Method of generating gas for blowing aircraft surfaces, and steam generator

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to aircraft engineering. Steam generator comprises water tank 5, electrically-driven valves 4, 10, check valves 3, throttle 9, jacket 6, tank 2 and safety valve 1. Water flows from tank 5 via opened electrically-driven valve 4, check valve 3 and throttle 9 into jacket 6 to convert into steam. The latter flows via check valve 3 to tank 2 and, via safety valve 1, to jets on aircraft wing 7. Method of generating steam for blowing aircraft wing surface consists in using steam generator.

EFFECT: increased lifting capacity of aircraft.

2 cl, 1 dwg


The invention relates to aircraft and allows to increase the lifting force of the bearing surfaces of aircraft.

There is a method of increasing the lift coefficient Cyand through him, and the lifting power of Y, which consists in blowing boundary layer [1]. When the blowing gas, such as flaps, the deflection angle of the latter is increased (as compared with the deflection angle without blowing boundary layer), and Cyincreases in 1,5-2 times. From this it follows that, other things being equal parameters, by increasing Cyyou can zoom in as many times the payload capacity of the aircraft. Gas for blowing boundary layer comes from an auxiliary source, in particular from the compressor of the engine, which reduces the traction motor or auxiliary turbojet engine (turbojet), when increasing the mass of the structure and increases the fuel consumption for the flight of aircraft (LA). Therefore, the above methods of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces LA are their disadvantages.

It is known [2]that at large angles of deflection of the flap on its upper surface begins to stall the flow, and the increase in lift coefficient Cyslows down. An effective way of dealing with the disruption of the flow on the flap is a control boundary layer (oops), which consists in prinuditelno.obychnaya speed of the air particles in the boundary layer by blowing, when a jet of gas tapped from the engine, through a narrow slit is blown onto the upper surface of the flap. Thus the factor Cyincreases due to the increase of the deflection angle of the flap, and disruption of the flow is delayed at large angles of deflection of the flap. But again the disadvantage here is the selection of the gas from the engine (air intake nozzle and the like), which reduces traction engine.

Closest to the proposed method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces LA is a combination of several methods, namely [3]: fence gas from the combustion chamber of the engine; the production of gas additional gas generator; the intake of gas from the jet nozzle. The disadvantage of these methods is the reduction of engine thrust and increasing the mass of the aircraft structure. It is known [4]that the engine thrust P is determined by the formula:

wheresecond, the mass of air entering the engine;

Gin- air mass;

g - free fall acceleration;

ρ4, ρnis the gas pressure, respectively, in the nozzle of the engine and the atmospheric pressure around LA;

C4- speed gas flow in the nozzle of the engine;

V - speed (flight) LA;

F4- the cross-sectional area of the engine nozzle;

second, the weight g is for, coming out of the engine;

G - the weight of the resulting gases.

The formula shows that if gets gas from the intake and decreases GBif the gas is drawn from the combustion chamber or nozzle and decreases. And in all cases the engine thrust P will decrease. And the reduction of engine thrust increases the length of the run is and runway (runway) is not enough]. The length of the runway, LRBis determined by the formula [2]:

where G is the gravity of the airplane;

ρ - air density;

Cwater.the lift coefficient at take off from the runway;

S is the wing area;

X - force drag LA;

f is the average acceleration during the motion of the aircraft from the runway.

The symbol "cf" means the average value.

From this formula it is seen that the smaller the value of engine thrust P, the greater the length of the run.

On the other hand, at the time of separation of the aircraft from the runway (or ground) lift force Y must be equal to the force of gravity of the airplane G. gravity of the aircraft is determined by the gravity of its construction, fuel and cargo. The force of gravity design and fuel at full load cannot be changed. But the value of the cargo (payload) will depend on the magnitude of the lifting force Y: the more lifting power when off, the bigger the load the load of the aircraft. The most difficult moment for the aircraft, determining its capacity, is the moment of separation of the plane when the lift force must balance the whole gravity of the aircraft. In the following moments of the flight after take off, the lifting force may be less than in isolation, as produced fuel and gravity of the aircraft is reduced.

