Belashov multi-purpose thermoelectric machine

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to peculiar features of design of multi-purpose thermoelectric machine intended for being used in power engineering, industry and national economy as static or dynamic thermoelectric DC generator which converts the heat of operating nuclear reactors, power units, internal combustion engines, solar power sources, thermal water sources, furnaces, gas burners and other engineering facilities to electric power, as well as electric DC machines operating from thermal electricity source, which is obtained from temperature drop, rotation devices of magnetic systems, rotating tuyeres for combustion plants of domestic and other organic wastes with coal, power drives of transport vehicles, lifting mechanisms, conveyors, automatic control and regulation systems of mechanical devices, and measuring and reference devices. The proposed multi-purpose thermoelectric machine includes many thermal elements having two branches one of which is of p type, and the second one is of n type of upper tier, or multiple conductors having two branches of heterogeneous conductors made in the form of thermocouples of lower tier, which, without changing the current movement direction in conductors, pass through many closed magnetic systems without any switching devices. Multi-purpose thermoelectric machine also containing housing, stator with magnetic excitation system made in the form of one solid magnet having magnetic conductor, magnet of northern pole arranged on orbit of upper tier and magnet of southern pole arranged on orbit of lower tier, which are located through uniform or non-uniform gaps to interact through air gap with multiple batteries of the above semi-conductor thermoelements having two branches one of which is of p type, and the other one is of n type, or multiple batteries of thermocouples having two branches of heterogeneous conductors made in the form of separate modules assembled in units and installed in thermal insulating and screening device on magnetic conductors of upper and lower tier. Multi-purpose thermoelectric machine includes multiple batteries of semi-conductor thermal elements and thermocouples, which are located between heater station and cooler station and installed around magnetic conductors of stator, which are mounted on dielectric base of orbits of upper and lower tier. Magnetic conductors of upper base are connected at the specified angle to magnetic conductors of lower base and interact through air gaps with rotor excitation system. Multiple batteries of semi-conductor thermal elements and thermocouples of upper and lower tier are protected against heater station with protection casing, ceramic insert and heat insulating device, and heater station itself at connection points of conductors of hot junction, which consist of heterogeneous materials or semiconductor thermal elements, is located on outer side of the housing for interaction with external source of heat radiation or inside rotor for interaction with inner source of heat radiation. Cooler station is located inside the machine, at connection points of conductors of cold junction, which consist of heterogeneous materials or semiconductor thermal elements which interact with cooling device installed inside magnetic system of rotor excitation and made in the form of cooling unit of absorption-diffusion type. At rotation of machine, which is caused by DC signal in multiple batteries of semiconductor thermal elements and multiple batteries of thermocouples arranged on orbit of upper tier, resultant force shall be clockwise directed, and in multiple batteries of semiconductor thermal elements and multiple batteries of thermocouples arranged on orbit of lower tier the resultant force shall be counter-clockwise directed. At that, depending on the purpose of multi-purpose thermoelectric machine the magnetic excitation system, multiple batteries of semiconductor thermal elements and multiple batteries of thermocouples can be installed on the shaft or on the housing. When external source of solar or heat radiation is used, which is located in environment, multiple batteries of semiconductor thermal elements and multiple batteries of thermocouples can be located on outer side of housing, and when internal source of heat radiation is used, multiple batteries of thermocouples of upper tier and multiple batteries of thermocouples of lower tier can be located inside rotor; at that, rotation through rolling or sliding elements can be performed both of the shaft itself, and its housing.

EFFECT: improving reliability.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering and relates to the specifics of the design of the first in the world thermoelectric universal machine, which has a lot of thermoelements having two branches, one of which is p-type, and the second n-type upper layer or multiple conductors having two branches of dissimilar conductors, made in the form of thermocouples of the lower tier, which, without changing the direction of current in the conductors pass through the set of closed magnetic systems without any switching devices. The invention is intended for use in energy, industry and the economy as a static or dynamic thermoelectric DC generator that converts heat in operating nuclear reactors, energy blocks, internal combustion engines, solar power, thermal springs, stoves, gas burners and other technical installations in electric energy, as well as electrical DC machines operating from a source of thermoelectricity, obtained from the temperature difference, devices, rotation of the magnetic rotating lances for incinerators of solid household and other organic wastes with coal, actuators vehicle, lifting me is Anisimov, conveyors, systems of automatic regulation and control of mechanical devices, measuring and reference devices, as well as in military and space applications.

Known thermoelectric generator containing the node heater having a cross section with a developed surface, the node cooler and battery of semiconductor elements, which are made in the form of modules, and the modules are assembled in blocks, placed between nodes cooler and heater in each of the modules sequentially switched by up to 300 thermoelements having two branches, one of which is p-type and the other n-type. See Russian Federation patent No. 2191447 - equivalent.

The known laws and mathematical formulas Belashova, which made fundamental changes in the level of knowledge of electrical phenomena in the formation and measurement of electrical signals DC or AC. See Russian Federation patent No. 2175807, H02K 23/54 - equivalent.

Known electric machine Belashova, comprising a housing, a stator with a magnetic excitation system, designed as one monolithic magnet with the magnetic circuit, the magnet North pole, placed on the orbit of the upper tier, and the magnet South pole, placed in orbit lower layer, or contains many magnetic systems in which bogdania with magnetic circuits, magnet North pole and magnetic South pole, which are located through uniform or non-uniform intervals, to communicate through an air gap with many cores, with many of multiturn windings of the upper tier and a lot of multiturn windings of the lower layer, placed on the rotor shaft, through which the rolling elements or slide interacts with the body. See Russian Federation patent No. 2130682, KL H02K 23/54, 27/10 - prototype.

The purpose of the invention is to create a universal thermoelectric machine, able from a source of thermal radiation of many batteries semiconductor thermocouples and thermocouples which are placed between the node of the heater and the node cooler, get thermopower and to produce rotation of the technical devices.

1 shows a thermoelectric universal machine, working from external sources such as solar and thermal radiation.

