of the refractive lens to project the image of 174 items icons 172. Level icons 170 is located between the eyes of the observer and the focusing optics. Focusing reflectors 166 may have a metallic surface 167 for high focusing efficiency. Level icons 170 is supported at a distance equal to the focal length of the reflectors, the optical strip 168. On Figb shows a variant embodiment of this material with spot optics. Opaque upper level 176, preferably black in color to increase contrast, proshaetsia aperture 178. The optical element strip (optical separator) 180 controls the field of view of this system. Elements pictograms 184 in the level icons 182 are displayed through the aperture 178 using the same method used in the camera with a point aperture. Because of the small amount passing through the aperture of the light in this is the version of the incarnation is the most effective with backlight with light passing first through a plane icons 182, then through the aperture 178. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float and Levitate, can be created using designs refractive system and using the system design with spot optics.

Figa, b are cross sections comparing patterns serveraction or superlassig material 188 hybrid refractive refractive/reflective material 199. On Figa shows the approximate structure with microlenses 192 separated from the plane of the icons 194 optical separator 198. Selective sealing level 195 contributes to the total thickness of the system 196. Lens 192 design image thumbnail in the direction of an observer (not shown). Hybrid refractive/reflective material 199 includes microlenses 210 with a plane icon 208 directly below. Optical strip 200 separates the lenses 210 and plane icons 208 of the reflective layer 202. A reflective layer 202 may be metallized, such as aluminum, gold, rhodium, Osmanova, chrome, silver deposition or sputtering with the use of depleted uranium is chemically deposited silver or multi-layered interference film. Multiple plane icons 208 light is reflected is t reflective level 202, passes through the level icon 208 in the lenses 210, projecting the image 206 in the direction of an observer (not shown). Both figures are roughly the same scale: through visual comparison can be seen that the total thickness of the system 212 hybrid refractive/reflective system 199 is about half of the total thickness 196 usepreamble system 188.

Approximate dimensions for equivalent systems - 29 microns, for a total thickness 196 usepreamble system 188, and 17 ám total thickness 212 of the refracting/reflecting system 199. The thickness of the refracting/reflecting system may be further reduced by processing. Thus, a hybrid system having a lens 15 microns in diameter, can be made with a total thickness of 8 microns. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float, Morph, 3-D and Levitate, can be created using a hybrid refractive/reflective design.

Fig is a transverse cross-section, showing the so-called "peel-to-show variant embodiments of the material indication about the distortion (or falsification) of this system. This alternative embodiment does not show the image, if it is not distorted. Undistorted structure shown in region 224, where the refractive system 214 optical entered under the top layer 216, consisting of wyborach the second substrate 218 and legkousvoyaemogo or removable layer 220, consistent with lenses 215. Removable layer 220 effectively forms a negative lens structure 220, which are pinned on positive lens 215 and suppress their optical power. Lens 215 can form the image of the level icons in an undistorted region, and the scattered light 222 from the plane of the icons is not focused. The upper level 216 may include selective film substrate 218. The distortion shown in region 226, leads to the release of the top layer 216 of the refractive system 214, exposing the lens 215 so that they can form an image 228. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float and Levitate, can be included in the "peel-to-display" system indication about the distortion of this type, which is depicted on Fig.

Fig is a transverse cross-section, showing the so-called "peel-to-change" variant embodiment of the material indication about the distortion of this system. This variant embodiment shows the first image 248 first plane icons 242 to distortion 252, and then displays another image 258 in the field 254, after the interrupt occurred. Undistorted structure shown in region 252, where it joined two refracting system. The first plane icon 242 is located on the bottom of the lens 240 of the second system. D. the distortion in the field of 252 first, or the top, the system 232 is the first image plane icons 242. The second plane icon 246 is too far outside the focal depth of the lens 234 to form a clear image. The first lens 234 is separated from the second lens 240 selective substrate 236 and easily removable layer 238, consistent with other lenses 240. Easily removable layer 232 effectively forms a negative lens structure 238, which are pinned on positive lens 240 and suppress their optical power. The upper level 232 may include selective film substrate 236. The distortion leads to the separation of 256 upper layer 232, as shown in region 254, the second optical system 230, exposing the second lens 240 so that they can form an image 258 of the second layer icon 245. The second lens 240 do not form images of the first layer icon 242, since the layer icon is too close to the lens 240.

A variant embodiment of a material indication of unauthorized access (or distortion, or falsification) is well suited for use as a tape or label pasted on the product. Unauthorized access leads to the separation of the upper level 232, leaving the second system 230 is attached to the product. To unauthorized access to this system is the first and the imagination, 248. After unauthorized access 254 the second system 230 is still attached to the product, represents the second image 258, while the detachable layer 256 is not any image. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float and Levitate, can be turned on or in the first system 232 or the second system 230. It should be noted that an alternative embodiment, providing the action, similar to that shown in Fig means two separate systems, layered on each other. In this variant embodiment, when the upper level is separated, he takes with him the first plane icons and images, leaving the second system and its image.

Figa-b are cross sections showing bilateral variants of the embodiment of the present system. On Figa shows bilateral material 260, which includes a single plane icons 264 displayed 268 through the lens 262 on one side and appears 270 through the second set of lenses on the opposite side. Image 268, visible on the left side (as shown)is a mirror image 270, visible on the right side. The plane icon 264 may contain elements pictograms are symbols or images that seem identical in mirror image, or E. the elements icons which seem to be different in mirroring, or combination of elements pictograms where some elements pictograms read correctly when viewed from the other side. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float and Levitate, can be displayed on two sides of bilateral material in accordance with this alternative embodiment.

On Figb shows another two-sided version of embodiments 272 having two plane icons 276 and 278 that are displayed 282 and 286, respectively, through two sets of lenses 274 and 280, respectively. This variant embodiment, in essence, represents two separate systems 287 and 289, as shown in Figa, which were joined together with a strip of level icons 277 between them. The thickness of this strip of level icons 277 determines the degree of image "wrong" level icons 284 and 288 through a set of lenses. For example, if the thickness of the strip level icons 277 is equal to zero, i.e. the levels icon 276 and 278 are in contact with each other, both level icons will be displayed kits lens 274 and 280. In another example, if the thickness of the strip level icons 277 significantly more focal depth of the lens 274 and 280, then the "wrong" level icons will not be displayed lens 274 and 280. However, in another example, if the focus is th depth kit lens 274 more but the focal depth different set of lenses is small (because the lens 274 and 280 have different indexes, aperture), then both the plane icons 276 and 278 will be displayed 282 lenses 274, but only one plane icons 278 will appear lenses 280, so the material of this type will show two images on one side, but only one of these images reflected from the opposite side. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float and Levitate, can be displayed on two sides of bilateral material in accordance with this alternative embodiment, two digital image 282 and 286 can have the same or different colors.

On FIGU shows another two-sided material 290 having pigmented spacer layer icon 298, which locks the lens on one side of the material from watching the "wrong" set of icons. Lens display 292 294 level icons 296, but can not display the level of the pictogram 300 due to the presence of pigmented layer icon 298. Similarly, lens display 302 304 level icons 300, but can't display the level icons 296, due to the presence of pigmented layer icon 298. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float and Levitate, can be displayed on two sides of bilateral material is according to this variant embodiment, and two projected images 294 and 304 may have the same or different colors.

On Figg shows another two-sided material 306 having a lens 308, 318 displays the layer icons 314 and lenses 316 on the opposite side of the reflecting layer 322 icons 310. Layer icon 310 is close to or substantially in contact with the bases of the lens 308, and the layer icon 314 is close to or substantially in contact with the bases of the lenses 316. Icons 310 too close to the lens 308 to form the image, so the light is diffused 320 instead to focus. Icons 314 too close to the lens 316 to form the image, so the light is diffused 324 instead to focus. The effects of each of the above variants of the embodiment, ORME, Deep, Float and Levitate, can be displayed on two sides of bilateral material in accordance with this alternative embodiment, two digital image 318 and 322 may be the same or different colors.

Figa-s is the cross section and the corresponding horizontal projection, showing three different ways to create a halftone or continuous tone element structures icons and subsequent artificially enlarged images with this system. Figa-in - a transverse profile details are part of the pictogram material 307, will include the flax with a part of the optical spacer 309 and transparent microstructured layer 311. Elements of icons formed as a relief surface 313, 315, 317, which are filled with pigmented or dye material 323, 325, 327, respectively. The lower part of the layer icons may, at choice, sealed by the sealing layer 321, which may be transparent, slightly stained, colored, dyed, pigmented or opaque. Relief microstructure elements icons 313, 315, 317 provide different thickness in the material dyed or pigmented filling 323, 325, 327, respectively, which leads to variations in the optical density of the element icons, as seen in horizontal projection. The horizontal projection of the corresponding elements pictograms 323, 325, 327, is the horizontal projection 337, 339 and 341. Use this method to create a halftone or continuous tone artificially enlarged images are not limited to the above examples, but can be widely applied to create an unlimited number of grayscale images.

Fig includes item icons 313, dyed or pigmented filling element icons 323 and the corresponding horizontal projection 337. The cross-section plane of the icons in the upper part of this figure can show only one cutting plane through the elements icons. Location R is secause plane is shown by the dashed line 319 through horizontal projection 337, 339 and 341. Accordingly, the cross-section plane icons 313 is one projection on an almost hemispherical element icons. By means of a corresponding limitation of the total density of the dye or pigment filler 323, differences in the thickness of the dyed or pigmented filler 323 create tonal or grayscale differences of optical density, represented on the horizontal projection 337. The matrix elements of the icons of this type can be increased by artificial means in the system of the present material to create images showing the equivalent grayscale variations.

Figb includes item icons 317, dyed or pigmented filling element icons 325 and the corresponding horizontal projection 339. The cross-section plane 339 indicates the item icon 315 is a relief view of a person. Tonal variations in the facial image are complex, as shown by the complex variations of the thickness of 325 in the cut. As shown for item icons 313, the matrix elements of the icons of this type, 315, 325, 339, may be increased by artificial means in the system of the present material to create images showing the equivalent grayscale variations, representing in this example, the facial image.

Figv includes the element icons 317, dyed or pigmented filling element icons 327 and the corresponding horizontal projection 341. Similarly, shown above, on Fig, relief form this structure element icons creates a tone variation in the appearance of the dyed or pigmented fill 327 and artificially enlarged image generated by the system of the present material. Item icons 317 depicts a method of creating a bright center and a rounded surface, in comparison with the effect of item icons 313, creating a dark center in the rounded surface.

On Figg, d shows another variant embodiment of the transparent embossed structural microlayer icons 311, including elements pictograms 329 and 331, which are covered with a material 328 with a high refractive index. The layer icons 311 may be, choice, sealed sealing layer 321, the filling elements pictograms 329, 331, 330 and 332, respectively. Layer 328 with a high refractive index increases the visibility of inclined surfaces through the creation of refraction from them due to total internal refraction. Section 342 and 344 are appropriate image appearance elements pictograms 329 and 331 and artificially enlarged images. A variant embodiment of the coating with high refractive index is in charge of the AET kind of effect selection circuits, without adding pigment or dye, to make visible icons and images.