Hence it follows that the maximum capacity of the aircraft is determined by the maximum possible lifting force YRefat the time of separation of the plane, which is determined by the formula [2]:

Here GRef.the force of gravity of the aircraft at the time of separation;

Cy Ref. the lift coefficient at the time of separation;

ρ is the density of the surrounding air;

VRef.- the speed of the aircraft at the time of separation;

S is the wing area.

From the formula (3) shows that more than Cy Ref.the higher the magnitude of the lifting force, the higher the carrying capacity of the aircraft. Therefore, to increase Cthe OTPuse a variety of ways, in particular flaps, say no to the maximum angle at which the lift coefficient becomes equal to the maximum value of Cy maxIf further increase the deflection angle of the flap, there will be a disruption of the flow, and increase Cy(more Cy max) will not. However, as mentioned you the e, if you blow on the upper surface of the flap from the additional gas source (to make sduw boundary layer), the disruption of the air flow is delayed at large angles of deflection of the flap, and, consequently, increases the lift coefficient Cyto values greater than Cy max(Cy Ref.get more Cy max). In the formula (3) on the magnitude of the lifting force is affected by the speed of the aircraft at the time of separation VRef.: the larger it is, the more YRef.. In turn, from mechanics we know that

where V0- the initial speed of the aircraft (it is zero);

jcf.- the average acceleration of movement of the aircraft during the takeoff;

tthe Republic of Belarus.the time of the run.

It turns out that VRef.=jcf.·tthe Republic of Belarus.

However [2]:

Here X - force drag;

F - friction force of the landing gear on the runway;

m is the mass of the aircraft.

From the formula (5) shows that the smaller the engine thrust P of the plane, the less the average acceleration of jcf.the takeoff. Consequently, for the same time of start of tthe Republic of Belarus.take-off speed VRef.will be less than when the engine thrust is not reduced due to gas extraction from him on air cooling surfaces of the wing, which reduces the lifting force through BP is me t the Republic of Belarus., i.e. to provide a lifting force from the gas engine airflow equal to the lifting force of the gas, you want to increase the time of start of tthe Republic of achieve a velocity VRef.And this is possible by increasing the length of the run (increasing the length of the runway)that affects the takeoff and landing characteristics of the aircraft. Therefore, it is desirable not to reduce the traction engine aircraft sampling gas from him, but at the same time to provide a rinsing surfaces of the wing gas for increasing the ratio of Cyand through it - the lifting force of the plane.

An object of the invention is to develop a method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces of the aircraft to increase its lifting force on the rise, and thereby increase the carrying capacity.

The technical result of the invention is achieved in that in the method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces of the aircraft used thermal energy propulsion, ensuring the transformation of water into steam, which blows required surface plane. Some of the exterior surface of aircraft engines (LA) are heated to several hundred degrees Celsius, and the heat energy from them is entrained by the air flow in the space, i.e. is not used. In the this energy, the authors propose to use for the formation of water vapor.

On the external surface of engine LA, where the highest temperature water, which is in contact with the surface turns into steam, and piping the steam is delivered to the desired surface LA and blown on it, for example on the upper surface of the flaps.

The inventive method is implemented in the steam generator, which contains a water tank (tank filled before each flight) and a shirt on the engine. Tank piping associated with shirts, and shirt - surface blowout. Water from the tank enters the shirt, where, falling on the surface with a high temperature, evaporated, and the resulting steam is supplied to the surfaces of the blower, widowati at them through the crack.

New features with significant differences according to the method are:

1. The use of thermal energy of the propulsion system for the gas.

2. Using water for gas.

3. The use of steam as a gas for cooling the surfaces of the aircraft. The essential distinguishing characteristics of the device are:

- the presence of a water tank;

- the presence of shirts on the outer surface of the engines of the aircraft.

Using new features in conjunction with the known, and new connections between them to ensure the achievement of the technical result of the invention, namely an increased capacity in LA without the modify its landing characteristics.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows the diagram of the proposed method of obtaining gas for cooling the surfaces LA and block diagram of the steam generator.