Figure 2 shows a thermoelectric universal machine, working from internal sources of thermal radiation.

Figure 3 shows the location and forces many of multiturn windings battery of thermocouples on the top floor.

Figure 4 shows the location and forces many of multiturn windings battery of thermocouples in the bottom tier.

Figure 5 the image is a method of obtaining a thermoelectric power from conductors, with two branches of dissimilar conductors, made in the form of thermocouples.

The uniqueness of the technical solution is that universal thermoelectric machine, comprising a housing, a stator with a magnetic excitation system, designed as one monolithic magnet with the magnetic circuit, the magnet North pole, placed on the orbit of the upper tier, and the magnet South pole, placed in orbit of the lower tier, which through an air gap interacts with many batteries semiconductor thermoelements having two branches, one of which is p-type and the other n-type or a set of batteries, thermocouples, with two branches of dissimilar conductors are designed as separate modules in blocks and installed in thermal insulation and shielding device for the magnetic circuits of the upper and lower tiers. Many batteries semiconductor thermocouples and thermocouples, which are located between the node of the heater and the node cooler, mounted around the magnetic circuit of the stator mounted on the dielectric base of the orbits of the upper and lower tiers. The magnetic circuits of the upper base at a given angle, are connected with magnetic bottom and through the air gaps interact with the excitation system of the rotor. Many battery technology is anikovich thermocouples and thermocouples, the upper and lower layer are protected from host heater protective cover, ceramic inserts and insulating device, and the host of the heater, at the connections of the conductors of the hot junction, consisting of heterogeneous materials or semiconductor thermoelements, is located on the outer side of the housing to communicate with an external source of thermal radiation, or within the rotor for interacting with an internal source of thermal radiation. Node cooler is located inside the machine, the connections of conductors cold junction consisting of heterogeneous materials or semiconductor elements, which interact with the refrigeration device that is installed inside the magnetic excitation of the rotor and is made in the form of refrigerating apparatus of the absorption-diffusion type. During the rotation of the machine from the DC signal in plenty of batteries semiconductor thermoelements and plenty of batteries thermocouples placed on the orbit of the upper tier, should be directed clockwise, and placed on the orbit of the lower tier, should be directed counterclockwise. Moreover, depending on the purpose of thermoelectric universal machine magnetic excitation system, many batteries semiconductor thermoelements and plenty of batteries, thermocouples can be installed on the shaft or on the housing. When used outside the it source solar or thermal radiation, located in the environment, many batteries semiconductor thermoelements and plenty of batteries, thermocouples should be located on the outside of the housing, and an internal source of thermal radiation of many batteries thermocouples upper tier and a lot of batteries, thermocouples lower tier must be located within the rotor, and the rotation through the rolling elements or slip may be implemented as the shaft and its housing.

Universal thermoelectric machine, figure 1, includes a housing 1, a magnetic excitation system 2, many of the cores 3, many batteries semiconductor thermoelements 4, many batteries thermocouples 5, the cooling device 6 and the shaft 7, through which the rolling elements 8 and slide 9 interacts with the body. Depending on the purpose of thermoelectric universal machine magnetic excitation system 2, many batteries semiconductor elements 4 and many batteries thermocouples 5 can be mounted on the shaft 7 or on the housing 1, and the rotation may be implemented as the shaft and its housing. When using an external source of solar or thermal radiation, located in the environment, many batteries semiconductor elements 4 and many batteries thermocouples 5 d which should be located on the outer side of the diamagnetic body 1. Size of the set of batteries semiconductor elements 4 can be increased compared to many battery of thermocouples 5, which is not recommended to increase the internal resistance of the conductors generating thermoelectric power. On the outer perimeter of the shaft 7 is located a magnetic excitation system of the rotor 2, which is made in the form of a homogeneous monolithic magnet with the magnetic circuit of the excitation system 10, the magnet North pole 11 and the magnet South pole 12. Magnet North pole 11, the magnetic excitation of the rotor 2, is located on the orbit of the upper tier 13 and the magnet South pole 12 is located on the orbit of the lower tier 14. The magnetic circuits of the stator 3 through an air gap interact with the magnet North pole 11 of the orbit of the upper tier 13 and the magnet South pole 12 of the orbit of the lower tier 14. To increase efficiency and reliable operation of thermoelectric universal machine, the upper base 15 and the bottom 16 of the magnetic circuit of the stator 3 must be connected to the specified angle, where the most favorable connection angle is 180 degrees. Many batteries semiconductor thermoelements 4, having two branches, one of which is p-type, and the second n-type, housed in a heat insulating and shielding device 17, around the magnetic circuit of the stator 3 and the external base di the magnetic body 1 orbit of the upper tier 13. Many batteries thermocouples 5, having two branches of dissimilar conductors, for example, one leg of thermocouple consists of a conductor of chromel, and the other branch of thermocouple consists of a conductor alumel (HA), which is placed in thermal insulation and shielding device 18, around the magnetic circuit of the stator 3 and the external base diamagnetic body 1 orbit of the lower tier 14. Many batteries semiconductor elements 4 and thermocouples 5 made in the form of separate modules, which are collected into blocks. Each module in parallel commuted to 300 thermoelements having two branches, one of which is p-type and the other n-type, or thermocouples, the branches of which consist of dissimilar conductors. Batteries semiconductor elements 4 and thermocouple 5 is placed between the node of the heater 19 and the junction of the cooler 20. Node heater is located on the outer part of the dielectric housing 1, where the connection of the hot junction of conductors consisting of heterogeneous materials or semiconductor elements, which interact with the environment external heating source. Node cooler is located inside thermoelectric machine, where the connections for the cold junction, which communicate with the cooling device 6. The refrigeration unit is installed inside the magnetic systemerror 2 and made in the form of refrigerating apparatus of the absorption-diffusion type. The direction of the DC signal from the set of batteries semiconductor thermoelements 4 placed on the orbit of the upper tier 13, should be directed clockwise 21, and the direction signal multiple batteries thermocouples 5 should be directed counterclockwise 22. This current flow in the conductors set of batteries semiconductor elements 4 and many batteries thermocouples 5, according to the rule of the left hand, the rotor shaft 7 will rotate counterclockwise, and the housing 1 will rotate clockwise. To change the rotation of the shaft or housing thermoelectric universal machine circumference, it is necessary to change the direction of the current in the conductors set of batteries semiconductor elements 4 and the conductors set of batteries thermocouples 5 in the opposite direction. Magnetic excitation system of the rotor 2 can be made of many individual magnetic systems containing magnetic circuits, magnets North pole and magnets South pole, which are located through uniform or non-uniform intervals. When working thermoelectric universal machine from the magnetic excitation system 2 consisting of a set of separate magnetic systems, which are located through uniform or non-uniform intervals, you must enter collecto is 23. The reservoir 23 will produce disconnection of many batteries semiconductor thermoelements 4, having two branches, one of which is p-type, and the second n-type or multiple batteries, thermocouples 5, which consist of dissimilar conductors, while they are out of range of the magnet North poles and South poles of the magnets, as well as at the entrance and the exit of the magnetic poles of the excitation system 2. During the rotation of thermoelectric universal machine, the amplitude of the DC signal in plenty of batteries semiconductor elements 4 and plenty of batteries thermocouples should not change their direction.