On Five presents another variant embodiment of the transparent embossed structural microlayer icons 335 using air, gas or liquid volume 336, to provide a visual determination in the microstructure of the interfacial surface 334. Selective sealing layer 340 may be added with or without a selective binding substance 338 to hold air, gas or liquid volume 336. The visual effect of item icons interfacial surface similar to the effect of element 329 and 331 with a high refractive index coating.

Figa-g is a cross section showing the use of this system as a multi-layer film along with printed information, for example it can be used in the production of identification cards and driver's licenses, where the material 348 (consists of coordinated chips lenses and images described above) covers a significant portion of the surface. On Figa a variant embodiment Unison, used as a layer superimposed on the printing 347. Material 348 having at least some optical transparency in the layer icon and then applied to the fiber substrate 354, for example paper or its substitute, layered with astringent substances the your 350, and covers or partially covers the print control 352, previously deposited on the fiber substrate 354. Since the material 348 is at least some optical transparency, the print control 352 can be seen through it, and the effect of this combination provides the effect of a dynamic image of this system in combination with a static seal.

On Figb depicts a variant embodiment of the system of material used as a layer superimposed on the print control 352, which was previously deposited on neuroconn substrate 358, such as a polymer film. As Figa, material 348 having at least some optical transparency in the layer icon, is applied to neuroconn substrate 348, such as a polymer, metal, glass or ceramic substitute, with layered binder 350 that covers or partially covers the print control 352, previously deposited on neuroconn substrate 354. Since the material 348 is at least some optical transparency, the print control 352 can be seen through it, and the effect of this combination provides the effect of a dynamic image of this system in combination with a static seal.

On FIGU illustrates the use of the printing element directly on the lens side of the material 360. In this variant embodiment the material 348 the ima is t, the print control 352, applied directly on the top surface of the lens. This alternative embodiment does not require at least partial transparency of the material: the print control 352 laying on top of the material, and the effect of a dynamic image is viewed from the side of the printing element. In this variant embodiment the material 348 is used as a substrate for the final product, such as exchange, identification cards, etc. that require authentication or providing authentication of other products.

On Figg illustrates the use of the printing element of the right-side icons at least partially transparent material 362. Print element 352 is applied directly on the layer icon or the sealing layer partially transparent material 348 system. Since the material 348 is at least some degree of optical transparency, the print control 352 can be seen through it, and the effect of this combination provides the effect of a dynamic image of this system in combination with a static seal. In this variant embodiment the material 348 is used as a substrate for the final product, such as exchange, identification cards, etc. that require authentication or providing authentication of other products.

Each option is implemented on Figa-g can use the sterile separately or in combination. Thus, for example, the material system 348 may print top (Pigv) and on the reverse side (High), then, by choice, is applied to the printing on the substrate (Figa, b). Combinations of the above can increase the protection against forgery, falsification, unauthorized access material of the present system.

Figa-e is a cross section showing the use of this system, with different substrates or embedded in them, and in combination with the printed information. Ways to put on Figa-e different from embodiment to Figa-g the fact that in the previous figures shows the system material 348, covering all or most of the products, while at these figures shows options such embodiment, where the system or optical effects, do not cover the entire surface, but only part of it. On Figa shows a portion of the material 346, with some optical transparency, which is deposited on the fiber or neuroconn substrate 368 by means of a binding element 366. Selective printing element 370 is applied directly on top of the lens, the surface of the material 364. Part of the material 346, choice, laminated on the print control 372, which was deposited on the fiber or neuroconn substrate before applying the material 364.

On Figb shows a variant embodiment of the material 364 with dnastar is na system, included in non-optical substrate 378 as Windows, where at least some of the edges of the system of material 364 covered, covered, or enclosed in non-optical substrate 378. Printed elements 380, choice, can be applied to the upper part of the lens surface system material, and these printed items can be aligned or coordinated with the printing elements 382, applied to non-optical substrate 378 in the region adjacent to the printing element 380. Similarly, the printing elements 384 can be applied on the opposite side of the non-optical substrate, aligned or coordinated with the printing elements 386 deposited on the icon or the sealing layer 388 system material 364. The effect of this kind of window will be used to create clear images when the material is viewed from the side of the lens, and when viewed from the side of the icons will not be images, providing the effect of a one-sided image.

On FIGU shows a variant embodiment similar to Figb, except that the system material 306 is a two-sided material 306 (or other bilateral variant of the embodiment described above). The printing elements 390, 392, 394 and 396 substantially the same functions with the printing elements 380, 382, 384, 386, described previously. The effect of the material of the window, this is the ode will be used to create clear images, when this material is viewed from opposite sides. For example, embedded in the paper for the currency window can display the denomination of the banknote, for example, "10", when viewed from the front side of the banknote, but when viewed from the reverse side of the banknote Unison window can display other information such as "United States", which may be identical with the first picture color or other color.

On Figg shown transparent substrate 373, acting as an optical separator for material, formed by a zone of limited length lenses 374 and the layer icon 376, which is much beyond the periphery zone of the lens 374. In this variant embodiment, the real effects will be visible only in the zone, which includes lenses, and icons (corresponding to the lens area 374 this figure). Printed materials may, at the choice, be applied 375 on lens 374 and the surrounding substrate, and circuit elements can also be applied on the layer icon 376 or an additional layer, for example a sealing layer covering the icons (not shown in this figure, see Figure 1). The multiple-lens fire zone can be used on the product for this variant embodiment; everywhere, where is placed the lens area, you will see the effects Unison; the size, angle, stereoscopic depth, properties ORME image can bitration for each lens zone. This variant embodiment is well suited for use in identification cards, credit cards, driver's license and similar options for use.

On Figg shows a variant embodiment similar to that shown in Figv, except that the plane of the icons 402 does not reach the limits of the lens zone 400. The optical separator 398 separates lens from 400 icons 402. Printed elements 404 and 406 correspond to the printing elements 375 and 377 on Figv. Several zones 400 can be used on the product for this variant embodiment; each zone has separate effects. This variant embodiment is well suited for use in identification cards, credit cards, driver's license and similar options for use.

On Five shows a variant embodiment similar to that shown in Figg, except that this variant embodiment includes an optical splitter 408, separating the lens 413 from the plane of the icons 410. Lens 413 substantially beyond the periphery of the zone icon 412. Printed elements 414 and 416 correspond to the printing elements 375 and 377 on Figg. The multiple-lens fire zone can be used on the product for this variant embodiment; everywhere, where is placed the lens area, you will see the effects Unison; the size, angle, stereoscopic depth, properties ORME is zobrazenie can be different for each lens zone. This variant embodiment is well suited gave use in identification cards, credit cards, driver's license and similar options for use.

Figa, b show cross-section, for comparison, the focal field of view of a spherical lens with a flat field aspherical lenses, when each is embedded in a structure of the type indicated above. On Figa shows the spherical lens used in the above-described system. Almost spherical lens 418 is separated from the plane of the icons 422 optical splitter 420. Image 424, projected perpendicular to the surface, occurs at the focal point 426 in the boundary layer icon 422. Image 424 in sharp focus because the focal point 426 is the boundary layer icon 422. When the lens is viewed at an acute angle, then the image 428 is muddy and defocused because the appropriate focal point 430 is not in the plane of the icons, but significantly above it. Arrow 432 shows the curvature of the lens, which corresponds to the curvature of the focal point from 426 to 430. The focal point lies in the plane of the icons in the entire area 434, then comes out of the plane of the pictograms in zone 436. Lenses, which are well suited for use in coordination with the plane of the printed images or icons have a small index is iaphragm, typically less than 1, which leads to a very small focal depth of a lens with a large index of the diaphragm can be effectively used to achieve the effects of Deep and Float, but cause vertical binocular disparately under the here described effects when used with effects Unison Motion. As the movement of the lower limit of the focal depth beyond the plane of the icons the image clarity is greatly diminished. This figure can be seen that the curvature of the substantially spherical lens limits the field of view of the image: the image is clear only within the focal zone 434 and quickly refocused at more acute angles. Nearly spherical lens is not flat lens, and the curvature of these lenses is increased for lenses with a small index of the diaphragm.

On Figb shows aspherical lens used in the present system. Because it is aspherical, its curvature is not close to the field. Aspherical lens element 438 is separated from the layer icon 442 optical splitter 440. Aspherical lens 438 projects the image plane icon is normal to the plane of the material. The image is at the focal point 446. The focal point of the aspherical lens is in the plane icons in a wide range of angles from the normal 444 to acute 448, since she and EET plane 452. Focal distance of the lens is changed relative to the angle of view. Focal length is the shortest for normal 444 angle and increases as the angle becomes more acute. At a sharp angle of view 448 focal point 450 is still within the thickness of the plane of the icon image at an acute angle, therefore, is still in focus for a given acute angle 448. Focal area 454 much more for aspherical lenses 438 than focal area 434 for almost spherical lens 418. Aspherical lens 438, thus, provides an extended field of view in the range corresponding to the icon image so that the peripheral edge of the corresponding thumbnail image does not fall out of the field of view, unlike spherical lens 418. Aspherical lenses are preferred for the present system because of the larger field of view, which they provide, and the resultant increase the visibility of the associated image.

Figa in this cross-section, depicting two practical advantages of using a thick layer of icons. These benefits, regardless of whether your lens 456 spherical 418 or aspherical 438, more in combination with aspherical lens 438. On Figa displayed system material Tonkov the layer icon 460, including lenses 456, separated from the layer icon 460 optical splitter 458. Elements pictograms 462 are thin 461 in comparison with the curvature of the lens 463, limiting the focal zone of a small angle between projected in the normal direction 464 picture 468 with the most acute angle with the focal point 470 within the layer icon 460. Higher field of view is obtained by constructing the normal focus image 466 on the bottom plane of the icons, thus maximizing acute angle field of view, limited by the point at which the focal point 470 lies at the top of the plane icons. The field of view of the system, similarly Figa, limited to 30 degrees.

On Figb advantages resulting from the introduction of the plane 472 icons 471, which is thick in comparison with the curvature of the lens 456. Lens 456 separated from the elements of the large icons 474 by means of an optical splitter 458. The elements of the large icons 474 remain in focus 475 in a wider field of view of 55 degrees, than the subtle elements pictograms 462, as Figa. Normal image 476, projected through the lens 456 with the focal point 478, is in clear focus, and the focus remains clear with increasing angle to 55 degrees, where the focal point 482 sharp image 40 lies above the plane of the icons 471. A larger field of view is great for flat lenses such as aspherical lenses, as Figb.

