Composition of fat base (versions) and method of its production (versions), composition of breast milk fat substitute and method of its production (version), baby formula

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions of breast milk fat substitutes, methods of their production, compositions of fat bases and methods of their production; baby formula containing specified substitutes. Composition of fat base according to invention includes mixture of triglycerides of vegetable origin, characterised by the fact that less than 50% of remains of fatty acids bound in sn-2 position are saturated; and/or amount of remains of saturated fatty acids bound in sn-2 position of glycerin frame makes less than approximately 43.5% of overall amount of remains of saturated fatty acids, 45-65% parts of unsaturated fatty acids in sn-1 and sn-3 positions make parts of oleic acid and/or 7-15% parts of unsaturated fatty acids in sn-1 and sn-3 positions make parts of linoleic acid. Composition of breast milk fat substitute according to invention includes mixture of at least 25% or at least 30% of specified composition of fat base according to the invention and up to 75% or accordingly up to 70% of at least one vegetable oil, in which specified vegetable oil is randomised. Baby formula according to invention includes composition of fat base or composition of breast milk fat substitute.

EFFECT: compositions of fat base make it possible to optimally imitate breast milk fat and are suitable for use in various baby formulas, and methods of production provide for low consumption of fat bases in process of their production.

28 cl, 17 tbl

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to the fat substitutes of breast milk, to methods for their preparation, to their use and to the fat mixture and mixtures containing these fat replacers.

Prior art

All publications mentioned in the present description, are included in full in the list of references taken into account in the preparation of this application.

Lipids in most cases are the building blocks of life. They are used as the building blocks of membranes, cells and tissues; as sources of energy either for immediate use or for accumulation; as precursors for a variety of other biomolecules, as well as biochemical signals. Lipids play an important role in all biological processes.

Many lipids, especially triglycerides consumed daily by humans with food. In most cases, these lipids are involved in metabolic processes and are used to store energy in the body, as precursors for the biosynthesis of other lipids or biomolecules. Whatever the purpose of the lipids in metabolic processes, during or after its consumption they interact with other nutrients or products of their metabolism.

With mother's milk and most of the mixes for baby food newborn receive about 50% of calories as fat. Over 98% of milk fat is present in the form of triglycerides, which contain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids esterified with glycerol.

Fatty acids in the fat of breast milk differ highly specific distribution position in the glycerol skeleton. It is known that such specific configuration largely determines the efficiency of absorption of nutrients.

Palmitic acid (C16:0) is the predominant saturated fatty acid (EFA), ranging from 20 to 25% of the total content of fatty acids in Mature human milk. From 70 to 75% of this fatty acid tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position of the triglycerides. In contrast, palmitic acid present in vegetable oils, more commonly used in the production of mixtures, etherification in sn-1 and sn-3 positions, while the sn-2 position are predominantly engaged in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acid can be synthesized in animal tissues and should be ingested with food, i.e. exclusively from plants. However, the organism feels the absolute need for these so-called "essential fatty acids necessary for growth, reproduction and good health. In triglyc ridah breast milk from 5 to 20% of the total C18:3 acid and from 20 to 23% of the total C18:2 acids tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton [Lopez-Lopez A. (2002) European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56: 1242-54; Innis S.M. (1994) Lipids, 29: 541-5].

The digestion of triglycerides baby

The process of digestion of triglycerides newborn is very complicated. It is initiated in the gastric phase of digestion, catalyzed gastric and lingual (speaking) lipase [Hamosh, M. (1990) Nutrition, 6: 421-8]. This initial lipolysis provides the maximum activity of pancreatic colipase-sensitive lipase during the intestinal phase of digestion. System pancreatic lipase attacks triglyceride with a high degree of specificity. Lipolysis occurs predominantly at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions with the release of two free fatty acids and 2-monoglyceride [Mattson F.H. & L.H. Beck (1956) J. Biol. Chem., 219: 735-740]. Monoglycerides are absorbed well, regardless of the component fatty acids. In contrast, the absorption of free fatty acids varies greatly depending on their chemical structure. Mono - and polyunsaturated fatty acids are absorbed well, as well as saturated fatty acids with a chain length of 12 carbon atoms or less. The coefficient of absorption of free long-chain saturated fatty acids, i.e. palmitic acid, relatively low [Jensen .et al. (1988) Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 43: 745-51], which is partly explained by their temperature melting point greater than the temperature tel is (~63°C), and the tendency of these fatty acids to the formation of hydrated fatty acid Soaps with minerals such as calcium or magnesium, at a pH of intestine [Small D.M. (1991) Annu. Rev. Nutr., 11: 413-434].