When using the internal source of thermal radiation, figure 2, many batteries thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25 and a lot of batteries thermocouples 26, the lower layer 27, are located inside the shaft thermoelectric universal machine. For example, the housing 28 thermoelectric universal machine made in the form of lance and placed inside the unit for combustion of solid household and other organic waste with coal. The casing 28 having holes 29 and the flange 30, is part of the installation for incineration of solid municipal and other organic wastes with coal, contains valves 31, which are connected with the device pulsed feed blast 32 (air enriched with oxygen, or oxygen). Installation for SG is Gania solid household and other organic wastes with coal includes in its design the delivery system of waste and coal, the mechanism of removal of slag feeder for coal feeding system, feed coal and air, mounted in a pyrolysis chamber, which provides flaring crushed to powder coal and municipal solid waste. In the pyrolysis channel posted the tuyere 28, which is a means for pulse feed blast 32 and simultaneous mixing and movement of organic waste with coal inside the nozzle 33 of the cyclone chamber oxidative afterburners. Many batteries thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25 and a lot of batteries thermocouple 26 is protected from the nozzle 33 of the protective cover 34, a ceramic insert 35 and insulating device 36. Around the perimeter of the inside of the housing lance 28 is located a magnetic excitation system of the rotor 37, which is made in the form of a homogeneous monolithic magnet with the magnetic circuit of the excitation of the stator 38, the magnet North pole 39 and the magnet South pole 40. Magnet the North pole 39, the magnetic excitation of the stator 38, is located on the orbit of the upper layer 25 and the magnet South pole 40 is located on the orbit of the lower layer 27. The magnetic rotor 41 is installed on the dielectric base 42 and through an air gap 43 interact with the magnet North pole 39 of the orbit of the upper tier 25 and through an air gap 44 interact with the magnet South pole 40 orbit nignog the layer 27. To increase efficiency and reliable operation of thermoelectric universal machine the upper base 45 and the bottom 46 of the magnetic rotor 41 is necessary to connect to the specified angle, where the most favorable connection angle is 180 degrees. Many batteries thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25, which consist of dissimilar conductors are installed around the magnetic rotor 41, the inside of the dielectric base 42, the insulating device 36, ceramic inserts 35, before the protective cover 34 and placed in thermal, insulating and shielding device 47. Many batteries thermocouples 26, the lower layer 27, which consist of dissimilar conductors are installed around the magnetic rotor 41, the inside of the dielectric base 42, the insulating device 36, ceramic inserts 35, before the protective cover 34 and placed in thermal, insulating and shielding device 48. The direction of the DC signal from the set of batteries thermocouples 24 placed on the orbit of the upper tier 25, should be directed clockwise 53, and the direction signal multiple batteries thermocouples 26 should be directed counterclockwise 54. This current flow in the conductors of many batteries thermocouples 24 of the upper tier of 25 and lots of batteries, thermocouples 26 of the lower layer 27, is under the rule of the left hand, placed on the magnetic rotor 41 will rotate clockwise. To change the rotation of the shaft thermoelectric universal machine, you must change the direction of the current in the conductors of multiple batteries thermocouples 24 and the conductors set of batteries thermocouples 26 in the opposite direction. During the rotation of thermoelectric universal machine, the amplitude of the DC signal in plenty of batteries thermocouples 24 and plenty of batteries thermocouples 26 should not change their direction. Many batteries thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25 are located between node heater 49 and the junction of the cooler 50. Many batteries thermocouples 26, the lower layer 27 are located between the node of the heater 51 and the node cooler 52. Node heater is located inside the nozzle 33, which is placed inside the shaft, before the protective cover 34, where the connection of the hot junction of conductors consisting of heterogeneous materials, which interact with the internal heating source. Node cooler is located inside thermoelectric machine, where the connections for the cold junction, which communicate with the cooling device 55. The refrigeration system is placed within the magnetic system of the stator 37 and is made in the form of refrigerating apparatus of the absorption-diffusion type. The body of the tuyere 28 through tor is Evie sealing compound 56 communicates with a dielectric base 42, and through the rolling elements 57 and slide 58 communicates with the housing lances.