In the proposed method uses a thermal energy source, in particular the LA engine, which in the area of combustion chambers obligada jacket 6 from the outside. In shirt receives water from the tank 5. In the jacket water, in contact with the outer surface of the engine, turns into steam and pipeline comes to blowing surfaces LA, for example a sock and a flap of the wing 7.

The steam generator includes a water tank 5, the solenoid 4, the switch B, the check valves 3, shirt 6 on the outer side of the engine in the area of combustion chambers (the most heated surface of the cylinder, the tank 2, the valve 1, wing 7, the inductor 9, the valve 10 with its non-return valve.

The steam generator operates as follows. Water in adequate quantities is poured into the tank 5. This is done before each departure AIRCRAFT. Water is cheap and abundant on Earth substance. From the tank 5 through the pipeline water comes to the solenoid 4, which, when the switch B is closed When the pilot switch "B" closes the electrical circuit of the solenoid 4, the latter opens and the water through the reverse clap the n-3 and the throttle 9 is fed into the jacket 6, form-fitting case of combustion chambers of the engine LA (and elsewhere in the engine, where the high surface temperature). Since the surface of the engine block under the jacket 6 has a high temperature (several hundred degrees), the water evaporates quickly and with the pipe, through the second check valve 3 is supplied to the tank 2 small containers and then flows to the safety valve 1, which opens when a certain pressure pCL. Until the vapor pressure in the tank 2 is below this pressure, the valve is closed. A certain level of pressure ρCLnecessary to accumulate sufficient energy to the volume of vapor in the tank 2 for the acceleration of the boundary layer in the place of blowing steam. As soon as the steam pressure will be greater than ρCLpressure relief valve opens and steam through a pipeline that goes to the planes of the wing 7 and is blown through cracks in the appropriate places, for example in the area of the toe of the wing and on the upper surface of the flap (as shown in the drawing).

In the formation of steam in the jacket 6 creates pressure injection of water. So that water is constantly acted in a shirt with an open valve 4, is created podavlivaya tank 5 water pressure ρbfor example from a compressor (as shown in the drawing). As the tank 5 is closed tightly, then RA is progress podavlyayushego air will not consequently, the thrust of the engine due to air sampling will not decrease.

Pressure ρbthere should be more pressure ρCLas for back pressure steam check valve 3, standing in the line after the valve 4 will not open and will not pass through water. Choke 9 provides a flow of the desired amount of water through a pipeline from the tank 5 to the jacket 6 to prevent excessive formation of steam. To enable the steam generator is in operation, it is expedient, according to the authors, at the end of the first stage of the run, when the movement of the aircraft takes place on three pillars (front wheel has not yet raised) (if different scheme chassis on the plane, then on the first section of the roll front wheel omitted). The first stage of the run ends at a speed approximately equal to 0.5 VRef.i.e. if, for example, the take-off speed VRef.equal to 250 km/h, lifting the nose wheel is at a speed of ~120 km/h. At the time of separation of the nose wheel and turns on the steam generator. Due to the inertia of the system airflow surfaces of the wing will begin with some delay, but at speed, a lower speed of separation. This time of inclusion in the operation of the steam generator reduces the amount of water poured into the tank 5, which does not significantly increase the weight of the steam generator. But at the same time part of the way on the 2nd stage of the run, with R botusa system blower surfaces ferry allows you to increase the lift of the aircraft, i.e. its capacity. Flaps (if they are blown) on the first segment of the run (up to raise the nose wheel) are available at a small angle (landing position), or not available, to reduce drag, which reduces the distance of the set speed before lifting the nose wheel.

