# Method and device for filter-free frequency conversion

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: by means of 4 similar balance (double balance) mixers there formed in parallel are 4 products of quadratures of input and heterodyne signals: (cosinp·coshet); (sininp·sinhet); (sininp·coshet); (cosinp·sinhet). Both input signal and heterodyne signal is pre-split into quadrature components - cosine (advanced) and sine (retarded); each component of input signal is multiplied by each component of heterodyne and in compliance with trigonometry formulae for cosine and sine of sum and difference of two angles thee formed are cosine and sine quadrature signal components of intermediate frequency. Essence of the device consists in the fact that phase splitters of input signal and heterodyne signal into quadrature projections, cosine and sine ones, are introduced to it; four multipliers - balance mixers are used as mixer, which are loaded onto the first (RH1) and the second (RH2) load resistors and connections between them.

EFFECT: improving interference immunity and simplifying frequency division of GLONASS signals.

2 cl, 3 dwg

The invention relates to the field of radio.

All analogue channels for processing radio signals, typically require frequency conversion.

Classical block diagram of the frequency Converter shown in figure 1 and described in (1).

Figure 1 - classical block diagram of the frequency Converter

The list of notations in figure 1:

CM - mixer;

HET - lo;

FPC filter intermediate frequency.

Mixer CM should perform the operation of multiplication of the input signal frequency fcwith the lo signal frequency fg. It is known that the product of two harmonic signals is equal to the sum of the signals from the differential (fc- fgconversion down and total frequency (fc+fgconversion up.

It is also known that the closer the operation performed by the mixer to the product of two harmonic signals, the less by-products conversion at the mixer output. Currently, the widely used so-called balanced mixer circuit shown in figure 2 (2).

Figure 2 - typical pattern of balance mixer.

Increment currents to VIH and VIH balanced mixer is proportional to the product of the signals applied to VH and VH, but have opposite signs. We will call VIH - direct and Wych - inverse. More strictly the operation p is ramnarine input signals, performs a double balanced mixer, in which circuit compensated penetration peremezhaemyh signals on the outputs.

The need to use PPC is the main disadvantage of the circuit of a frequency Converter (figure 1). Usually FPC perform iterative (LC circuits, three-dimensional resonators, lines, long lines, filters, surfactants, etc.) This limits the possibility of microminiaturization electronic equipment. Currently known transistor circuit filters (so-called gyratory)that allows you to embed them in the crystal chip. However, the stability of their parameters (such as filters) are low, especially strongly depends on the frequency from the crystal temperature. Device tuning parameters gyrator quite complex and may require the use of additional add-on elements.

The main task of the proposed method and device besfiltrovye frequency conversion is to eliminate these disadvantages of the prototype.

This task is solved in that way besfiltrovye frequency conversion, including the operation of multiplying the input signal with the lo signal and separation of the desired product conversion to the intermediate frequency signal with the frequency difference between the input signal and the local oscillator, or their sum, in addition enter several operations, namely, pre-split aquadrome projection of the input signal and the lo signal is cosine (ahead) and sine (delayed), each component of the input signal Peremohy with each component of the local oscillator in accordance with the formulas of trigonometry for the cosine and sine of the sum and difference of two angles, form the cosine and sine quadrature projection of the intermediate frequency signal.

This task is solved in a device that implements the method and comprising a mixer and a local oscillator, additionally introduced gazorazdelitel input valid signal and the lo signal at the quadrature components, cosine and sine, the mixer using four identical multiplier - balanced mixer, loaded on the first and second load resistors (first RH1and the second RH2), and the first output (cosine) gazorazdelitel input connected to the first inputs of the first and second multiplier products - balanced mixers, a second output (sine) this gazorazdelitel connected to the first inputs of the third and fourth multiplier products - balanced mixers, a first output gazorazdelitel lo (cosine) connected with the second inputs of the first and third multiplier products - balanced mixers, the second release of this gazorazdelitel - with the second inputs of the second and fourth multiplier products - balanced mixers; for p is obrazovaniya frequency down first load resistor (R H1) connected to the first outputs of the first and fourth multiplier products - balanced mixers, a second load resistor (RH2with the first output of the third multiplier-balanced mixer and the second output of the second multiplier-balanced mixer for frequency conversion up the first load resistor (RH1) connected to the first output of the first multiplier-balanced mixer, a second load resistor (RH2with the first output of the third and the first output of the second multiplier products - balanced mixers.

This is achieved through some complications transistor part of the Converter using quadrature components as input (and output), and lo. The complication associated with the use of quadratures as input signals and the output signal of the Converter, is not a disadvantage, because once the splitting of the input signals in quadrature projection extends the functionality of the further processing of the radio signals. At low frequencies the input signal (up to hundreds of MHz) splitting the input valid signal on the quadrature is implemented using well-known RC bridge, where the phase difference in the outputs supported (≈90°) in a sufficiently wide frequency band of the input modulated signal (up to 20%). When bol is e high frequencies (Gigahertz) for the same purpose, use is also widely known waveguide microstrip ring panoramaplus bridge, made foil on the dielectric. Additionally, this bridge acts as a filter preselector input.

For cleavage at the quadrature demodulated signal of the local oscillator, it is possible to use known RLC phase shifters, chain (±90°), or to generate quadrature with digital synthesis frequency of the local oscillator.

In any case, gazorazdelitel valid signal on the quadrature components have one input and two outputs. For definiteness we will call their exits are: advancing (cosine) VIH trailing (sine) VIH.