The location of many of multiturn windings battery of thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25 placed around the many cores of the rotor 41, the upper base 45 in thermal, insulating and shielding device 47, is shown in figure 3. The direction of the DC signal from the set of batteries thermocouples 24 placed on the orbit of the upper tier 25, should be directed clockwise 53. On each upper base 45, the magnetic rotor 41, one battery pack winding thermocouples must have a direction vector 59, and the second battery pack winding thermocouples must have a direction vector 60. For reliable separation of magnetic flux between the magnetic circuits 41, you must install dielectric insert 61. According to the rule of the left hand, if you take the left hand, placed in a magnetic field so that magnetic lines of force are included in the palm of his hand, and send four elongated finger in the direction of the current, then bent the thumb will indicate the direction of the force acting on the conductor. Force 62 is formed from a conductor located in a magnetic field, from battery winding thermocouples having a direction vector 59, the upper tier 25. Force 63 is formed from a conductor, which is located in gnanam field, from battery winding thermocouples having a direction vector 60, the upper tier 25. This current flow in the conductors by the resultant force 64, multiple batteries, thermocouples 24 of the upper tier of 25, according to the rule of the left hand placed on the magnetic rotor 41 will rotate clockwise.

The location of many of multiturn windings battery of thermocouples 26, the lower layer 27, is placed around the many cores of the rotor 41, the bottom 46 in thermal, insulating and shielding device 48, shown in figure 4. The direction of the DC signal from the set of batteries thermocouples 26 placed on the orbit of the lower layer 27 should be directed counterclockwise 54. On each bottom base 46, the magnetic rotor 41, one battery pack winding thermocouples must have a direction vector 65, and the second battery pack winding thermocouples must have a direction vector 66. For reliable separation of magnetic flux between the magnetic circuits 41, you must install dielectric insert 61. According to the rule of the left hand, if you take the left hand, placed in a magnetic field so that magnetic lines of force are included in the palm of his hand, and send four elongated finger in the direction of the current, then bent the thumb will indicate the direction of the force acting on the conductor. Power 67 is formed from Astia on the conductor, located in a magnetic field, from battery winding thermocouples having a direction vector 65, the lower layer 27. Force 68 is formed from a conductor located in a magnetic field, from battery winding thermocouples having a direction vector 66, the lower layer 27. This current flow in the conductors by the resultant force 69, multiple batteries, thermocouples 26 of the lower layer 27, according to the rule of the left hand placed on the magnetic rotor 41 will rotate clockwise.

The method of obtaining thermopower from dissimilar conductors in the form of thermocouples shown in figure 5. The basis of the method of producing thermoelectric power from the temperature difference expected opening in 1821, the German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck thermoelectric effects. The application of these phenomena to obtain thermoelectric power based on the existence of a definite relationship between thermoelectromotive force (EMF), is mounted on a circuit made of dissimilar conductors, and the temperature of the connection. If you take the circuit of figure 4, composed of dissimilar conductors a and B (for example, copper and platinum), when warm-up of the junction 1 in the chain will receive the electric current, which is in more hot junction 1 directed from platinum to copper And and cold junction 2 - from copper to platinum. When heated the unit 2 receives current in the reverse direction. Such currents are called thermoelectric currents, and giving them instruments - thermocouple and thermopile. Electromotive force caused by the unequal potentials at the junctions having different temperature, called thermopower. To explain the mechanism of occurrence of thermopower will use electronic theory, which is based on the notion of the presence of metals of free electrons. In various metals, the density of free electrons (number of electrons per unit volume) varies and therefore the electrons, which can be likened to the free gas filling intermolecular space in the metal, will be under unequal pressure. As a consequence, in places of resistance of two dissimilar metals, for example, at junction 1, the electrons will diffuse from the metal And the metal B more than the back of the metal B metal A, and, as a consequence, metal And will get positive, and the metal B is negative. Arising at the intersection of the electric field will prevent this diffusion, and when the speed of diffusion of the transition of electrons becomes equal to the speed of the reverse transition under the influence established a particular field will be a state of dynamic equilibrium. In this condition between metals a and B there is some difference of potential is fishing. Since the pressure of the electron gas depends on the temperature of the junction of the conductors, thermoelectric power, resulting in the junction 1 and 2 will be different.

In addition, thermoelectric current is generated in a closed homogeneous conductor, if there is a temperature gradient, as in each homogeneous conductor, the ends of which have different temperatures, a potential difference appears.

This theory confirms the new law, the energy of the material of the body is located in space, and the new law the activity of the material body is located in space, which are well described in the application materials No. 2005140396/06 (045013) from 26 December 2005. The application is published in 10 Bulletin 02 June 2007.

Thermoelectric universal machine can be made of a paramagnetic or diamagnetic materials. The working width of a single magnet excitation system must be greater than or equal to the working width of the magnetic core with multiple batteries semiconductor thermocouples or thermocouple. Magnetic excitation system thermoelectric universal machine can be made of permanent magnets, electromagnets or a combination thereof. Depending on the purpose of thermoelectric universal machine, the magnetic excitation system, many batteries semiconductor thermoelement is in and lots of batteries, thermocouples can be installed on the shaft or on the housing. For the separation of magnetic flux of the magnetic rotor must be installed through diamagnetic insert. When using an external source of solar or thermal radiation, located in the environment, many batteries semiconductor thermoelements of the upper tier and many batteries thermocouples lower tier should be located on the outside of the housing. If you are using an internal source of thermal radiation, many batteries thermocouples upper tier and a lot of batteries, thermocouples lower tier must be located within the rotor or shaft. The interaction between the casing and the rotor of the machine is carried out by rolling or sliding, can rotate as the rotor and its housing.

Works thermoelectric universal machine from an external source of heat and light radiation as follows.

After receiving sufficient power thermoelectric energy from the source of heat and light radiation from a variety of modules and blocks of semiconductor thermoelements 4 upper tier 13, and a variety of modules and units of thermocouple 5 of the lower tier 14 thermoelectric universal machine 1 starts the rotation of the magnetic system of the rotor 2 in a clockwise direction. While the current movement 21 in semiconductor thermoelements 4, the upper tier 13,should be directed in the same direction from bottom to top, and the current movement 22 of thermocouple 5 of the lower layer 14 should be directed in the other direction from the top to the bottom. After changing the design and direction of the current in multiple modules and blocks of semiconductor thermoelements 4 upper tier 13 and in many modules and units of thermocouple 5 of the lower tier 14 to reverse the direction of current thermoelectric universal machine will rotate counterclockwise. In the static mode universal thermoelectric machine, without excitation system 2 will work as a thermoelectric generator DC.