In a number of studies have demonstrated a predominant absorption of palmitic acid in the case of its presence in the sn-2 position of triglyceride [Lien E.L. et al. (1997) J. Ped. Gastr. Nutr., 52 (2): 167-174; V.P. Carnielli et al. (1995) Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 61: 1037-1042; Innis S.M. et al. (1993) Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 57: 382-390; Filer, L.J. et al. (1969) J. Nutr., 99: 293-8]. Studies on the comparative evaluation of absorption of palmitic acid breast milk and the mixtures allowed to conclude that the degree of absorption of palmitic acid breast milk above [Chappel J.E. et al. (1986) J. Pediatr., 108: 439-447; Hanna F.M. et al. (1970) Pediatr., 45: 216-224; Tommarelli R. et al. (1968) J. Nutr., 95: 583-90]. Increased absorption of fat and calcium in infants fed breast milk, compared with infants fed formula milk was attributed to two factors: the presence of lipolytic enzyme (lipase, bile-salt-stimulated acid) in human milk and a relatively high proportion of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of triglyceride [Hernell O. et al. (1988) Perinatal Nutrition. New York: Academic Press; Wang C.S. et al. (1983) J. Biol. Chem., 258: 9197-9202]. A higher degree of absorption of palmitic acid was observed in the case of infant formula, rich in palmitic acid, etherify is new in the sn-2 position of triglycerides, compared to mixtures containing palmitic acid esterified predominantly in the sn-2 and sn-3 positions [López-López A. et al. (2001) Early Hum. Dev., 65. S. 83-S.94].

A study comparing the absorption of fat and calcium infants, vskarmlivanie formula containing a blend of palm olein with soybean oil (high levels of palmitic acid in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions), and milk mixture containing a mixture of soybean oil with coconut oil (low levels of palmitic acid), showed that a mixture of palm olein with soybean oil was absorbed worse, although the correlation between palmitic and oleic acids in it was similar to the ratio of these acids in the fat of breast milk [S.E. Nelson et al. (1996) Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 64: 291-296]. Another study showed that the absorption of fat in infants fed formula containing lard, was down when a high proportion of sn-2 palmitin in the lard was reduced to 33% by chemical randomization [Filer (1969) id ibid (ibid)].

The composition of monoglycerides absorbed from the cavity of the small intestine that are important for the distribution of fatty acids in circulating lipids, since about 70% of the fatty acids that are absorbed in the form of sn-2 monoglycerides, remains in initial position in the process of interesterification with the formation of triglycerides in the intestinal cells [Small (1991) id ibid.].

ISS is adowanie on pigs confirmed that palmitic acid being absorbed from milk and mix together with rearranged triglycerides in the form of sn-2 monoglyceride, was preserved in the process of restructuring of triglycerides in the enterocytes and secretion in the triglycerides of plasma lipoproteins [Innis S.M. et al. (1995) J. Nutr., 125: 73-81]. It was also shown that the distribution of saturated fatty acids in human milk and the mixtures is the determining factor in the distribution of fatty acids in triglycerides and phospholipids in the plasma of the child [Innis S.M. et al. (1994) Lipids., 29: 541-545].

During the first year of life the newborn's weight is tripled, and the growth increased by 50%. In order to meet the demands of rapidly increasing skeletal mass, growing babies need in a bioavailable source of calcium. If babies suck milk mixtures, the availability of calcium depends on the composition of these mixtures [Ostrom C.M. et al. (2002) J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 21(6): 564-569].

As mentioned above, the digestion of triglycerides includes lipolysis in sn-1 and sn-3 positions and the formation of free fatty acids and 2-monoglycerides. When palmitic acid is sn-1 and sn-3 positions, which is the case in most of the mixtures, it is released as free fatty acids, which shows a tendency to the formation of insoluble calcium is the had been. In contrast, palmitic acid esterified at the sn-2 position, as in human milk is not available for the formation of calcium Soaps [Small (1991) id ibid.].