On FIGU shows another advantage of the plane of the large icons 492; to reduce the sensitivity of this system of material to variations in the thickness S, which can be a result of manufacturing variations. Lens 484 separated by a distance S of the bottom surface of the layer icons with thickness i. Lens 484 projects the image 496 with focal point 498, located on the bottom layer icon 492. This figure shows that the variation in the optical space S between the lens layer and the icons may vary in the range equal to the thickness of the layer icons, and without loss of focus images 496, 500, 504. In the lens 486 optical thickness of the separator is approximately (S+i/202), and a focal point 502 of the image 500 is still in the thickness of the i layer icon 492. In the lens 488 optical thickness of the separator is increased to (S+i)490, and a focal point 506 of the image 504 is at the top of the element 494 thick icons. The optical thickness of the separator, therefore, may vary in the range of the thickness of the layer icons i: thin layer icons, therefore, provides little tolerance for variations in the thickness of the optical splitter, and a thin layer icon provides more about klonnie for the variations in thickness of the optical separator.

Another advantage is the thick layer icon 492. Imperfect lenses, for example, almost spherical lens may have a shorter focal length 493 in the direction of their edges than at their center 496. This is one aspect of a General defect spherical aberration is almost spherical lenses. A thick layer of icons provides the item icons, which can be clearly focused through the range of focal lengths, 498-495, thereby improving the overall clarity and contrast of the image created by the lens 484, with variation of the focal length.

Fig is the horizontal projection, showing the application of this system to a currency other protected documents as windowed security thread. On Fig window shows a filamentary structure, which includes system material 508, sewn into the ribbon, hereinafter called the filament, typically in the range from 0.5 to 10 mm in width. Thread 508 is embedded in the fiber substrate of the document 510 and provides a window zone 514. Thread 508 may, for the choice to include pigmented, dyed, filled or covered with the sealing layer 516 to increase the image contrast and/or to provide additional protection or for determining the authenticity, such as electrical conductivity, magnetic properties, discovery and definition wide-angle is genuine with nuclear magnetic resonance, or to remove material from the field of view in the refracted light when viewed from the back side of the substrate (the side opposite to representing artificial image Unison, and a connecting layer 517, to strengthen the connection between the thread 508 and fiber substrate 510). Supported orientation thread 508 to maintain the lens as possible, so that the image effects were visible in the window zone 514. And the fiber substrate 510, and the thread can serve as a surface for the application of printed elements 518, and circuit elements can be applied 520 and the fiber substrate on the reverse side.

On Fig shows that the thread 508 and the effects of its image 522 are only visible from the upper surface 521 of the substrate 510 in the window zone 514. Thread 508 is covered with a fiber base material in the inner zones 512, and effects image 522 largely invisible in these areas. Especially difficult is the situation with ORME effects when embedded in the thread 508 (see Fig). Because fiber substrate 510 is shifted in different directions, can be created ORME image for scanning width 524 this thread, creating amazing visual effects. This scanning feature ORME image makes it possible to render an image 522, which is greater than the width of the thread 508. The user inspecting the document, to whom that contains the security thread 508, may further move the document to scan the full image in the entire thread, turning it as the inscription on the canopy. The effects of variations of the embodiment of the Deep, Float and Levitate can also be used in the format of this window thread. Thread 508 may be at least partially embedded in the protected documents in the production by machinery, widely used in the pulp and paper industry. For example, the thread 508 may be pressed by the pressure in the wet paper while fiber is not grabbed and can be easily separated, as described in U.S. patent 4534398 included here as a reference.

Window thread of the present system is particularly well suited for use in currency. A typical total thickness of the filament material is in the range of 22-34 microns, while the total thickness of the paper currency can reach 88 microns, it is possible to implement a windowed security thread of the present system of paper currency without substantially changing the total thickness of paper by reducing the place of the paper thickness by an amount equivalent to the thickness of the thread.

In a variant embodiment, taken as an example, the thread 508 contains:

(a) one or more optical spacers (separators);

(b) one or more, the choice of periodic planar arrays of microimages or icons that are located within, on or near the optical Proclad is th; and

(C) one or more, the choice of periodic planar matrices feasibility of microlenses located on or near the optical strip or planar matrix of icons, with each microlens having a base diameter of less than 50 microns.

In another variant embodiment of the micro or icons contain empty spaces or undercut formed on the surface of one or more optical spacers, while the feasibility lenses are aspherical microlenses, each aspherical microlens has a base diameter of from about 15 to 35 microns. At least one pigmented, sealing or shaded layer 516 can be located on the planar arrays of microimages or pictograms to increase contrast, and, accordingly, the sharpness of icons, and also to mask the presence of threads 508, when the thread is at least partially embedded in the protected document.

In another variant embodiment of the present invention the thread 508 contains:

(a) optical spacer having opposite upper and lower flat surfaces;

(b) periodic matrix microimages or pictograms containing the filled cavity formed on the lower flat surface of the optical spacer;

(C) periodic matrix feasibility, pleskot the x, aspheric or multispectral with hexagonal base of microlenses arranged on the upper flat surface of the optical strip, where each lens has a base diameter in the range of 20-30 microns; and

(d) pigmented, sealing or shaded layer 516, located on the matrix icon.

Optical strip can be formed using one or more colorless polymers, including, but not limited to, polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, grades and other such materials. In a variant of embodiment, given by way of example, optical spacers are formed using polyester or polyethylene terephthalate and has a thickness in the range of 8-25 microns.

Matrix of icons and microlenses can be formed using virtually transparent or clearly viewed under the radiation of materials, including, but not limited to, such as acrylic, polyester, epoxy, urethane and other such materials. Preferably, the matrix is formed using materials such as urethane resin, which is manufactured by "Lord Chemicals code product U107.

Grooves icons formed on the lower flat surface of the optical strip, have typical sizes of about 0.5 to 8 microns in depth and 30 microns is about the width of the micro or icons. The grooves may be filled with a suitable material such as pigmented rubber, inks, dyes, metals, magnetic materials. In a variant of embodiment, given by way of example, these grooves are filled with pigmented rubber containing submicron pigment, which is made by the company Sun Chemical Corporation code of the product Spectra Races.

Pigmented or turbid layer 516 can be formed using one or more opaque coatings or inks, including, but not limited to, such materials as pigmented coating containing a pigment, such as titanium dioxide, dispersed within a binder or carrier of the solidified polymeric material. Preferably, pigmented or turbid layer 516 is formed using a solidifying polymer and has a thickness of from 0.5 to 3 microns.

Thread 508, described above, can be prepared in accordance with the following methods:

(a) applying virtually transparent solidified rubber for the top and bottom surfaces of the optical spacer;

(b) forming a matrix of microlenses on the upper surface and the matrix of icons in the form of grooves on the bottom surface of the optical spacer;

(C) producing the hardening almost transparent rubber using) the treatment;

(g) filling the grooves of the matrix icons pigmented rubber or ink;

(d) removing the excess rubber or ink from the lower surface of the optical spacer; and

(e) applying a pigmented or deposited coating or layer to the bottom surface of the optical spacer.

In many cases, it is desirable that the protective yarns used in the currency and other valuable financial documents that were found and identified a high-speed non-contact sensors, such as capacitive sensor, a magnetic sensor, transparency, sensor opacity, fluorescence and/or nuclear magnetic resonance.

The introduction of fluorescent materials in the lens substrate, a matrix of icons or filling elements pictograms film Unison can enable hidden or legal definition of the authenticity of the material Unison through the observation of the presence of fluorescence and its spectral characteristics. Fluorescent film Unison can be constructed so that its fluorescent properties were clearly visible on both sides of the material, or only on one side of the material. Without layer optical isolation material at the bottom of the layer icons fluorescence of any part of the material Unison will be visible from both sides of the material. The inclusion of a layer of optical isolation material allows the Astelit visibility of fluorescence from two sides. Thus, the material Unison, including the optical layer of insulation below the plane of the icons can be designed to fluoresce in different directions: fluorescent color And visible on the side of the lens, there is no visible fluorescence layer side optical isolation, fluorescent light, or visible layer side optical isolation, but not from the lens, and a fluorescent color And visible on the side of the lens, and a fluorescent color or visible layer side of the optical isolation. The uniqueness of providing a wide range of possible fluorescent signatures can be used to further increase the protection material Unison. Layer optical isolation can be a layer of pigmented or dyed material, a layer of metal or a combination of pigmented and metallic layers, which absorb or reflect the fluorescent radiation from one side of the material and prevent the appearance of it from the other side.

Formed from molded drillings and their opposites icons formed from tin nodes, are especially useful because they enable machine reading specifications, certifying the authenticity, protective material thread Unison material for currency and other valuable documents. Matrix icons, will fill the eh icons and any number of secondary coating layer (sealing coating layer), all may, separately or in combination, include effluorescence pigments, effluorescence dyes, fluorescent pigments, fluorescent pigments, metal particles, magnetic particles, materials for nuclear magnetic resonance, laser particle, organic led materials, materials with different optical properties, the sprayed metal, thin-film interference materials, liquid crystal polymers, optical materials for conversion with decreasing and increasing frequency, dichroic materials, optically active materials (having the force of optical rotation), polarizing optical materials and other relevant materials.

In some circumstances, such as when adding a dark or colored coating (for example, magnetic material or conductive layer) of the material Unison, or when the color plane icon is controversial when viewed from the back side of the substrate, it may be desirable to mask or hide the integrated, partially integrated or window (i.e. implemented in the form of a window security thread material Unison with one side of the paper substrate, as seen in reflected light, while the thread is visible from the opposite side of the substrate. Other types of protective threads for exchange is widely used metal with the Oh, typically aluminum, to reflect the light, filtered through the surface of the substrate, thus providing a similar brightness to the surrounding substrate. Aluminum or another neutral color reflective metal can also be used to mask the appearance of security threads on the reverse side of the paper substrate, stacking a metal layer on the reverse surface of the material Unison and then, optionally, sealing it in place. The pigmented layer can be used for the same purpose, i.e. to mask or blur the visibility of security threads from the "reverse" side of the document at the place of the metallized layer or combinations thereof. The pigmented layer can be any color, including white, but the most effective color is the color corresponds to the color and intensity of light scattered inside and outside the fiber substrate.

Adding metallized layer to the material Unison can be performed in various ways, including direct metal deposition icons or sealing layer material Unison by thermal vacuum deposition, metal sputtering, chemical vapor deposition and other appropriate methods or lamination icons or sealing layer material Unison on the metal surface of another polymer film. Common is the creation of protective threads in the currency by using the plating film, structural metal removal from this film to leave a narrow metallic ribbon, laminating metallized surface of the second polymer film, and then by cutting the laminated material so that the metal bands were isolated from the edges of the cut threads laminating binder layer, thus protecting the metal from chemical reactions at the edges of the threads. This method can also be used in the related invention: material Unison can simply replace the second laminating film. Thus, the material Unison can be intensified by using structured or unstructured metallized layers.

Artificial image may be constructed as a double structure having one color (or no color)that defines the icon, and another color (or no color), which defines the background; in this case, each zone includes a complete monochromatic image using the "pixels" of the image that are either full or empty. More complex artificial image may be constructed using tonal variations of color icons. The tonal variation of the synthetic image can be generated by controlling the density of the color in each image icons or effectively "pelotonia" artificial depicts the e by including or excluding design elements in the selected group icon.