Thermopower, which was obtained from an external source of heat and light radiation, by means of a set of modules and blocks of semiconductor thermoelements 4, the upper tier 13, and a variety of modules and blocks thermocouples 5, the lower layer 14 will depend on the temperature difference between the node of the heater 19 and the junction of the cooler 20.

When designing thermoelectric universal machines, you must consider that thermopower, which is obtained from the temperature difference between the node heater 49 and 51 and the node cooler 50 and 52, from a variety of modules and blocks thermocouples upper layer 24 and the many modules and blocks thermocouples lower layer 27, does not depend on the length of thermocouple. Obtained from thermocouple Seebeck length l is about meters will be identical to thermocouple, which has a length of several centimeters, but the internal resistance of these thermocouples will be different. The difference between the internal resistance will strongly affect the current, which flows inside of thermocouple, and consequently, on the productive capacity of all units thermoelectric modules and universal machines.

For example, a thermocouple consisting of alloys chromel-Copel (HC), having a length of one meter and a wire diameter of 0.3 mm at 20°C will be:

- internal resistance wire chromel - 8,91 Ohm

- internal resistance wire Copel - 5,94 Ohm

- impedance thermocouple (HC) will be - 14,85 Ohms.

Then, a thermocouple consisting of alloys chromel-Copel (HC), with one coil a length of 10 cm and a wire diameter of 0.3 mm at 20°C will be:

- internal resistance wire chromel - 0,891 Ohm

- internal resistance wire Copel - 0,594 Ohm

- impedance thermocouple (HC) will be - 1.485 Ohms.

When the difference of temperatures in the 700°C between node heater 49 and 51 and the node cooler 50 and 52 at the ends of these thermocouples will appear thermopower = 59,45 mV.

where

1 volt - 1000 mV

× volts - 59,45 mV

Then, the obtained current from one thermocouple having a length of one meter, will be:

and the current received from one thermocouple having a length of 10 cm will be:/p>

For example, one module of the magnetic circuit is located two blocks windings 300 turns of the upper tier and two blocks windings 300 turns of the lower tier, which are connected in parallel, where the number of modules will depend on the diameter of the machine. If you do not take into account the change of the internal resistance of thermocouple, with increasing temperature, from two blocks of the upper tier, you can receive current:

0,04003367003 And · 300 turns · 2 = 24,020202018 And

From two blocks of the lower tier, you can receive current:

0,04003367003 And · 300 turns · 2 = 24,020202018 And

thus thermopower of each module will be - 0,05945 volts.

From physics it is known that the force with which the magnetic field acts on the conductor with a current proportional to current, the active length of the conductor and the intensity of the magnetic field of magnetic induction.

F=B·I·L·sin∠α

F - force, N,

I - current, And,

L is the length of the conductor, m,

B - magnetic induction, Tesla (T),

sin∠α is the angle between the conductor and the direction of the magnetic force lines.

It should be stressed that this formula is even no mention of the voltage at the terminals of this guide, since it does not affect the movement of a conductor in a magnetic field. From this expression it follows that the current obtained from a variety of modules and blocks thermocouples upper layer 24 and the many modules of the blocks of thermocouples of the lower layer 27, between node heater 49 and 51 and the node cooler 50 and 52, for rotation universal thermoelectric machine will be sufficient. The main parameters that affect the power thermoelectric universal machine, are the length of the conductor and the current is located in a magnetic field. The proof of this are universal electric car Belashova with a dielectric rotor having a threshold less than 0.5, which is the initial rotation of the rotor of the machine.

For example, determine the force with which to navigate the many windings of thermocouples of the rotor within the excitation system.

F=·L·I·sin∠α=

=0,75·(0,06·1200)·0,04003367 And·0,70710=1,528621636223 N

where

n is the total number of windings of one thermocouple module - 1200,

In the magnetic induction of the stator excitation - 0.75 T,

I is the current flowing through one winding thermocouples, = 0,04003367 And,

L - the working length of the upper and lower layer of magnetic stator - 0,06 m,

sin∠a is an angle of 45 degrees = 0,70710678118654752440084436210485.

Translate the Newtons into kg:

1 kgf = 9,80665 N

× kgf = 1,528621636223502 N

In ten blocks of thermocouples located on the same module, the total moment of force on the diameter, where the winding thermocouples will be = 1,55876026596595371508109293183 kg

However, this power is necessary to subtract:

- loss of the population and reducing the temperature difference between the node of the heater and the node cooler,

- loss on the internal resistance of thermocouple when the temperature rises,

- loss on reactance anchor,

the eddy - current loss of the magnetic circuit,

- the friction losses in the bearings,

- losses on the rotor mass, etc.

It is more effective to manufacture thermoelectric universal machine with a dielectric (diamagnetic) of the stator, which has a big advantage over electric cars, in which the stator is made of a ferromagnetic material, so that:

- have good cooling,

- have a high degree of reliability

- have a reliable insulation resistance

- have small dimensions and low weight,

- have a rectangular signal pulse voltage

- can automatically determine thermopower of the incoming signal,

- can have a system of monitoring and control, which can automatically change the settings of the machine,

- dielectric stator has no losses reactance of the armature, so the feasibility of using these machines will increase.

Works thermoelectric universal machine from the internal source of thermal radiation as follows.

After receiving sufficient power thermoelectric power from the internal source of thermal radiation which deposits from a variety of modules and blocks thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25 and a variety of modules and blocks thermocouples 26, the lower layer 27 of the universal thermoelectric machine starts the rotation of the magnetic circuit 41 of the rotor 42 in a counterclockwise direction. While the current movement 53 thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25 should be directed in the same direction from the bottom to the top, and the current movement 54 of thermocouples 26 of the lower layer 27 should be directed in the other direction from the top to the bottom. After changing the design and direction of the current in multiple modules and blocks thermocouples 24, the upper layer 25 and the many modules and blocks thermocouples 26, the lower layer 27 on the back will spin thermoelectric universal machine clockwise. In the static mode universal thermoelectric machine, without excitation system 37, will work as a thermoelectric generator DC.