The essence of the proposed method is that by using four identical balanced mixers (double balanced) parallel to form 4 pieces of quadratures of the input and heterodyne signals:

(cosI·cosgets); (sinI·singets); (sinI·singets); (cosI·singets).

Here tentatively identified leading quadrature components of the input signal and the local oscillator through cosIand cosgetstrailing through sinIand singetsrespectively.

Later in strict accordance with the formulas of trigonometry form the algebraic sum of these works:

Here, to reduce the recording mark:

cosΔ- anticipatory (casino the Naya) component of the intermediate frequency signal, equal to fc-fg;

cos- anticipatory (cosine) component of the signal of the intermediate frequency equal to fc+fg;

sinΔ- delayed (sine) component of the signal of the intermediate frequency equal to fc-fg;

sin- delayed (sine) component of the signal of the intermediate frequency equal to fc+fg.

A device that implements this method consists of a local oscillator, two panoramafeel (input and heterodyne signals), four multiplier products-balanced (double balanced) mixer and two load resistors. The block diagram is shown in figure 3.

Figure 3 - block diagram of the device.

Method and device besfiltrovye frequency conversion comprises the following blocks:

1-4 - multiplier products - balanced (double balanced) mixers;

5 - gazorazdelitel input;

6 - gazorazdelitel lo signal;

7 - heterodyne;

8, 9 (RH1, RH2) - load resistors.

The device operates as follows. Shown in figure 3 connection of the quadratures of the input signal (output 1 and 2 of block 5) and lo (outputs 1 and 2 of block 6) provide the same multiplier products - balanced mixers formation of the following works, as shown in the table.

 Block 1 Wyh Wyh Block 2 Wyh Wyh Block 3 Wyh Wyh Block 4 Wyh Wyh

For the selected frequency conversion (up or down) is necessary algebraic sum of the works in accordance with formulas (1) and the table are formed on a common load resistors 1 and 2 (RH1and RH2). RH1formed ahead of the quadrature p is occia (cosine) signal intermediate frequency, and RH2- delayed (sine).

Load resistors shown in figure 3, provide the formation of the intermediate frequency signal for RH1equal to cos2Tg(fc-fgt, RH2equal to sin2Tg(fc-fg)t. Load resistors RH1connected to the Output. 1, the multiplier - balanced mixer 1 and VIH multiplier - balanced mixer 4, a RH2to O. 1, the multiplier - balanced mixer 3 and O. 1, the multiplier - balanced mixer 2, form the total signal intermediate frequency(fc+fg). Available inputs of multiplier products - balanced mixer connected to the power bus Un.

These method and apparatus besfiltrovye frequency conversion can be implemented in the receiving device and the combined satellite navigation receivers using direct conversion, and also simplify the frequency division signals of GLONASS.

Sources of information

1. The design of radio receivers. /Edited Appservers. Moscow, "Soviet radio", 1976

2. A receiving device. 3rd ed., authors: N. Fomin., Bug N.N. Publishing house Hot line - Telecom, 2007

1. The way besfiltrovye frequency conversion, including the operation of multiplying the input signal and the lo signal and separation of the desired product is and convert the intermediate frequency signal with the frequency difference between the input signal and the local oscillator or their sum, characterized in that the input signal and the lo signal pre-split on quadrature components, cosine and sine, each component of the input signal Peremohy with each component of the lo summarise the work cosine quadrature components of the input signal and the local oscillator with the work of their sine components and cosine receive the quadrature component of the intermediate frequency equal to the frequency difference of the input signal and local oscillator (lo summarise the work cosine components of the input signal with inverted product of the sine components and cosine receive the quadrature signal component of the intermediate frequency equal to the sum of the frequencies of the input signal and local oscillator (lo summarise the work of the cosine component of the input signal with the sine component of the lo and the product of the sine component of the input signal with a cosine component of the local oscillator and receive the sine quadrature signal component of the intermediate frequency equal to the sum of the frequencies of the input signal and local oscillator (lo summarise the work of the cosine component of the input signal with the sine component of the local oscillator and the inverted product of the sine component of the input signal with a cosine component of the local oscillator and receive sine kV is detournay component of the intermediate frequency signal, equal to the difference frequency of the input signal and lo.

2. The device implementing the method according to claim 1, comprising a mixer and a local oscillator, characterized in that it additionally introduced gazorazdelitel input signal and the lo signal to a quadrature projection, cosine and sine, the mixer using four multiplier-balanced mixer, which impinge on the first (RH1) and second (RH2) load resistors, and the first output (cosine) gazorazdelitel input connected to the first inputs of the first and second multiplier products-balanced mixers, a second output (sine) this gazorazdelitel input connected to the first inputs of the third and fourth multiplier products-balanced mixers, a first output gazorazdelitel lo signal (cosine) connected with the second inputs of the first and third multiplier products-balanced mixers, the second release of this gazorazdelitel lo signal with the second inputs of the second and fourth multiplier products-balanced mixers; for frequency conversion down the first load resistor (RH1) connected to the first outputs of the first and fourth multiplier products-balanced mixers, a second load resistor (RH2with the first output of the third multiplier-balanced mixer and the second in the course of the second multiplier-balanced mixer, for frequency conversion up the first load resistor (KH1) connected to the first output of the first multiplier-balanced mixer, a second load resistor (RH2the first output of the third and the first of the second multiplier products-balanced mixers.

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