The first way of controlling the color density in each image icons may be implemented by monitoring the optical density of the material, creating a micro-printed image icons. One of these convenient methods that use a variant embodiment of the icons with the filled grooves, have been described previously.

The second way, "Halftoning" artificial image by including or excluding design elements in the selected group of icons shown on Fig, is due to the inclusion of design elements image is proportional to the area of icons equal to the desired density of color. On Fig this is illustrated by the example of the use of hexagonal patterns repeat for zones icons 570, which will be coordinated with a similar hexagonal structure repetition lenses. Each of the zones icon 570 does not contain identical information. All elements of the image icons, 572, 574, 576 and 578 have almost the same optical density (or intensity of staining). The elements of the image icons 572 and 574 are present in some areas of the icons, and other elements of the image icons are present in other areas of the icons. Some areas of the icons contain a single item of image icons 570. In some cases, ELEH the UNT image icons 572 is present in half of the areas of the icons, item image thumbnail 574 is present in three quarters of the zones of icons, the picture element icons 578 is present in half of the areas of the icons, and the picture element icons 576 is present in one third of the zones icon. Present in each zone icons information determines will show whether its respective lens color structure of the image icons or the background color of the image icons at a particular orientation of the observer. Or the item image thumbnail 572, or the item image thumbnail 578 will be visible in all lenses related to the structure of the icons, but the space 580 artificial image of the item icons 572 overlaps the artificial space of the image element of the image icons 578. This means that the overlapped area 582 artificial images icons 572 and 578 appears at 100% optical density, since each lens will project a color image icons in this area. Supercrema of these two artificial images 588 visible in the lenses only 50%, so there is at 50% optical density. Artificial image 586 item icons 576 is visible only in one-third of lenses, so it appears when 33,3% density. Artificial image 584 item icons 576, the respectively, appears when 75% of the density. It is clear that a huge amount of tonal differences can be obtained in the artificial image through selective exclusion of elements of the image thumbnail in the selected part of the zone icons. For more efficient distribution of items of image icons in zones of the image icons should be relatively uniform. The relative method of designing images, icons, illustrated in Figa, can be used to create combined elements of the artificial image, the smaller the smallest details of the individual elements of the artificial image. This can be done in General terms, where the size of the smallest: the details of the image icons is greater than the precision placement details. Thus, the image of the icon will have a minimum of parts, is of the order of two microns in scale, but these parts can be placed more accurately at any point on the grid with an interval of about 0.25 microns. In this case the smallest detail of the image icons to eight times larger than the precision of the placement of the part. As with the previous scheme, this method is displayed using a hexagonal structure icons 594, but it is well used for other types of suitable structural symmetry. P is the khozhy on the way, as Fig, manner this method uses a variety of information, at least in one area of the icon. In the example on Figa each of the two different structures of the pentagram 596 and 598 is present in half of the areas of the icons (for clarity only one of the data patterns shown in this figure). These image thumbnails create a composite artificial image 600 that includes an artificial image 602 generated by elements of the image icons 596, and an artificial image 604 generated by the image icons 598. These two artificial images 602 and 604, created for overlapping regions 606 and 608 that appear with 100% optical density (or intensity of staining), while the uncovered regions 605 are 50% of the optical density. The minimum scale of covered areas, composite or composite artificial image can be as small as given to the scale of the artificial increase the accuracy of placement of the elements of the image icons, and so may be less than the minimum size of the two parts of the compound of synthetic images that are designed to overlap in a small area. In the example on Fig overlapping areas are used to create parts of the number "10", with narrow lines, the use of which would print the author otherwise.

This method can be used to create narrow structures of the spaces between the elements of the image icons, as shown in Figb. Hexagonal zone icons 609 can be square or have any suitable shape, to create a matrix filled with space, but the hexagonal shape is preferred. In this example, half of the structures icons are the icons 610, and half of this image icons 611, ideally, these two patterns would be relatively evenly distributed among the zones icon. All of the data elements of these structures are depicted as almost equal and uniform optical density. In isolation, these two structures clearly do not represent the form of the final image, and it can be used as a security feature, the image is not obvious until then, until it formed overlying the lens matrix. One example of artificial images 612, formed by a combination of elements icons 610 artificial image with elements icons 611 artificial image shown here, in which gaps remain between the individual artificial images that form the number "10". In this case, the two artificial images were merged to form the final synthetic is the images, therefore, the colored part of the image 613 show only 50% of the optical density. This method is not limited to the details of this example: three icons can be used instead of the two spaces that define the desired element in the composite artificial images can have different width and unlimited range of forms, and this method can be combined either with ways to Fig, 24A, b, or 25, or another way of constructing the image icons that are already known. Disguised, hidden information can be included in the image icons that will not be possible to see in the resulting synthetic images. With this concealed information that is hidden in the icon image can for example be used for posting information certifying the authenticity of the object. Two ways to implement this idea is displayed on Fig. The first method is illustrated through the use of suitable images, icons, 616 and 618. The image icons 616 shows solid boundary structure and the number "42"that is contained within the boundaries. The image icon 618 shows a solid form with the number "42"as an image of the holes in this form.

In this example, the shape of the perimeter of the image icons, 616 and 618 are znachitelnoi degree, identical, and their relative position within the boundaries of their respective areas of pictograms, 634 and 636 is substantially identical. When a composite artificial image 620 is created from image data of the icons, the boundary integral artificial image 622 will show 100% optical density, since all the image icons have a structure in the relevant area, so there is a full overlap of artificial images generated from images of icons 616 and 618. The optical density of the inner region 624 composite artificial image 620 is 50%, because the display space that surrounds "42", comes from images of icons 618 that fill only half of the zones of icons, and image color "42", comes from images of icons 616, which also fills only half of the zones icon. Further, there is no tonal differentiation between "42" and the background, so the observed composite synthetic image 626 will show the image that has a 100% optical density at the boundary 628, and 50% of the optical density inside the 630. "42" is hidden is present in all images, icons, 616 and 618, and thus neutralized, and will not be visible in the reference composite artificial image 626.

The second way to enable the hidden information is in the image icons are illustrated by triangles on Fig. Triangles 632 can be randomly placed in the zone icon (not shown in this figure) or they can be placed in a matrix or other structure, which is practically not suitable for period zones icons 634, 632. Synthetic images are created from a variety of standard matrix images of icons displayed relevant standard matrix of microlenses. Patterns in the plane of the icons, which largely do not correspond to the period matrix of microlenses, will not form a complete artificial image. The structure of triangles 632, therefore, will not create a consistent artificial image and will not be visible in the observed artificial image 626. This method is not limited to simple geometric structures such as triangles 632: other concealed information, such as alphanumeric information, bar codes, data bits, the large-scale structure may be included in the plane of the icons using this method.

Fig illustrates the General approach to the creation of a fully three-dimensional integral image material Unison (Unison 3-D). A separate area icons 640 contains an image icon 642 that is the view of the object with a distorted scale to display in 3-D, as viewed from a viewpoint C is HN icons 640. In this case, the image icon 642 designed to create an artificial image 670 holocube 672. The image icons 642 has a border foreground 644, representing the next few corners 676 holocube 672, conical slotted structure 646 representing the corners 678 holocube 672, and border background 648, representing the far side 678 holocube 672. You can see that the relative proportions of base foreground 644 to the background 648 in the image icons 642 do not match the proportions of the nearest side 674 and the farthest side 678 artificial image holocube 672.

The reason for the difference in scale of the image, which should appear further from the plane of the material Unison, get more magnification, so their size in the image icons must be reduced to ensure proper scale to increase, to create an artificial image 672.

In different locations on the material Unison 3-D zones are icons 650 includes a wide variety of image icons 652. In the same way as with the image icons 642, image icons 652 is a view of an artificial image 672 distorted scale, as it is viewed from the point of view of the icons 650. Relative scaling foreground 654 and the it plan 658 is similar to the corresponding elements of the image icons 642 (although this in General, not true), but the location of the contour of the background 658 shifted together with the size and angular orientation of structures 656. Area icons 660 is located farther in the distance, on the material Unison 3-D and is another image icons 662, with a distorted scale, including image thumbnails 662, with the contour of the foreground 664, conical slit structures 667 and loop back 668.

In General, the thumbnail image for each zone icon in the material Unison 3-D will vary slightly from the nearest neighbors and can vary significantly from distant neighbors. You can see that the image icons 652 represents a transitional stage between images 642 and 662. In General, each image icons in the material Unison 3-D may be unique, but each will represent a transitional stage between the image icons to the other side.

Artificial image 670 is formed of a plurality of image icons, like images, icons, 640, 650 and 660 that appear artificially through the associated lens matrix. Artificial image holocube 674 shows the different factors that artificially resulting effective periods of repetition of the various elements of each image pict is grams. It is assumed that the image holocube 674 is designed for viewing as SuperDeep image. In this case, the area of the icon 640 was located at some distance from the bottom left area of 650 icons and pictograms 660 was located at some distance at the top right area of the icon 650, and you can see that the effective period of the contours of the foreground 644, 654, and 664 will be less than the effective period of the contours of the background 648, 658 and 668, thus forcing the closest side 676 cube (conforms to the contours of the foreground 644, 654, and 664) to be closer to the plane of the material Unison and grow under the action of a larger factor.

Corner elements 646, 656 and 667 coordinated with elements of the foreground and background to create the effect of smooth depth change between them. Method of constructing images icons for material Unison 3-D is more fully represented in Fig. This figure gives a different view of this method for a single projection device 680. As described previously, a separate projection apparatus includes a lens, an optical spacer and the image icons having almost the same dimensions as the repetition period of the lens (allowed a slight difference in scale that creates a visual effect of Unison). The field of view of this lens and associated PI is thegrammy shown as a cone 682: this also corresponds to the inversion of the focal cone of the lens, therefore, the proportions of the field of view cone 682 determined by the index aperture lenses. Although the figure shows that this cone has a circular base, form the basis in reality will be the same as the shape of the zone icons, for example hexagonal.

In this example, the authors wish to create an artificial image Unison 3-D, which contains three copies of the word "UNISON", 686, 690 and 694, with the same visual size as three different image plane SuperDeep 684, 690 and 692. The diameter of the image planes 684, 690 and 692 expanding cone field of view: in other words, with increasing depth increases the scope of the cone of vision. Thus, the field of view in the plane with the smallest depth 684 contains only part of the "NIS" word "UNISON", while the plane with an average depth of 688 contains all part of the "NIS" and parts of "U" and "O", and the plane with the greatest depth 692 contains almost all the word "UNISON", with the exception only of the last "N".

The information they represent (UNISON 686, 690 and 694) through each of these planes artificial image 684, 688 and 692, must be included in a single image icons in the projection apparatus 680. This is done by capturing the information in the cone field of view, 686, each plane with different depth 684, 688 and 692, then masstabi the I resulting structure of the image icons on the same dimensions. The image icons 696 represents a field of view image UNISON 686, which is evident in the deep plane 684, image icons 704 represents a field of view image UNISON 690, which is evident in the deep plane 688, and the image icons 716 represents a field of view image UNISON 694, as can be seen in the deep plane 692.