When the difference of temperatures in the 700°C between node heater 49 and 51 and the node cooler 50 and 52 at the ends of these thermocouples will appear thermopower = 59,45 mV. If we know how many MB is obtained from one thermocouple, we can calculate the total voltage of one module.

For example, one module of the magnetic circuit is located two blocks windings 300 turns of the upper tier and two blocks windings 300 turns of the lower tier, which are connected in series, where the number of modules will be savice the ü from the machine diameter. From two blocks of the upper tier can be obtained voltage:

0,05945 volts · 300 turns · 2 = 35,67

From two blocks of the lower layer can be obtained voltage:

0,05945 volts · 300 turns · 2 = 35,67

when this current of each module will be - 0,04003367003 A.

The invention allows to create energy, industry and national economy, new types of thermoelectric energy saving machines and generators DC, which convert heat in operating nuclear reactors, energy blocks, internal combustion engines, solar power, thermal springs, stoves, gas burners and other technical installations in electric energy, as well as electrical DC machines operating from a source of thermoelectricity, obtained from the temperature difference, devices, rotation of the magnetic rotating lances for incinerators of solid household and other organic wastes with coal, power drive vehicles, hoists, conveyors, systems of automatic regulation and control of mechanical devices, measuring and reference devices, as well as in military and space applications.

Sources of information

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Cabourdin OF Physics, reference materials”. “Enlightenment”. Moscow, 1988.

Yoffe A.F. Semiconductor elements. THE USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. M. - L., 1960

Butaev V.E., Shlapentokh PS Electrical engineering with the fundamentals of industrial electronics. “High school”. Moscow, 1973

Molotov VK “instrumentation”. “High school”. Moscow, 1968

1. Universal thermoelectric machine, comprising a housing, a stator with a magnetic excitation system, designed as one monolithic magnet with the magnetic circuit, the magnet North pole, placed on the orbit of the upper tier, and the magnet South pole, placed in orbit lower layer, or contains many magnetic excitation systems with magnetic, magnets North pole and magnetic South pole, which are located through uniform or non-uniform intervals, to communicate through an air gap with many cores, with many of multiturn windings of the upper tier and a lot of multiturn windings of the lower layer, placed on the rotor shaft, through which the rolling elements or slip interacts with the body, characterized in that it further includes the site of the heater and the node cooler, between which is placed a lot of batteries semiconductor termale the clients, having two branches, one of which is p-type and the other n-type, lots of batteries, thermocouples, with two branches of dissimilar conductors are designed as separate modules in blocks and installed in thermal insulation and shielding of the device around the magnetic circuit of the stator mounted on the dielectric base of the orbits of the upper and lower tiers, where the cores of the upper base at a given angle are connected with magnetic bottom and through the air gaps interact with the excitation system of the rotor, where for reliable separation of magnetic flux between the magnetic circuits installed dielectric insert, where many batteries semiconductor thermocouples and thermocouples the upper and lower tiers are protected from host heater protective housing, ceramic insert and insulating device, and the host of the heater at the connections of the conductors of the hot junction, consisting of heterogeneous materials or semiconductor thermoelements, is located on the outer side of the housing to communicate with an external source of thermal radiation, or within the rotor for interacting with an internal source of thermal radiation, where the node cooler is located inside the machine at the connections of conductors cold junction consisting of heterogeneous whom the materials or semiconductor thermoelements, which communicates with the cooling device installed inside the magnetic excitation of the rotor and is made in the form of refrigerating apparatus of the absorption-diffusion type, when the machine is in operation from the magnetic excitation system consisting of many individual magnetic excitation systems, you must enter the collector to disable plenty of batteries semiconductor thermoelements or multiple batteries, thermocouples while they are out of range of the magnetic excitation systems, and the rotation of the machine from the DC signal in plenty of batteries semiconductor thermoelements and plenty of batteries thermocouples placed on the orbit of the upper tier, should be directed clockwise, and placed on the orbit of the lower tier should be directed counterclockwise, depending on the purpose of thermoelectric universal machine magnetic excitation system, many batteries semiconductor thermoelements and plenty of batteries, thermocouples can be installed on the shaft or on the housing, when using an external source of solar or thermal radiation, located in the environment, many batteries semiconductor thermoelements and plenty of batteries, thermocouples should be located on the outside of the housing, and when using ADAP who Rennie source of thermal radiation of many batteries thermocouples upper tier and a lot of batteries, thermocouples lower tier, must be located within the rotor, and the rotation may be implemented as the shaft and its housing.

2. Thermoelectric universal machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the machine body is made in the form of a lance and placed inside the unit for combustion of solid household and other organic waste with coal.

3. Thermoelectric universal machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the machine frame has holes flange and is part of the installation for incineration of solid municipal and other organic waste with coal.

4. Thermoelectric universal machine according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the machine body contains a valve, associated with the device pulsed supply of blast (air enriched with oxygen, or oxygen).



 

Same patents:

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electromechanical pulse power supply is equipped with electromechanical pulse generator (2) which is installed on shaft (4) of electric motor (1). At that, electric motor (1) and electromechanical pulse generator (2) has common rotor (3) fixed on shaft (4) in its middle part and magnets (12) of which in number of not less than two in the part of electromechanical pulse generator are located along its stator (6) made in the form of magnetic core, installed on electric motor shaft, rigidly connected through antifriction bearings (10) and (11) to housing (9); at that, stators (5) and (6) of electromechanical pulse generator (2) and electric motor (1) have separate current collectors (7) and (8).