A number of studies have demonstrated a correlation between mixtures containing high levels of palmitic acid located at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triglyceride, and lower absorption of calcium [S.E. Nelson et al. (1998) J. Amer. Coll. Nutr., 17: 327-332; Lucas A. et al. (1997) Arch. Dis. Child., 77: F178-F187; V.P. Carnielli et al., (1996) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 23: 553-560; Ostrom (2002) id ibid.; Hanna (1970) id ibid.]. Additionally, it was shown that triglycerides food containing palmitic acid predominantly in the sn-2 position, as in human milk, have significant beneficial effects on the absorption of fat and calcium in the intestine in healthy, born at full term infants and premature infants [Carnielli (1996) id ibid.; Carnielli (1995) id ibid.; Lucas (1997) id ibid.]. The infants fed formula containing high levels of palmitic acid in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, showed a higher excretion of calcium in faeces and, consequently, a lower percentage of calcium absorption compared with infants fed formula containing low levels of palmitic acid [Nelson (1996) id ibid.]. The excretion of calcium in faeces is closely connected with the excretion of fat in the feces. This study also showed that excr the tion of phosphorus in the urine increased, and the retention of phosphorus was decreased when infants were fed with a mixture containing high levels of palmitic acid in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. These results probably reflect a reduced availability of calcium deposits in the bones.

The impact of education soap on calcium absorption can be significant. Many blends baby food contain enough saturated fatty acids to form Soaps with almost all the available calcium.

Another important result, which is associated with the feeding mixtures, is the lack of stool (constipation) as born at full term and premature infants that the latter can lead to threatening their life complications. Conversely, constipation is a rarity among births in term infants fed mother's milk. Study on the comparative evaluation of the degree of hardness and composition of feces in infants fed breast milk and fed mixtures, showed that calcium Soaps of fatty acids is positively correlated with the hardness of the stool. The faeces of infants fed formula were much harder than in infants fed mother's milk, which suggest the existence of differences in the digestion of saturated fatty acids [P.T. Quinlan et al. (1995) J. Pediatr. Gatr. and Nutr., 20: 81-90].

Trying to improve the reduced absorption of calcium and to eliminate the symptom, solid feces, manufacturers of infant formula for infants seek to change the fatty acid profile, replacing palmitic acid, lauric acid, and in some cases increasing the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies have shown that fatty acid composition of the diet affects the fatty acid composition of developing tissues baby [Widdowson E.M. (1975) .Med. J., 1: 633-5; Carlson S.E. et al. (1986) Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 44: 798-804; Innis S.M. et al. (1990) Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 5: 994-1000; Koletzko Century. et al. (1989) Eur. J. Pediatr., 148: 669-75], and therefore urine and lipid metabolism proceeds differently from fed mother's milk and fed mixtures infants [Putnam J.C. et al. (1982) Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 36: 106-114; Innis S.M. et al. (1992) Am. Coll. Nutr., 11: 63S-8S; van Biervliet JP, et al. (1981) Acta Paediatr. Scand., 70: 851-6].

Innis with TCS. [Innis (1993) id ibid.} the comparative evaluation of three children mixtures containing the same quantity of saturated fatty acids, C8-C14, C16 from palm oil (mainly in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions) or C16 of the synthesized triglycerides (mainly in the sn-2 position) - showed that the chain length of saturated fatty acids in the mixtures affects the metabolism of dietary oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. Their study also showed that the sn-2 configuration C16 in TRIG is yeridah breast milk has, apparently, the unique properties that go beyond the absorption. These properties include the ability to influence the concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol and composition of esters of cholesterol and fatty acids.

EP 0209327 describes the composition of the substitute fat milk, which is suitable for use as a substitute for fat in the mixtures. In the claimed fat composition at least 43.5% of the total amount of residues of saturated fatty acids are associated with sn-2 position of the triglycerides. In addition, at least 50% of fatty acids occupying the sn-2 position, are saturated. The fat composition of the said patent is made of oil or fat, with high levels of saturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid.