Within the boundaries of the image icons 696 elements of the image icons 696 arise from part of the first "N" image UNISON 686, item image icons 700 arises from "I" image UNISON 686, elements of image icons 702 arise from "S" image UNISON 686. Within the image icons 704 item image icons 706 arises from "U" image UNISON 690, the picture element icons 708 arises from part of the first "N" image UNISON 690, the picture element icons 710 arises from "S" image UNISON 690, and the picture element icons 714 arises from "About" image UNISON 690. The authors draw attention to the fact that despite the presentation of artificial images 686, 690 and 694 in similar scale image icons 704 for plane 688 with an average depth represents their letters UNISON at finer scales than the letters of the image icons 696. This explains the higher artificial increase, which will podvergalis the image icons 704 (systematic connection with many surrounding the icon images, for the same plane with the same depth). Similarly, the image icons 716 includes elements of image icons 718 arising from image UNISON 694, and letters UNISON, are included in this image icons have further reduced the scale.

The final image icons for the given projection apparatus is created through the combination of all three images icons 696, 704 and 716 in one image icon 730, shown in Fig. The elements combined icons 732 includes all the graphics and in-depth information necessary for a projection apparatus 680 to contribute to the artificial image formed from a variety of image projectors, each of which has specific information about the image icon, which is the intersection of its own cone of vision, focused on the projector image with the levels and elements of the generated synthetic image. Since each projector image is shifted by at least one repetition period of the lenses from each of the other projector image, each projector image will be different information, which is the intersection of its own cone of vision with artificial space of the image.

Each image is of the icons, required to represent the 3-D image may be calculated, based on three-dimensional digital model of an artificial image, the desired depth position and length depth for submission to the artificial image, the repetition period of the lens, field of view lens, high graphic resolution images icons. This last factor puts an upper limit on the level of detail that can be represented in each depth plane. Because of the deep plane lying further from the plane of the material Unison, carrying a large amount of information (due to the increased field of view), the limit of resolution of the icons has a significant impact on the resolution of these deep planes artificial image.

Fig illustrates how the method Fig can be applied to complex three-dimensional artificial image, such as image artifact with priceless carvings on mammoth bones ice age, Lady Brassempouy, 742. Individual projector image 738, including at least a lens, an optical spatial element and the image icons (not shown), is in the plane 740 material Unison, separating the space of the artificial image of type float from space artificial image deep. this example, the artificial space of the image covers material Unison so what part of the image is in the space of an artificial image of type float, and the part is in space artificial image type deep. image 738 has an almost conical field of view, expanding in space artificial image type deep 744, and in the space of an artificial image of type float 746. The required number of image planes deep, 748 and 752-762, is chosen in the space required to get the desired resolution space artificial image type deep. Similarly, the required number of image planes of type float, 750 and 764-774, is chosen in the space required to get the desired resolution space artificial image of type float. Some of these planes, such as plane type deep 748 and the plane float 750, extend beyond the artificial image and will not contribute to the final information in the image icons. For clarity, shown in Fig the number of image planes is limited to a small number, but the actual number of selected planes of the image may be high, for example 50 or 100 or more planes to obtain the desired depth resolution synthetic image. The method presented on Fig and 28, is used for obtaining the image is the position of the icons in each depth plane by determining the shape of the intersection of the object surface 742 to the selected depth plane 156-114. The resulting individual images icons scaled to the final size of the combined image icons. All images icons float first rotated 180 degrees (as they are again rotated to this angle when projected, thus turning them into the correct orientation angle in the artificial image), then they are combined with images of icons deep to form the final image icons for the given projection device 738. This process is repeated for each position of the image projector to get the full structure of the image icons, which are required to form a complete synthetic image 742.

Resolution synthetic image depends on the resolution of optical projectors and graphics resolution images icons. The authors obtained the graphic resolution images of icons is less than 0.1 μm, which exceeds theoretical limit of the optical resolution magnifying optics (0.2 microns). A typical image icons is created with a resolution of 0.25 microns. Materials Unison may be produced by sheet or tape processing, using tools that are separately inserted lenses and microstructure of icons. As lensed instruments and tools the cops icons are obtained using photomasks and photoresist methods.

Lens tools were originally designed as templates semiconductor type, usually black chrome on glass. With significant resolution templates can be created using photomedicine or photoreductive, electron-beam writing or laser writing. The typical pattern of lens tool includes a repeating structure opaque hexagons with a specified period, such as 30 microns, with clean lines, separating the hexagons with a width of less than 2 microns. This template is then used for applying photoresistor layer on a glass plane, using classical semiconductor system UV photolithography. Select the thickness of the protective layer to obtain the desired deflection of the lens. For example, positive protective layer of AZ 4620 thickness of 5 μm is applied on a glass plane by means of suitable methods, such as coating using the method of centrifugation, coating using immersion, coating meniscus coating or by spraying, to create a lens with a nominal period of 30 microns and a nominal focal length of 35 microns. The protective layer 63 is applied by using a template, and is embedded in the glass in the classical way, then dried and escaped at 100°C during the course the e 30 minutes. The lenses are formed by melting the standard methods known in the art. The resulting microlens protective layer coated with a conductive metal, for example gold or silver, and by electroforming creates a negative Nickel tool.

The toolbar icons are created in a similar way. The structure of the icon, as a rule, is created using CAD softwares, and this design is transferred to the semiconductor pattern. This template can be used as a lens pattern, except that the thickness of the protective layer generally is in the range from 0.5 microns to 8 microns, depending on the optical density of the desired artificial image. Photoresistive protective layer is applied with the use of template patterns embedded in glass using classical methods, is covered with a conductive metal, and by means of an electric moulding creates a negative Nickel tool. According to the design of the original mask and the use of a protective layer (positive or negative), the icons can be created in the form of grooves in protective structures or in the form of "mesoblastic" or nodes in a protective structures, or in combination.

Materials Unison can proizvoditsa using a wide variety of materials and using a variety of well-known specialists of ways microoptical and microstructural replication including extrusion forging, radiation cure, soft stamping and injection press molding, reactive injection molding extrusion and injection molding method of back pressure. The production method includes forming icons as grooves in radiation-volcanoserver.com liquid polymer, put the wheels on the base film, for example an adhesive film of polyethylene terephthalate, 75 gauge, then to form lenses of radiation vulcanized polymer on the reverse side of the base film when the correct alignment or tilt, relative to the icon, then fill the grooves icons submicron particles of a color pigmented material by spray engraving coating doctor blade to the surface of the film, to make the filling solid, using suitable methods (examples: removal solution, radiation crosslinking or chemical reaction), and, ultimately, to apply. On selection, the sealing layer may be either clear, colored, pigmented or enable hidden protective materials.

Production material Unison Motion, requires that the tool icons and lens tool was selected degree of displacement of the axes of symmetry of the two matrices. The offset of the axes of symmetry of the icons and lens controls the size of the artificial image, and rotating artificial the n images in the generated material. It is often desirable to obtain almost aligned artificial image, as in the one direction of the grid, and cross-network areas, and in these cases the total angular deflection of icons and lenses divided in equal proportions between the lens structure and the structure of the pictogram. The required degree of angular displacement is usually very small. For example, the total angular displacement of the order of 0.3 degrees is appropriate for zoom images of the icon 30 microns to the size of 5.7 mm in the material Unison Motion. In this example, the total angular displacement divided in equal proportions between the two instruments, so that each tool is tilted 0.15 degrees in the same direction for both instruments. The tilt in the same direction as the instruments form a microstructure on the back sides of the base film so that the bending tools are added instead to neutralize each other.

The tilt can be done in tools during the initial design templates by turning the entire structure at a desired angle to its account. The tilt can also be implemented mechanically in a flat Nickel tool by trimming it at right angles, with the use of the machine with numerical control. The tool kit is a clone then formed into a cylindrical tool using cut obliquely edge to align the tool relative to the axis of rotation of the printing cylinder.

Here microoptical system artificially, can be combined with additional features, including but not limited to data variant embodiment, as separate elements, or various combinations, such as materials for filling icons, reverse coating, external coating, semi-structured and unstructured fill or inclusion in lenses, optical strip or materials icons as laminates or coatings, inks or adhesives, including aqueous, radiation-vulcanized, optically transparent, translucent or opaque, pigmented or painted mark or trade marks in the form of positive or negative material, coating, or printing, including, but not limited to, inks, metals, fluorescent, or magnetic materials, x-ray, infrared, or ultraviolet absorbents or emitting materials, magnetic and non-magnetic metals, including aluminum, Nickel, chromium, silver, and gold; the magnetic coating and particles for detection and information storage; fluorescent dyes and pigments, as coatings and particles; ER-fluorescent coating will fill the Lee, dyes or particles; UV fluorescent coatings, fillers, dyes or particles; fluorescent dyes and pigments, as coatings and particles, DNA, RNA, or other macromolecular compounds, dichroic fibers, radioisotopes, receptive to printing, coating, sizing or primer coating, chemically reactive materials, microencapsulation ingredients, materials with a modified field of view, the conductive particles and metallic and non-metallic coating, perforated microscopic holes, colored yarn or fiber, lots Unison embedded in the surface of the document, label, or the surface of the material attached to the paper or polymer, as the carrier, to adhere to the paper during manufacture, fluorescent dichroic filaments or fibers, coatings with combined dispersion or particle with a combined dispersion, changing the color coating or particles. Unison, laminated paper, cardboard, folder, plastic, ceramics, fiber or metal substrate, Unison as the thread of the plot, labels, hot stamp, or tear-off tape, topographic, refractive, refractive kinetic image, isogamy, photographic and refractive optical elements, liquid crystal materials, materials with conversion with the increase or decrease is the group of frequencies

Here microtecnica system artificially, has many areas of use or application.