EFFECT: improving operating reliability of electromechanical pulse power supply owing to its simplified design and reducing mechanical losses.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electromechanical pulse source of supply, according to this invention, is equipped with electromechanical generator of pulses (2), installed on shaft (3) of electric motor (1), having with electric motor (1) fixed on shaft (3) in its middle part a common rotor (4), magnets (12) of which in amount of at least two are arranged along stator (9) of electromechanical generator of pulses (2), arranged in the form of magnetic conductor installed on shaft (3) of electric motor (1), rigidly joined via rolling bearings (67) to body (5), besides, stator (9) of electromechanical generator of pulses is located inside rotor (4), and stator (8) of electric motor (1) - over rotor (4), at the same time stators (8) and (9) have separate current collectors (10) and (11).

EFFECT: higher reliability of operation of electromechanical pulse source of supply by simplification of its design and reduced mechanical losses.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electric drive for transport comprises three-phase AC generator, three stabilisers of AC voltage, three rectifying units, two capacitors (ionistor), pulse motor, rotation shaft of which via flywheel, clutch, automatic gearbox of generator rotor rotation speed switching, and mechanical drive sends rotational torque to generator rotor shaft, also electronic controller of generator excitation winding voltage, two electronic controllers of charging current of accumulators with electronic relays of accumulator charging circuits connection-disconnection, electric mechanical switch of generator excitation winding supply mode and electromagnet of rotor in pulse motor, common switch of generator "loading" winding, electronic voltage controller of electromagnet in rotor of pulse motor, three breakers of circuits of "loading" winding of generator, two electronic (electromechanical) relays for connection-disconnection of supply circuits of pulse motor stator electromagnets; automatic (electronic electromechanical) switch of accumulators and four synchronised switch of accumulators, in generator includes additional "working" winding, and pulse motor has vertical scheme of "rotor-stator" arrangement being separated into two identical halves with various poles (N-S), loading through three rheostats, three breakers of phase circuits of "loading" winding and through common breaker are energised from "loading" winding of generator.

EFFECT: saving natural energy resources and improvement of environmental condition.

19 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed source of power supply consists of vessel with electric motor, on shaft of which there is rotor installed with permanent magnets of various polarity, magnetic conductor with winding rigidly connected to vessel, and current collector in the form of magnetic conductor winding outputs differing by the fact that vessel comprises cover and oppositely installed thrust bearings for electric motor shaft, one of them is arranged on vessel cover, and the other one - on opposite wall of vessel. At the same time on shaft between wall of vessel and electric motor there is block of unbalance gears installed, having central gear and additional gears with unbalances. Electric motor, block of unbalanced gears and rotor of electromechanical generator of electric pulses have single rotation shaft. Magnetic conductor interacting with permanent magnets on inner surface of rotor rigidly connected to cover and fixed, which facilitates removal of electric potential from winding of magnetic conductor. Combination of mechanical torque pulses generator with electromechanical generator of pulses on single shaft reduces load on shaft of electric motor.

EFFECT: reduced costs of electric energy.

1 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: contactless DC motor is proposed, which comprises stator and rotor separated from each other by means of air gaps, where stator consists of two diametrically opposite coils produced from internal windings, which are connected to external source of DC voltage, and from external windings connected to winding of control current source armature, through which concave flat permanent magnets, being arranged as two diametrically opposite and installed between external nonmagnetic and internal ferromagnetic rotor rings may freely pass through, northern poles of which are tightly pressed by the first ring, and southern ones - tightly glued to surface of the second rotor ring, which may freely move around circle on four rollers and which is connected via two friction reducers with central nonmagnetic wheel, on axis of which there is DC source inductor installed as cruciform and made of four permanent magnets and ferromagnetic cylinder.

EFFECT: simplified design of contactless DC motor, its improved reliability and prolonged resource of operation, reduced prime cost.

2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering, particularly, to DC-to-AC conversion and can be used in electronics, measuring and computing hardware etc. Core 1 made from conducting material is arranged in spiral-like magnetic core 2. Aforesaid spiral incorporates DC excitation winding 3. One core end "a" is connected with the winding end, while electric potential is generated on conductor ends "a" and "b". External effects are brought on conductor a and/or magnetic core 2 for electric potential to be used for determining amount of said effects.

EFFECT: higher generated potential.

11 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to electric engineering and can be used during conversion of direct current electric motors. The proposed magnetic electric motor includes housing closed with front and rear covers, terminal box; drive and driven shafts are installed inside housing coaxially to each other, free end of driven shaft is passed through hole made in front cover. Both shafts are connected to each other by means of a coupling connected to control handle. Inside housing there arranged are several amplifying elements of similar design and connected to drive shaft. Each amplifying element includes constant magnet made in the form of a rectangular bar and installed vertically. Inside magnet there made is upper and lower vertical channels. Each amplifying element also includes electromagnetodynamic linear motor the windings of which are connected to terminals of terminal box, cog wheel fixed on drive shaft and located in a spheric housing. Upper and lower vertical channels of magnet, electromagnetodynamic linear motor and spheric housing of cog wheel are connected in series to each other by means of pipelines and all of them are filled with steel balls.

EFFECT: providing cost effective electric power consumption and increasing torque moment on driven shaft owing to constant magnets energy being used.

8 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electric propulsion consists of housing, stator and rotor with movable poles being inertial masses. Rotor poles consist of core and winding. Traction force is created with unbalanced centrifugal forces appearing at non-uniform movement of movable rotor poles installed individually along closed convex curve and interacting with magnetic field of stator. Stator has the number of pole pairs, which is equal to that of rotor, which create non-uniform magnetic field. Non-uniformity of stator magnetic field is created with different linear sizes and various number of loops of stator poles winding. The more the pole is, the more intensive magnetic field it creates in its section. Poles are located along the stator perimetre with gradual decrease of their size, from maximum pole to minimum one at diametrically opposite points of the perimetre.

EFFECT: simplifying electric propulsion design and decreasing material consumption.