EP 0495456 also reveals the composition of the fat substitutes of breast milk. The claimed compositions include at least 40% saturated fatty acids (total)located in the sn-1 position of the triglycerides contained in these compositions. These fat compositions are also characterized by the fact that they include from 0.2 to 7% of linolenic acid (C18:3, ω-3), 70% of which are associated with the sn-1 and sn-3 position of glycerol parts. The fat composition of the EP 0495456 also prepared by the eletrification triglyceride source, rich in saturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid. Specified source, such as a light fraction of palm oil, may contain palmitic acid at levels of over 80% and even 90%.

U.S. patent No. 5658768 discloses multi-stage cooking method triglyceride compositions, in which more than 40% of saturated fatty acids are located in the sn-2 position. Many of the stages include enzymatic modification.

The applicant in the international application WO 2004/036987 describes fat composition, which can be used to create substitutes fat milk, which has a great similarity with the fat of breast milk, and/or can be used at relatively low levels in order to ensure such fat replacers milk. This composition is made also, since triglyceride sources rich in palmitic acid.

While the above-described fat compositions can be used in the preparation of the fat substitutes of breast milk with a high level of similarity with the fat of breast milk (GSM), which, in turn, can be used during the development of mixtures on the basis of the latest achievements of science and technology, received substitutes JIM can be extremely expensive, making them impractical for use is in the industrial production of mixtures.

The authors of the present invention solve the problem of reducing costs by producing unique fat composition that is described in the international application WO 2004/036987, offering to introduce substitutes JIM with a fairly high level of similarity with JIM, which is achieved by relatively low levels of artificial composition of fatty basis of the present invention, in the total fat blend used in the mixtures.

Another approach to the problem of cost reduction provide substitutes JIM, which include a relatively high proportion of saturated fatty acids (total), occupying the sn-2 position, giving the fat compositions with more than 40% (of the total) saturated fatty acids occupying the sn-2 position (but less than 50%). Such substitutes JIM get due to the high dilution of the compositions of fatty basis, such as described in EP 0209327 or EP 0495456, affordable and effective from the point of view of vegetable oils. However, these mixtures are characterized by a lower ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid (~40-43%)than GSM (70%). However, clinical studies [Lien et al. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1997, 167-74] showed that these compounds provide better absorption of calcium and fat to the slot, than a mixture of baby food on the basis of mixtures of vegetable oils. The substitutes that are as close to the fat of breast milk, are described in applicant's international application WO 2004/036987 [in: Fat 1, table 1]. In all cases, these substitutes JIM, characterized in that they contain at least 40% saturated fatty acids, occupying the sn-2 position, obtained by cultivating the fat basics of high levels of sn-2 palmitic acid, as well as a high ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid using various vegetable triglycerides, obtaining a mixture in which at least 40% saturated fatty acids bound at the sn-2 position. This ratio typically ranges from 40 to 45%. Fat basis used for the preparation of such substitutes IGM produced by interesterification of triglycerides rich in palmitic acid, with an excess of a mixture of free fatty acids, rich in oleic acid.

The aim of the present invention is to provide new compositions of fatty bases, which have the advantage of optimal simulation IGM and are also effective in the production from the point of view of cost.

Another objective of the invention is the provision of new methods of production with low cost fat about the new, simulating JIM, and fat mixture, suitable for use in a variety of mixtures.

These and other objectives of the invention will become apparent from the following description.

Summary of the invention

In the first aspect of the present invention relates to obtained by enzymatic composition of fatty basis, comprising a mixture of triglycerides of vegetable origin and is characterized by the fact that less than 50% of the fatty acid residue linked to the sn-2 position are saturated; and/or the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is less than approximately 43.5% of the total amount of residues of saturated fatty acids in which these fatty acid residues are residues C12, C12, C16 or C16 acids, optional other fatty acids and their mixtures comprising at least two acid.

In a preferred embodiment, a practical embodiment of the composition of fatty bases according to the invention all mainly saturated fatty acids bound in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton, are remnants of palmitic acid. In particular, at least 60%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 85%, saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton are ostad the mi palmitic acid.

In a specific embodiment, a practical embodiment of the composition of fatty bases according to the invention at least 40%, preferably from 45 to 65%, parts of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are parts of oleic acid. In particular, at least 45%, preferably from 54 to 65%, parts of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are parts of oleic acid. Alternatively, at least 35%, preferably from 40 to 52%of specified parts of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are parts of oleic acid.