Examples:

use in the government and defense sector, regardless of Federal, state and foreign (for example, passports, ID cards, drivers license, visas, birth certificates, vital documents, cards, voter registration, ballot papers, social security card, bonds, food stamps, postal stamps and tax stamps);

currency - Federal, state or foreign (e.g., security threads in paper currency, watermarks in polymer currency and watermarks in paper currency);

documents (e.g., documents certifying the rights of property, and documents evidencing the transfer of ownership, licenses, diplomas and certificates);

financial and negotiable instruments (such as certified cashier's checks, corporate checks, personal checks, Bank vouchers, share certificates, travellers cheques, money orders, credit cards, debit cards, ATM cards, loyalty cards, phone cards and gift certificates);

confidential information (such as subtitles, juridicas the e documents documents, intellectual property, medical records/ medical history, prescriptions and "secret recipes");

protect products and brands, including products for the care of fabrics and home (for example, ingredients for washing, air fresheners for tissue products for dishwashing, household cleaning products, surface coatings, bleaches and special care products fabrics);

cosmetics (for example, hair care products, hair dyes, cleaners and skin care, cosmetic compounds, aromatic compounds, deodorants and anti-sweat, sanitary towels, tampons and other means);

funds for child care and for home use (for example, baby diapers, baby wipes, diapers and diapers, paper towels, toilet paper and facial tissues); medicines (for example, for oral administration to animals, food additives, pharmaceutical drugs used by a physician, pharmaceutical drugs used without a medical prescription, administration of medicines and health, vitamins, sporting goods and food additives; glasses; medical instruments and equipment sold to medical institutions, health professionals and wholesale distributors of medical equipment (ie: bandages,equipment, implants, surgical kits); packaging food and beverage products; packaging of dry food products;

electronic equipment, spare parts and components;

clothing and footwear, including sports clothing, footwear, licensed and unlicensed, clothes for sports and luxury items, cloth;

biotech pharmaceuticals;

components and spare parts for aerospace vehicles; components and spare parts for automotive equipment; sports equipment;

tobacco products;

software;

CDs DVD;

explosives;

Souvenirs and gift items (for example, gift wrapping and ribbon), books and magazines; products for school and office supplies; business card;

transport documentation and packaging;

wrap books and notebooks; publishing the mark;

tickets for transport and presentation;

gambling business and products for the gaming industry (for example, lottery tickets, playing cards, casino chips and items for use in casinos, flea lottery and sweepstakes);

the goods for the house (for example, towels, bed linen and furniture);

carpet to floor and walls;

jewelry and watches;

bags for carrying;

art, collectibles and memory the data items;

toys;

exposure (e.g. exposure at the place of sale or trade exposure); labeling of products and labels (e.g., labels, stickers, bagichi, thread, a tear tape, a wrapping material that protects from unauthorized access, used for branded products or document for authentication or security enhancements, as camouflage or tracing of the debtor's property.

The above-described materials suitable for different variants of the embodiment include a wide range of polymeric materials. Acrylic resin, modified acrylic resin polyesters, modified acrylic resin urethanes, polypropylene, epoxies, urethanes and polyesters have suitable optical and mechanical properties for the microlenses, and elements of the microstructured icon. Suitable materials for selective epigastric films include the majority of publicly available market polymeric film materials, including acrylic, cellophane, film materials from polyvinylidenechloride, nylon, polycarbonate, polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene and polyvinyl. Materials filling microstructured icon may include any of the materials, re olenych above, as adequate to create microstructured elements pictograms, as well as ink-based solutions and other publicly available market pigments or dyes. Pigments or dyes embedded in these materials must be compatible with the chemical composition of the binder material. The pigments should have a significantly smaller particle size than the smallest size of any of the components of the item icons. At the user's choice, the materials of the sealing layer may include any of those listed in the previous sections of materials as suitable materials for the use or application when creating elements of a microstructured icon, and additionally, a large number of publicly available market of paints, inks, coatings, gloss coatings, varnishes and transparent layers, which are used in the printing industry and in industries engaged in the processing of film or paper. There is not a most preferred combination of materials, the choice of material depends on the geometrical details and the geometric dimensions of the material, the optical properties of the system and the desired optical effect.

Although, have been described and illustrated exemplary embodiments of the incarnation, the specialists will be quite clear that there can be huge is the amount of change, modifications, upgrades of the invention, which are described here. Therefore, all such changes, modifications and upgrades should be considered in the context of this description.

1. Microoptical system artificially, including:
(a) a matrix of thumbnails;
(b) a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, where the matrix of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image with the motion; and the system comprising a matrix of icons and a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, has a thickness of less than 50 microns, and/or effective base diameter of the focusing elements pictograms is less than 50 microns.

2. Microoptical system artificially, including:
(a) a matrix of thumbnails;
(b) a matrix of focusing elements of icons, and the focusing elements pictograms include focusing elements representing multi-zone focusing elements with polygonal base,
where the matrix of icons and the matrix of focusing elements icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement is possible.

3. Microoptical system artificially, including the image and many of the focusing elements in the image, the image includes a matrix of icons, including microstructural elements pictograms with physical relief in the form of shaped cavities and/or shape of the projections, with such a mutual arrangement of focusing elements and image, which enables the creation of at least one artificially enlarged image with the effect of the motion, and the system is part of the protection device or authentication.

4. Microoptical system artificially, including the image and many of the focusing elements in the image, and focusing elements and image are compared one to another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of orthogonal movement with respect to the expected direction of movement when the parallax,
the system is part of the protection device or authentication.

5. Microoptical system artificially, including:
(a) a matrix of thumbnails;
(b) a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, where the matrix of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons are arranged in relation to one another thus, th is would have provided at least one artificially enlarged image, with effect orthogonal movement with respect to the expected direction of movement when the parallax,
and icons selected from the group comprising a positive element icons and negative elements icons.

6. System according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 5, characterized in that it is part of the protection device or authentication.

7. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements represent the feasibility of focusing elements.

8. The system according to claim 7, wherein the focusing elements are aspheric focusing elements.

9. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the geometry of the bases of focusing elements selected from a group comprising: a circular base, a substantially round base, hexagonal base, substantially hexagonal base, square base, substantially square base, triangular base, a substantially triangular base, or a combination of these reasons.

10. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements have an f-number equal to 4 or less.

11. The system according to claim 7, wherein the focusing elements have an f-number equal to 2 or less.

12. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that each of the focusing the element is provided that has an effective base diameter of from about 10 to about 30 microns.

13. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that each focusing element has an effective base diameter of less than 30 microns.

14. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the total thickness of the system is less than about 45 microns.

15. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the total thickness of the system is from about 10 to about 40 microns.

16. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it includes focusing elements with a focal length of less than approximately 40 microns.

17. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it includes focusing elements with a focal length equal to from about 10 to less than about 30 microns.

18. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it includes icons that are formed by using the printing method selected from the group consisting of methods: inkjet printing, laser printing, letterpress, flexography, gravure and intaglio.

19. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it includes icons formed as slits in the substrate, whereby the slots form the openings, which may not necessarily be filled with a colored material, metal, pigmented material, or combinations of these materials.

20. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it has the VA layer icon at different depths in the system, and focusing elements having different focal lengths for focusing at different depths of the two layers of icons in the system.

21. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements are feasibility lens, and a reflecting layer located on the side opposite to the focusing elements icons.

22. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it includes a transparent material indication of tampering, located on top of the focusing elements.

23. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that it comprises a second matrix of focusing elements, and the matrix of focusing elements icons located on one side of the matrix of icons, and the second matrix of focusing elements located on the opposite side of the matrix of icons.

24. The system according to item 23, wherein the system includes a second matrix of icons between the two matrices of focusing elements.

25. The system according to claim 6, acting as laminating film on the document.

26. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, acting as a protection device or authentication of a document, where the document is selected from the group including ID, credit cards, credit cards, driver's license, financial documents, banknotes, b is koskie cheques and banknotes.

27. The system according to claim 6, characterized in that the system is implemented in the security thread paper for manufacturing banknotes.

28. The way to create microoptical artificial increase, including the following steps:
(a) providing the matrix of thumbnails;
(b) providing the matrix of focusing elements of icons, and the system comprising a matrix of icons and a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, has a thickness of less than 50 microns, and/or effective base diameter of the focusing elements pictograms is less than 50 μm; and
(c) the matrix arrangement of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

29. A method of creating a protection device document comprising the following steps:
(a) providing the matrix of thumbnails;
(b) providing the matrix of focusing elements of icons, and the system comprising a matrix of icons and a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, has a thickness of less than 50 microns, and/or effective base diameter of the focusing elements pictograms is less than 50 μm; and
(c) the matrix arrangement of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons in relation to one another so that to ensure at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

30. The method of controlling optical effects in microoptical system that artificially image, comprising the following steps:
(a) providing the matrix of thumbnails;
(b) providing the matrix of focusing elements of icons, and the system comprising a matrix of icons and a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, has a thickness of less than 50 microns, and/or effective base diameter of the focusing elements pictograms is less than 50 μm; and
(c) the matrix arrangement of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

31. The method of controlling an optical effects device protection or authentication, comprising the following steps:
(a) providing the matrix of thumbnails;
(b) providing the matrix of focusing elements of icons, and the system comprising a matrix of icons and a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, has a thickness of less than 50 microns, and/or effective base diameter of the focusing elements pictograms is less than 50 μm; and
(c) the matrix arrangement of focusing elements is s icons and matrix of icons in relation to one another so to ensure at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

32. Icon for use in microoptical system artificially, where the optical system of the artificial increase includes:
(a) a matrix of thumbnails;
(b) a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, where the matrix of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of motion;
these icons include icons formed as slits in the substrate, whereby the slots form the gaps, not necessarily complete.

33. Icon for use in a security device or authentication, and the security device or authentication includes:
(a) a matrix of thumbnails;
(b) a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, where the matrix of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of motion;
these icons include icons formed as slits in the substrate, whereby the slots form the openings, optional filling the military material.

34. The protection device document containing:
(a) a matrix of thumbnails;
(b) a matrix of focusing elements of icons, and the focusing elements pictograms include focusing elements, representing a multi-zonal focusing elements with a multi-faceted base,
where the matrix of icons and the matrix of focusing elements icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

35. The way to create microoptical artificial increase, including the following steps:
(a) providing the matrix of thumbnails;
(b) providing the matrix of focusing elements of icons, and the focusing elements pictograms include focusing elements, representing a multi-zonal focusing elements with a multi-faceted base; and
(c) the matrix arrangement of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

36. A method of creating a device of document protection, including the following steps:
(a) providing the matrix of thumbnails;
(b) providing the matrix of focusing elements is of ectogram, moreover, the focusing elements pictograms include focusing elements, representing a multi-zonal focusing elements with a multi-faceted base; and
(c) the matrix arrangement of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

37. Protective or confirming the authenticity of thread, including:
(a) one or more matrices of thumbnails;
(b) one or more matrices feasibility of focusing elements pictograms,
where the focusing elements icons includes focusing elements having a base diameter less than 50 microns, and one or more matrices of focusing elements icons and one or more matrices of icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

38. Protective or confirming the authenticity of thread, including:
(a) material having a matrix of icons, including the filled slots formed in the material;
(b) the feasibility matrix, in-plane, multi-zonal focusing elements pictograms with aspherical or polyhedral base,
where the focusing matrix elements stored the matrix of icons are arranged in relation to one another so to ensure at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement,
moreover, the focusing elements pictograms include focusing elements representing the focusing elements with a base diameter in the range from about 20 to about 30 microns; and
(c) pigmented or metallic sealing or obscuring layer, located on the matrix icon.

39. The way to create microoptical artificial increase, including the following steps:
(a) providing a layer of material forming the optical spacer;
(b) overlay practically translucent or transparent radiation curable resin on the top and bottom surface of the optical spacer;
(c) forming a matrix of focusing elements on the top surface and matrix of icons in the form of slits on the bottom surface of the optical spacer;
(d) curing practically translucent or transparent resin using a radiation source;
(e) filling the slots of the matrix icons pigmented resin or paint;
(f) removal of excess resin or paint from the bottom surface of the optical spacer; and
(g) providing a pigmented or metallic sealing or obscuring coating or layer on the bottom surface of the optical fiber is tion of the strip.