At the time of lifting the nose wheel flaps? t be produced to the highest possible angle (given the fact that stall will not be enabled by the system of boundary layer, oops). This angle, when the system works oops, there will be more than without the oops that provides greater lift coefficient Cy, and hence the lift force, i.e. the carrying capacity. Choke 9 passes through a mass of water equal to the desired mass of steam at WHU. For example, the SU-15 was required 5 kg of gas per second [5]. As the take-off is, for example, MIG-23 of about 20, it is necessary to have on Board LA the mass of water, sufficient for vaporization of at least half that time, ie 10 seconds. For example, if you want a 1 second 10 kg of steam (twice for the SU-15), then within 10 seconds will be spent 100 kg of water. Take unaccounted water consumption for transients, etc. in 2 times more, i.e, 200 kg of water.

How much will increase the weight of the plane in the line is the use of the proposed COC?

The design of the proposed system oops roughly estimated at 100 kg (light alloys will give less weight). The weight of the water turns increase the takeoff weight of the aircraft at 300 kg. it Turns out that the big increase in the weight of the aircraft when installing this system on the aircraft is not expected, since all the elements of the system, the lungs, and the water is consumed during takeoff. The increase in weight of the aircraft when installing it proposed system COC will largely be determined by the weight of the filled water. If we assume that Cywhile the system is running oops increases at least 10% compared with the situation when there is no oops. The lift force of the aircraft when the separation is determined by the formula:

Determine how you will change the carrying capacity of the aircraft using the proposed system oops.

Let us denote: Y1Cy1, G1accordingly the force of the lift, the lift coefficient and the capacity of LA if no system oops. We believe that a separation of aircraft occurs at the same velocity VRef.. The2Cy2, G2accordingly the force of the lift, the lift coefficient and the capacity of the aircraft using the system oops.


Su2=1,1·su1(more 10%).


I.e. I2=1,11. But I2=G2;1=G1. It turns out G2=1,1 G1i.e. the carrying capacity of the aircraft is increased by 10% (assuming increasing Cy10%).

For example, the plane, the IL-76 has on takeoff mass of 150 t [6]. If we assume that this mass is balanced lifting force N1 at a speed of separation of the VRef.when using the system oops weight of the aircraft will increase by 10% (Cy2=1,1 Cy1), i.e. becomes equal to 165 tons (an increase of 15 tons). So 300 kg system oops, increasing as the load capacity of the aircraft, is an effective tool.

If LA weight is 15 tons at takeoff, the use of the system oops, increasing Cy 10%, results in an increase in payload of 1.5 tons (300 kg of them are 20%). Thus, the use of steam system WHU gives a significant increase in carrying capacity of the aircraft.

The best option is a combined system oops, combining the steam system described above, and the traditional system that uses an air compressor engine (example : the SU-15).

The drawing shows the valve 10 with non-return valve and the line from the compressor. The valve 10 can be switched on only when turned off, the solenoid 4, and Vice versa. But off and can be both solenoid.

Steam systems the COC works only on takeoff, not reducing the tractive force of the engine. Supply of water in the tank 5 is calculated so that the steam system is running a few seconds after takeoff, in order to achieve already in the air speed at which the lifting force would be enough to keep LA in the air off the system oops. When the water in the tank 5 ends, the solenoid 4 is turned off or automatically, or switch. If the solenoid 4 is not off, then the air coming from the compressor to the boost tank 5 (creating a pressure Pb), will flow through the solenoid 4, the check valve 3 and the throttle 9 in the jacket 6, and out through the check valve 3, tank 2, the safety valve 1 - blowout of the surfaces of the wing 7. But the thrust of the engine will be reduced, which is not desirable. Therefore, you must power off the solenoid 4 at the time of termination of water from the tank 5.

However, in some parts of the flight (except take-off) is required to increase the lift coefficient Cy, but not required, operation of the engine at maximum thrust mode, i.e. the thrust of the engine can be reduced, for example, on landing to reduce the length of the run (shortened runway or ground airfield). Then may be involved air system oops with intake air from the compressor of the engine. In this case turns on the solenoid 10, and such from the compressor through the enabled and check valves enters the tank 2 and then through the safety valve 1 (air pressure enough to open it) - ventilation of the surfaces of the wing 7.