In addition, in the composition of fatty bases according to the invention at least 5%, preferably from 7 to 15%, parts of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions can be parts of linoleic acid. In the special case of at least 9%, preferably from 10 to 20%, parts of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are part of linoleic acid. The alternative of at least 4%, preferably from 5 to 10%, parts of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are part of linoleic acid.

In another particular variant embodiment of the composition of fatty bases according to the invention from about 0.2 to 15%, preferably from about 7% to 14%, more preferably from about 11% to 12.5%, of the total fatty parts CI the lot in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are parts of lauric acid.

The following aspect of the invention relates to the composition of the substitute fat milk, comprising a mixture of at least 25% or at least 30% of the composition of fatty bases according to the invention and up to 75% or up to 70% of at least one vegetable oil. Vegetable oil can be selected from the group consisting of soybean oil, palm oil, canola oil, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, sunflower oil, corn oil and rapeseed oil, but the list of oils is not limited to only these oils here. These oils can undergo randomization before mixing with the composition of a fatty basis, which is discussed in detail below.

In specific embodiments, a practical embodiment of the composition of the substitute fat milk according to the invention from about 33% to 45%, preferably from about 36% to 43%, even more preferably about 40%, of the total number of residues of palmitic acid bound at the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton.

In another aspect the invention relates to a mixture of baby food, including composition of fatty basis or composition of the substitute fat milk according to the invention, in particular, to a mixture of baby food, including at least one protein component and at least one fatty to the ponent, in which the specified fat component is a composition of a fatty basis or composition of human milk substitute according to the invention, the mixture optionally includes vitamins, minerals, nucleotides, amino acids and carbohydrates, and other useful nutritionally components.

The following aspect of the invention relates to a first method of preparation of the composition of fatty bases according to the invention as defined above, the method involves the following stages:

(a) reaction of the triglyceride mixture, which has mainly low content of saturated fatty acids, mainly palmitic acid, preferably below 60% of total fatty acids, more preferably below 57%, most preferably below 53%, with a source of free unsaturated fatty acids, rich in oleic acid, in the presence of insoluble catalyst in which the ratio of these free fatty acids to the specified glyceride mixture is from about 1.5:1 to 1:1;

(b) removal of the catalyst;

(C) distillation of the excess of free fatty acids;

(g) optionally bleaching the oil and

(d) optional deodorizing product from step (g).

Optional triglyceride mixture is subjected to randomization before the reaction for the enrichment of sn-2 position on shennymi fatty acids (due to the increase in the share of saturated fatty acids, related in the sn-2 position). Randomization can be done by chemical means using an alkaline or acid catalyst or enzyme by using non-selective lipase.

This first method of the invention may optionally also include stage fractionation preceding stage deodorizing (d).

Triglyceride mixture used in the specified method of the invention may preferably contain from 48 to 57% of saturated fatty acid, preferably palmitic acid.

Source of free fatty acids used in the specified method of the invention can preferably contain from about 2 to 5% C16:0, from 60 to 80% C18:1 and from 1 to 4% C18:0 fatty acids.

In yet another variant embodiment of the invention relates to a method for preparing the composition of the substitute fat milk according to the invention, as defined above, and this method involves mixing the composition of fatty bases according to the invention at least one vegetable oil, preferably in a ratio of about 0.4:1 to 4:1 mixture, in which the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is from about 33% to 43.5%, preferably about 43%, more preferably about 40%, of the total to the number of residues of saturated fatty acids.

An alternative composition of fatty bases according to the invention is mixed with the vegetable oil in a ratio of about 2.3:1 to 1:1 with the mixture, in which the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is from about 33% to 40% of the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids.

Primitively vegetable oil used for cooking substitute fat milk, optional undergo randomization to ensure that 33% of palmitic acid esterified at the sn-2 position. Randomization allows to greatly reduce the amount of fat basis, required for the preparation of compositions substitute fat milk for mixtures, which is characterized by the required ratio of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position, of the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids. This option is especially important from a financial point of view. As mentioned above, randomization is used to mix the vegetable oils can be carried out by chemical means using an alkaline or acid catalyst or enzyme by using non-selective lipase.