40. The protection device or authentication involving optical system artificially, made according to § 39.

41. Security thread comprising the optical system artificially, made according to § 39.

42. Security thread, including:
(a) one or more matrices of thumbnails;
(b) one or more matrices feasibility of focusing elements pictograms,
where the focusing elements pictograms include focusing elements, representing a multi-zonal focusing elements with a multi-faceted base, and one or more matrices of focusing elements icons and one or more matrices of icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image having the effect of movement.

43. The protection device, including:
(a) a matrix of thumbnails;
(b) a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, where the matrix of focusing elements pictograms and a matrix of icons are arranged in relation to one another in such a manner that at least one artificially enlarged image with the motion; and the system comprising a matrix of icons and a matrix of focusing elements pictograms, has a thickness of less than 50 microns, and/or the effective diameter at the base f casiraya elements pictograms is less than 50 microns.

44. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements selected from the refractive, diffractive, reflective and hybrid refractive/diffractive focusing elements.

45. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements are multi-zonal focusing elements with a multi-faceted base having a polygonal geometry of the grounds.

46. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements provide an enlarged field of view over the width corresponding to the focusing elements of the icon so that the peripheral edges of the respective icons do not fall out of sight.

47. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that it further includes one or more optical spacers between the matrix of icons and the matrix of focusing elements icons.

48. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it includes icons formed from deposited a certain way of colorless, transparent, colored, tinted, or colored material.

49. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it includes icons formed as molded sites in the surface of the substrate, and the space between the molded nodes are not necessarily filled with colored material, metal is om, pigmented material or combinations of such materials.

50. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons that are transparent, translucent, pigmented, fluorescent, phosphorescent, metallized, reflective or displaying optically variable color.

51. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons with a background that is transparent, translucent, pigmented, fluorescent, phosphorescent, metalized reflecting or reflecting optically variable color.

52. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons, obtained by printing, microstructures, applying a metallized coating, structured or structured metallization demetallization.

53. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons that are molded in the photographic emulsion.

54. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons formed from effluorescence pigments, effluorescence paints, fluorescent pigments, fluorescent paints, metal, metal particles, magnetized particles, materials signature of nuclear magnetic resonance, particles emitting in the optical d is AMAZONE, organic led materials, optically variable materials, spraying materials, spraying materials, materials obtained by chemical deposition, thin-film interference materials, liquid crystal polymers, optical materials increasing and/or decreasing frequency conversion, dichroic materials, optically active materials, optically polarized materials.

55. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons, formed by direct plating or laminating.

56. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons, formed by deposition, sputtering or chemical vapor deposition.

57. System p, wherein the process of forming includes applying a metal material.

58. System according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 6, characterized in that it includes icons generated by using structured demetallization.

59. The system according to item 21, wherein the reflective layer is metallized.

60. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the system is protected by a sealing layer, and at least part of this sealing layer is transparent, translucent, colored, pigmented, opaque, metallic, magnetic or pricheski variable.

61. System p, wherein the sealing layer includes optical effects.

62. System p or 61, wherein the sealing layer supports automated systems for detection, counting, tracking, verification or authentication of banknotes, which are based on optical effects, thermal conductivity, electrical capacity or the detection of a magnetic field.

63. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the system has gaps between the focusing elements, and these gaps can be filled.

64. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the system includes a layer of indicating tampering.

65. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the illumination system can be seen the shadow image artificially enlarged icons.

66. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the artificially enlarged image has the appearance of a three-dimensional image.

67. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the artificially enlarged image gives the impression of the presence of at least one set of structures, colors or shapes, or combinations of these parameters.

68. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it provides a vertical blur focal point is to a focusing element.

69. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that it further includes two matrixes icons on two separate distances from the focusing matrix elements pictograms, where the matrix of focusing elements icons includes focusing elements with focal distances, which correspond to two separate distance matrices icons.

70. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5, or 6, wherein the focusing elements are aspheric focusing elements, and icons are formed as slots in the substrate, whereby the slots form the openings, which may not necessarily be filled with a colored material, metal, pigmented material or combinations of such materials.

71. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements include dot optics.

72. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements have a low index of the diaphragm and vertical binocular desperately.

73. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements have an index of the diaphragm is less than 1.

74. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements have a base diameter of 35 microns and a focal length of 30 microns.

75. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it further includes ve is JNI layer, which will neutralize the optical power of the focusing elements.

76. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that it further includes an optical spacer between the matrix of icons and the matrix of focusing elements pictograms, and having a thickness of from approximately 8 microns to approximately 25 microns.

77. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it further includes an optical spacer, made of almost transparent polymer.

78. The system or method according to p, characterized in that the transparent polymer selected from the group including polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride.

79. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that the icons are formed as slits in the substrate, whereby the slots form the openings, which may not necessarily be filled with material.

80. System p, characterized in that the depth of the slots thumbnail is from about 0.5 to 8 microns.

81. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that the system is intended to confirm the authenticity of items and goods.

82. System p, characterized in that the object or item selected from the group including documents identification documents reflecting ownership of the thing or property, financial, and about the now monetary documents, confidential information, products, health care, games accessories, medicines, packaging for food, beverage packaging, and consumer goods.

83. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that this system is included in the device security or authentication with respect to the object or product, and is the subject or the item selected from the group including:
passports, identity cards, driving licences, visas, birth certificate, civil registration, forms, voter registration, ballot papers, social security card, bonds, food stamps, postage stamps and stamp tax;
banknotes, security thread in the paper banknotes, distinctive characteristics in polymer banknotes and distinctive signs in paper banknotes;
documents on the legal title, instruments of transfer of property rights, licenses, diplomas and certificates;
confirmed cashier's checks, corporate checks, personal checks, Bank bills, certificates of title to shares, traveller's cheques, money orders, credit cards, payment cards, ATM cards, loyalty cards, prepaid phone cards and gift certificates;
kinostsenari is, legal documents, intellectual property, medical records/medical history, prescription pad/pads, and secret recipes;
the baby care products, clothes and a house;
cosmetics;
funds for child care and for home use;
health products;
packaging of food products and beverages;
packaging of textile products;
electronic equipment, parts and components;
clothing, sports clothing and footwear;
biotech pharmaceuticals;
parts and components of products of the aerospace industry;
parts and components of products to the automotive industry;
sporting goods;
tobacco products;
software;
CDs and DVDs;
explosives;
Souvenirs, gift wrap and ribbons;
books and magazines;
school supplies and stationery;
business cards;
transport documentation and packaging;
wrapper for notebooks;
the book cover;
bookmarks;
tickets for transport and presentation;
products and devices for games and gambling;
household goods;
flooring and walls;
jewelry & watches;
bags and suitcases;
art, collectibles and memorabilia;
toys;
the exposition at the place of sale or sales exp is the exposure; and
products used for marking and labels attached to the branded product or document for authentication or improvements, as the masking means or for tracking property.

84. The system according to claim 6, characterized in that the protection device or authentication partially embedded in the document.

85. The system according to claim 6, characterized in that the system built-in protection device document.

86. The system according to claim 6, wherein the focusing elements are feasibility lens and a reflective layer located on the side opposite to the focusing elements.

87. The system according to claim 6, characterized in that the protection device or authentication embedded in paper banknotes and includes the characteristics of machine detection.

88. The system according to item 27, wherein the protective thread is a security thread, creating the effect of window areas".

89. System p, wherein the security thread, creating the effect of window areas", contains pigmented, dyed, filled or closed sealing layer to enhance the contrast of the image or provide additional distinguishing features of authenticity or for both these purposes.

90. System p, wherein the security thread, creating the effect of window areas"has what elektroprovodnostju, magnetic properties, or the possibility of detection using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

91. System p, characterized in that the size of the resulting artificially enlarged image exceeds the width of the security thread.

92. System p, wherein the security thread, creating the effect of window areas"includes pigmented, sealing or obscuring layer.

93. The method according to p, characterized in that the system is built into the structure of the device protection or authentication.

94. The icon on p, characterized in that the gaps are filled with colored material, metal, pigmented material or combinations of such materials.

95. Icon for use in a security device or authentication p, characterized in that the device security or authentication is a security device documents.

96. The icon on p, characterized in that the gaps are filled with colored material, metal, pigmented material or combinations of such materials.

97. The protection device of documents 34, characterized in that the device is included in the composition of the protective devices or authentication intended for documents.

98. The protection device of documents 34, wherein the focusing elements are chosen from among the refracting difraktsionnykh, reflecting and hybrid refractive/diffractive focusing elements.

99. Execution method microoptical artificial increase in p, wherein the system is included in the device protection or authentication.

100. The device according to clause 34, wherein the focusing elements have an index of the diaphragm, which is equal to or less than 4.

101. System according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the focusing elements have an effective base diameter of less than 50 microns.

102. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that the number of focusing elements included focusing elements with an effective base diameter of from about 15 μm to about 35 μm when the focal length of from about 10 microns to about 30 microns.

103. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5 or 6, characterized in that the icons are formed in the form of a microstructured elements in the substrate.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has at least one display apparatus, a total internal reflection (TIR) optical element connected to a drive and at least one optical path distributing optical element. The TIR optical element can form an optical path for transmitting an image of the environment directly from the environment to at least one optical path distributing optical element. The optical path distributing element has a surface with controlled TIR and can form an optical path for transmitting the image of the environment from the TIR optical element to at least one eye of an observer, and can also form an optical path for transmitting a virtual image from the display apparatus to at least one eye of an observer.

EFFECT: reproduction of a virtual image and an image of the environment, low power consumption and weight.

22 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: mirrors/filters are placed in space so as to create a collinear matrix group of rectangular beams through successive reflections and/or transmissions from several optical frequencies emitted by a defined number of radiation sources. The top step consists of matrix of mirrors/filters with size m x n in p items superimposed with each other. The bottom step is a matrix from m mirrors/filters built into p rows with possibility of addressing outgoing beams to columns of matrices of the top step. The mirrors/filters of the matrices have characteristics which enable transmission of spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it and/or transmission of the spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it to the next mirror/filter.

EFFECT: optimisation of the process of frequency-address light beam routing.

5 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves image preprocessing using a video processor 13 to eliminate geometric distortions, resulting from the geometry of the optical system; formation of an image of the cabin space on a monitor screen 1 and projection using a reproduction lens 2 onto a holographic diffuser 3, which is an assembly of two diffusers (4, 6), turned about each other and joined by a layer of immersion transparent substance 5, and which forms a scattering indicatrix so as to provide a given viewing area with the required image contrast. Principal beams are directed near the optical axis of the system using a collective lens 7, placed in front of the holographic diffuser. The image is then directed to the viewing area of the driver 12 using a holographic beam splitter 9, placed on the windscreen 10.