The proposed drawing a diagram of the steam generator as if it allows to do without the solenoid 10 with non-return valve when the work STS from the compressor. However, some elements of the steam system can't be adjusted to work from air, for example a throttle 9. In vlagoustoychiv tank 2 is going condensed moisture.

The use of the claimed invention can significantly increase the carrying capacity of the aircraft (LA) or to reduce the length of the run, and run, the use of steam as a gas for system UPS significantly extends the use oops to improve various characteristics of the aircraft.

Sources of information

1. Zeitlin G.M. and other Aerodynamics and flight dynamics of the aircraft with turbojet engines. - M.: Voenizdat, 1973. - 480 S.

2. Aerodynamics and flight dynamics of flexible aircraft / Under the editorship of Professor Lysenko NM - M: Military publishing house, 1984. - P.106.

3. Patent No. 2274585 C2 "Method of changing the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft and the device for its implementation", Russia.

4. Small D., A. Trifonov. Fundamentals of theory and automatic control of jet engines. - M.: Military publishing house, 1972. - P.21.

5. The SU-15. Technical description, book 3-I, 1970.

6. Practical aerodynamics of aircraft IL-76. The tutorial. - Monino.: The air force Academy is Oia, 1984. - P.6.

1. The steam generator is designed for blowing steam at least one surface of the aircraft, characterized in that it comprises the United highways: a tank of water, which podavlyaetsya gas, for example from a compressor, the first valve, the first check valve, a throttle and a shirt with a closed volume, which is located on the outer surface of the engine in the most heated location and the location of evaporation of water from the tank, and mentioned the shirt is designed to supply steam to the nozzles for blowing the respective surfaces of the aircraft, such as wing flaps, through the second check valve, the tank is a small tank and safety valve, with there is a second valve and the third check valve for sampling gas from the compressor and blowing each corresponding surface of the aircraft.

2. The method of obtaining gas for cooling the surface of the aircraft to increase the lift coefficient, characterized in that the use of a steam generator according to claim 1.


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2 dwg

FIELD: aircraft manufacture; engine oil cooling systems of multi-engined helicopters.

SUBSTANCE: proposed oil cooling system includes fan, fan failure warning indicator, oil radiators, oil tanks, oil filters, warning units of maximum permissible oil temperature and oil lines. Cooling system is provided with additional oil lines, additional oil radiators separate for each engine which are connected with oil radiators and oil tanks through additional oil lines and are provided with thermal valve. Air ducts communicated with outside air are provided with additional oil radiator mounted inside them. Bypass lines with control unit are connected with oil lines by their inlets and with additional oil lines by their outlets.

EFFECT: possibility of cooling oil with serviceable and failed fan.

1 dwg

Fan helicopter // 2236991
The invention relates to the placement of auxiliary devices on aircraft

The invention relates to the field of aviation technology in particular to cooling systems equipment high-speed aircraft

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device to vary aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic aircraft comprising airframe, engine, fuel system, planes and control surfaces incorporates bled gas source connected, via sealed pipelines, to permeable porous inserts intended for local gas blow-off into boundary layer of airflow. Cross section area of channels arranged in permeable porous inserts makes 30% to 60% of insert area. Distance between adjacent inserts is 6 to 10 times larger than insert width. Said permeable porous inserts are connected, via sealed pipelines, to low-temperature gas source representing a vortex tube. Proposed method consists in bleeding gas from gas source and feeding it to permeable porous inserts arranged on aircraft surfaces, using above described device, bled gas temperature being other than that of ram airflow.

EFFECT: higher lift.

14 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering and ship building.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to apparatuses moving in air or water. Proposed apparatus comprises aerodynamic section wheel with top convex surface, fluid medium high-pressure source communicates with high-pressure jet generator arranged above the wing convex surface. Six design versions of proposed apparatus are distinguished for by the design of aforesaid high-pressure jet generator. Method of generating thrust consists in using high-pressure jet generator arranged above the wing convex surface. Five versions of the method are distinguished for by the design of aforesaid high-pressure jet generator.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

11 cl, 16 dwg