3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electric motor comprises body, magnetic excitation poles, shaft with anchor and collector, holder with coal brushes, terminal box, reduction gear body, which is connected to electric motor body, slave shaft, which is kinematically connected to electric motor shaft. According to present invention, a flywheel is fixed on slave shaft of reduction gear, and its toothed rim by means of gears is coupled to electric motor shaft. Front and back movable disks with permanent magnets installed in dead radial slots are also fixed on slave shaft. Ends of magnets protrude to back end surface of front movable disk and to front end surface of back movable disk. Longitudinal axes of magnets are inclined to the side of front cover of reduction gear and are installed at the angle to this or that surface of movable disks. Between movable disks, with the possibility of longitudinal displacement and fixation, an immovable disk is installed, being kinematically coupled to switching handle. Immovable disk has through radial slots, in which magnets are fixed, ends of which protrude to both end surfaces and are inverted to magnets of both movable disks with their identical poles. Longitudinal axes of magnets are inclined to the side of front reduction gear cover and are arranged at the same angle to surfaces. Between immovable disk and movable disks there are immovable protective disks installed, being identical in design and having through radial slots, longitudinal axes of which are inclined to the side of front cover of reduction gear and are arranged at the same angle, and are also coaxial to magnets of front and back movable disks in case of their matching. Immovable protective disks are made of ferroalloys.

EFFECT: saving of electric energy, increased output capacity and torque.

16 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electrical engineering immediately dealing with design of frequency regulated ac motors and is to be implemented for design and manufacture of an electric drive enabling smooth and cost-efficient adjustment of the shaft speed within a wide range of its measurements with the starting torque value maintained sufficiently high. The proposed commutatorless ac motor contains an armature with insulated short-circuited windings rigidly mounted on the shaft and a stator composed of two parts that have separate excitation windings. The stator first part is designed as poled and asynchronous; the stator second part is circular-shaped having projections and axial grooves arranged alternatively on the inside. A match of a projection and a groove arranged on diametrically opposed sides of the stator has a redoubled width.

EFFECT: simplification of design, cost-efficiency and provision for smooth adjustment of the shaft speed within a wide range of its measurements with the starting torque value maintained sufficiently high as well as essential reduction of the motor cost.

3 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the design of solid systems for cooling, heating and power generation. A thermoelectric system comprises many thermoelectric modules with at least several of them being essentially heat insulated from each other and with each of them having a cold and a hot side. At least one solid operating tool can travel and is in sequential heat contact with at least two of the above many thermoelectric modules. The operating tools are gradually cooled or heated stepwise by at least two of the above many thermoelectric modules. The operating tools can travel as far as they are heated or cooled in respect to at least two of the above many thermoelectric modules. The operating tools comprise many disc units that are mounted on a rotating shaft and forming a stack-like configuration together with the thermoelectric modules between which at least some of the disc units are placed. The operating tools are many operating tools forming a stack-like configuration where these tools are alternating with the thermoelectric modules. The operating tools essentially perform heat insulation of at least some of the above many thermoelectric modules.

EFFECT: increasing energy conversion efficiency.

16 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: physics, medicine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed modular X-ray tube (10) has anode (20) and cathode (30) located in evacuated chamber (40) opposite each other. Note that electrons (e-) are generated on cathode (30) to be accelerated by high voltage towards anode (20) and to generate x-ray radiation (γ). Mind that x-ray tube (10) incorporates some accelerating modules, supplementing each other, (41, ...,45), everyone comprising at least one potential-carrying electrode (20/30/423/433/443). The first accelerating module (41) comprises cathode (30) picking off electrons (e-) while and the second accelerating module (45) contains anode (20) with generating x-ray radiation. Note here that x-ray tube (10) contains at least one additional accelerating module (42, ...,44) with potential-carrying electrode (423/433/443), and the electron accelerating module (42, ...,44) gets arbitrarily connected in series.

EFFECT: higher-power smaller-sizes x-ray tube, better reparability.

21 cl, 13 dwg

Temperature sensor // 2327122

FIELD: physics; measurements.

SUBSTANCE: proposed temperature sensor relates to measuring techniques, and in particular, to temperature sensors used for measuring temperature of important objects (for example, ambient temperature of power plants). The technical outcome of the invention is the provision for operational checking of metrological characteristics without dismantling the temperature sensor from the control object with increased efficiency of operation, as well as increased working capacity of the temperature sensor during operation. The given outcome is achieved by that, in the temperature sensor has a cover, in which there is one or more sensitive elements, the terminals of which are connected to the connection unit with extension cables, fixed to the protective cover, in which the inner cavity of the protective cover is divided lengthwise by a heat conductive material into several cavities, and sealed from each other along the side of the cover. In some parts of the cavities there are sensitive elements with leads. In other cavities, there are indicators for presence of the measured medium, extractable during operation of the temperature sensor. The indicators are equipped with attachment points in the cavity, which are mounted on side of the connection unit with extension cables for the temperature sensor.

EFFECT: possibility of checking metrological characteristics without dismantling the equipment, with increased efficiency and working capacity of the temperature sensor.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electrical cells.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electrode device has substrate, first and second electrodes located separately on this substrate. First electrode has many layers of thin metal films; it is adaptable for generation of heat and transfer of heat to units transforming heat into electrical energy and/or for performing conversion reactions. Cell device includes electric conducting elements and hard body source of charged ions for migration into electric conducting elements and through them.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

45 cl, 11 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

The invention relates to the field of converting thermal energy into electrical energy and can be used in thermoelectric generators (TEG), applied for waste heat recovery units nuclear reactors, engines of internal combustion, diesel and other thermal engines

The invention relates to thermoelectric devices based on the effects of Peltier and Seebeck

The invention relates to semiconductor devices, in particular to the thermoelectric battery, based on the Peltier effect

The invention relates to thermocouples and, in particular, to a coaxial thermocouples and thermocouples made from coaxial thermoelements

Thermocouple // 2094912

FIELD: electrical cells.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electrode device has substrate, first and second electrodes located separately on this substrate. First electrode has many layers of thin metal films; it is adaptable for generation of heat and transfer of heat to units transforming heat into electrical energy and/or for performing conversion reactions. Cell device includes electric conducting elements and hard body source of charged ions for migration into electric conducting elements and through them.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

45 cl, 11 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

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