EFFECT: increased reliability and provision for safe driving conditions.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device has a laser and, optically connected to the laser, a system for dividing the initial beam, a beam convergence system, galvano scanner with a focus lens and a telescope-radiation homogeniser, fitted on the beam path in front of the system for dividing the initial beam. The system for dividing the initial beam and the beam convergence system are in form of mirror matrices. The mirrors in the matrices have equal surface area and can independently rotate and move in two mutually perpendicular planes. Mirrors in the matrix of the beam convergence system can additionally move in the plane of the matrix.

EFFECT: multiple increase in efficiency of laser beam machines and reduced power consumption at high quality of the product.

1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes, metal working.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of laser processing of materials, in particular, to device of multiway laser processing and may be used in production of large number of products at single laser complex, also in process of laser cutting, welding, pad welding and selective sintering. Device comprises N+1 lasers of initial beam division system and system of beam convergence, which is arranged in the form of set of N+1 telescopes, every of which is optically connected to laser. Telescopes are arranged with the possibility of independent rotation and displacement in two mutually perpendicular planes.

EFFECT: provision of multiple rise of efficiency of laser technological complexes, reduced power inputs at high quality of product.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical system of spectrum divider for IR-area of spectrum comprising flat-parallel plate with spectrum-dividing coat installed at the angle of 45 degrees to optical axis differs by the fact that plate is located in convergent bundle of beams in space for objective image, downstream compensator of aberrations is installed comprising two lenses: the first one located along with beams travel is positive with convex first surface and cylindrical second surface, the second one is plano-concave that it inverted with its concavity to image and displaced in meridional plane along with direction perpendicular to optical axis.

EFFECT: creation of optical system of spectrum divider for instruments that operate simultaneously in two different ranges of spectrum IR-area with simultaneous increase of aberrations correction quality and reduction of instrument dimensions.

3 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method for separation of combined surface and volume electromagnet waves of terahertz range, which includes preliminary shaping of groove with smoothened edges on sample surface, at that groove axis is perpendicular to plane of incidence that crosses track of surface electromagnet wave (SEW) rays bundle and having size along track that is less that SEW spread length, and further direction of combined waves to groove, differs by the fact that groove is shaped in the form of regular cone half, axis of which lies in the plane of sample surface, at that angle of SEW deviation from incidence plane that contains volume wave, is equal to the following: γ=arcsin[tg(α)-(π-2)-k'], where α is angle between generatrix and cone axis, k' is actual part of SEW refraction index.

EFFECT: provision of spatial separation of SEW and volume wave by means of SEW direction variation.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical substrate contains three-dimensional surface preset by the first function of surface pattern, modulated second function of surface pattern. The first function of surface pattern can be described by length, width and vertex angle with optical characteristics for formation of, at least, one output mirror component. The second function of surface pattern can be described by geometry with, at least, pseudorandom characteristic for modulation of the first function of surface pattern, at least, by phase along length of the first function of surface pattern. At that the phase presents horizontal position of peak along width. The surface of optical substrate creates mirror and scattered light from input light beam. The three-dimensional surface can have value of correlation function which is less than approximately 37 percent of initial throughout the length of correlation about 1 cm or less.

EFFECT: brightness increase is provided.

46 cl, 41 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: light conducting optical element, which includes at least one light supplying base, which is equipped with at least two surfaces located parallel to each other; optical means that are used for entering light beams into the base by total internal reflection so that the light would strike one of the above surfaces, set of one or more partially reflecting surfaces located inside of the base, the surfaces of which are not parallel to the above base surfaces; the partially reflecting surfaces being flat surfaces selectively reflecting at an angle, which are crossed by part of beams several times before exiting the base in the required direction.

EFFECT: provision of wide field of view and increase of eye movement area with device fixed.

44 cl, 36 dwg

Display // 2321036

FIELD: image generation devices - displays.

SUBSTANCE: claimed device contains a light source, liquid-crystalline panel, and also redirecting film and stack of optical wave conductors positioned between the first two parts, where optical wave conductors are made in form of films, first ends of which are oriented towards the light source, and second ends are extended relatively to one another with creation of toothed surface, which is connected to first toothed surface of redirecting film, second surface of which is connected to liquid-crystalline panel, where the teeth of both connected surfaces have to faces.

EFFECT: increased brightness of image.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: paper with counterfeit protection is used in production of securities and documents. Method to make paper with locally arranged protective elements includes formation of the first paper cloth on the first meshy cylinder. Deposition of water dispersion containing protective elements via nozzles at certain sections of moist paper cloth. Formation of the second paper cloth at the second meshy cylinder. Joining first paper cloth with deposited protective elements with the second paper cloth, and also pressing and drying. Water dispersion of protective elements contains at least one water-soluble polymer in amount of 0.1-3.0 wt %. At the same time dispersion of protective elements is supplied with controlled speed via nozzles, every of which is equipped with pump of auger type.

EFFECT: increased quality of paper due to reduction of pulsations of flow dispersion and increased stability of protective elements deposition process in strictly required amount at certain sections of paper cloth.

8 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method to make element of protection with optically variable pattern, containing individualising mark, besides, specified method includes the following stages: a) base is equipped with a marking pattern, containing multiple flat marking signs; b) base is equipped with a relief pattern, containing multiple convex relief elements. Flat marking signs are placed at least partially onto lateral sides of relief elements. Marking pattern and relief pattern are combined so that various information elements are visible from various directions of observation. At that individualising mark is made in process of performance of at least one of stages a) or b) by a contact-free method or method of printing without a permanent printing plate.

EFFECT: proposed element of protection combines a marking individualising pattern and relief optical element, which provides for high extent of counterfeit protection.

35 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: paper contains one or more elements of counterfeit protection, included into specific areas on or inside paper. Polymer item is arranged in the form of polymer film, strips of polymer film included onto/cast onto/coating polymer film. Polymer strips/threads are woven or combined to each other into a package by textile method. Method includes working operation of placing polymer item, comprising counterfeit protection element (elements) onto paper pulp cloth in process of paper manufacturing. Method includes integration of one or more following working operations in process of paper manufacturing: a) application in such a manner that one or more specified polymer items stick to layer of moist cloth of paper pulp after specified layer is formed in process of paper making; b) application in such a manner so that at least one layer made of one or more specified polymer items sticks to previously moulded layer of moist cloth of paper pulp after specified layer of moist cloth of paper pulp is formed in process of specified paper making.

EFFECT: development of paper with high extent of counterfeit protection.

20 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to secured paper to manufacture protected or secured documents, for instance bank notes, identity cards and similar, which has at least two through holes. According to the invention, the first of through holes is provided in process of paper making and has specific irregularities at edge section, while the second of through holes is made after paper making by means of carving or piercing and has a sharply contoured section of edges, at that outlines of contours of the first and second through holes are compositely joined.

EFFECT: secured paper provides for a high extent of counterfeit protection, with simplicity of its authentication.

63 cl, 32 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to data medium, in particular to secure document or document with protection element, having high extent of counterfeit protection, having the base (20) and coating (12) applied onto the base, where marking is applied in the form of ornaments, letter symbols, digits or images by means of laser radiation. According to invention, this coating (12) contains layer (22), which absorbs laser radiation, and printing layer (24) arranged on top of absorbing layer, and at least partially transparent for laser radiation. Besides, printing base is exposed to pressing in process or after application of at least partially transparent later (24). Printing press (250) with laser system (270) intended for realisation of above method, where laser system is located higher than printing cylinder (258) of press for action at data medium, which should be marked on printing cylinder by means of laser radiation.

EFFECT: improved extent of protection.

42 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: counterfeit-proof document relates to data media. It contains graphical ornament for visual reproduction of data on a person and/or item. Ornament includes at least one image and/or text data, and with the help of specified printing logic it is applied onto secured document so that it has electromagnet characteristic specified by printing logic and read by means of logical circuit contained in secured document. Electromagnetic characteristic of electroconductive ornament is inductance, capacitance or frequency characteristic. Graphical ornament is applied onto secured document in the form of linear raster. At the same time lines of linear raster are joined to each other in the form of meander or are arranged in parallel. Version of counterfeit-proof document is the document with graphical ornament applied by electroconductive invisible paint transparent for human eye onto counterfeit-proof document. Other characteristics of this document are identical to characteristics of the first version document specified above.

EFFECT: enhanced protection against document forgery.

10 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: counterfeit-proof document relates to data media. It contains graphical ornament for visual reproduction of data on a person and/or item. Ornament includes at least one image and/or text data, and with the help of specified printing logic it is applied onto secured document so that it has electromagnet characteristic specified by printing logic and read by means of logical circuit contained in secured document. Electromagnetic characteristic of electroconductive ornament is inductance, capacitance or frequency characteristic. Graphical ornament is applied onto secured document in the form of linear raster. At the same time lines of linear raster are joined to each other in the form of meander or are arranged in parallel. Version of counterfeit-proof document is the document with graphical ornament applied by electroconductive invisible paint transparent for human eye onto counterfeit-proof document. Other characteristics of this document are identical to characteristics of the first version document specified above.

EFFECT: enhanced protection against document forgery.

10 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pulp and paper industry, in particular to production of paper, with water sign, to make banknotes and secure documents that require higher counterfeit protection. Counterfeit-proof paper includes water signs with multitone effect, having light and dark elements, visually perceived in passing light in the form of raster image, besides, light elements are characterised by smaller weight per unit of paper area, compared to dark elements. At the same time total area of light elements of water sign, optical density of which is less than optical density of paper, makes at least 1% of total area of paper, and depth of light elements of water sign does not exceed 70% of paper thickness. Mesh to manufacture counterfeit-proof paper comprises masks to form water sign, which are solid elements arranged between perforated sections of mesh, besides, at least on one mask there are microholes with diametre of not more than 0.25 mm, and total area of microholes makes not more than 15% of overall area of mask.

EFFECT: invention increases strength of paper with preservation of good graded conveying of image tones.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: printing.

SUBSTANCE: reflecting protection property contains metal particles of essentially spherical form, having an average size of less than about 5 microns. At that the protection property is at least partially superimposed on the image on the surface of the substrate and at least a part of it reflects changing information.

EFFECT: invention provides a low-cost protection property due to method of direct, digital and inkjet printing, which has a high degree of protection against forgery.

172 cl, 12 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a document of a book type, in particular to an identification document that contains a binding cover or binding, substrate, where at least some components of data storage facility are located, and data pages joined by a seam. Specified data pages are connected to binding cover or binding. Substrate within at least some of its sections passes into a seam area. The substrate within at least some of its sections is connected by the specified seam or at least by one additional seam to at least one data page. At the same time between the substrate and at least one specified data page there is a flyleaf provided.

EFFECT: proposed document of a book type provides for a higher extent of counterfeit protection.

11 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: protective marks.

SUBSTANCE: method for making protective marks on carrier having first surface and second surface opposite to first surface, includes sealing of first surface with high-resolution varnish, carrier is then electrolyzed and then washed and dried.

EFFECT: higher level of protection of forgery.

3 cl, 25 dwg

Up!