In another aspect the invention relates to the second method of cooking the composition of fatty bases according to the invention, the definition of which is given above, the method involves the following stages:

(a) reaction of the triglyceride mixture, which has a high content of palmitic acid, preferably at least 70% of the total fatty acids, more preferably at least 80%, identical or less by mass, the amount of the source of free unsaturated fatty acids, which are rich in oleic and saturated fatty acids with 14 carbon atoms or less, preferably lauric acid, in the presence of insoluble catalyst in which the ratio of the specified free acid to the specified glyceride mixture is from about 1:1 to 2:1;

(b) removal of the catalyst;

(C) distillation of the excess of free fatty acids;

(g) optionally bleaching the oil and

(d) optional deodorizing product from step (g).

As in the first method of the invention, the triglyceride mixture is optionally subjected to randomization before the reaction for the enrichment part of the saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton. Randomization can be a standard process or chemical interesterification by using acid or alkaline catalyst (e.g., sodium methoxide), or enzymatically by using non-selective lipase.

This is the er method of the invention specified source of free unsaturated fatty acids preferably contain from about 10 to 25% of saturated fatty acids with 14 or less carbon atoms, mainly lauric acid.

The second method of the invention may optionally also include stage fractionation preceding stage deodorizing (d).

In specific embodiments, the embodiments of the second method of the invention triglyceride mixture may contain at least 75% of palmitic acid. Source of free fatty acids may contain from about 5% to 5% C12:0, from 0.05 to 2% C14:0, from 1 to 5% C16:0, from 55 to 75% C18:1 and from 1 to 5% C18:0 fatty acids of the total number of fatty acids.

In another aspect the invention relates to a method for preparing the composition of the substitute fat milk according to the invention, the definition of which is given above, and this method involves mixing the composition of fatty bases according to the invention at least one vegetable oil, preferably in a ratio of about 0.4:1 to 4:1 mixture, in which the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is from about 33% to 43.5%, preferably about 43%, more preferably about 40%, of the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids.

An alternative composition of fatty bases according to the invention is mixed with the vegetable oil in a ratio of about 2.3:1 to 1:1 with the mixture, in which the number of the mistakes of saturated fatty acids, related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is from about 33% to 40% of the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids.

Similarly, in the above embodiments, the embodiment used for mixing vegetable oil optional undergo randomization to provide about 33% (of the total) residues of palmitic acid esterified at the sn-2 position. Randomization allows to greatly reduce the amount of fat necessary Foundation for achieving the residue of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position to the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids in the finished drug substitute JIM. Randomization is used to mix the vegetable oils can be carried out by chemical means using an alkaline or acid catalyst or enzyme by using non-selective lipase.

In another aspect the invention relates to a method for preparing mimics JIM composition, which involves the following stages:

(a) reaction of the triglyceride mixture, which has a content of palmitic acid at least 30% of the total fatty acids, preferably at least 40%, more preferably more than 50%, most preferably more than 70%, with a source of free fatty acids, which contain what it is less than 10% of palmitic acid from the total content of free fatty acids, preferably less than 5%, in the presence of the insoluble catalyst, with respect to such free fatty acids to the specified glyceride mixture is from about 5:1 to 1:1;

(b) removal of the catalyst;

(C) distillation of the excess of free fatty acids;

(g) optionally bleaching the oil and

(d) optional deodorizing product from step (g).

The resulting product contains from 0 to 20% C12:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 10 to 15%; from 0 to 15% C14:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 5 to 10%; from 8 to 30% C16:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 20 to 25%; from 1 to 6% C18:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 3 to 5%; 20 to 50% C18:1 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 30 to 40%; from 5 to 30% C18:2 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 10 to 20%; or from 0.2 to 4% C18:3 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 1.5 to 3%; other fatty acids are present at levels below 10% of the total fatty acids, preferably below 5%. The main advantage of this product is that it is suitable without additional whitening for use as an ingredient in mixtures for de the civil power.

Optional triglyceride mixture before the reaction is subjected to randomization to either chemical or enzymatic way to increase the amount of saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position.

The invention relates to a fat composition that is similar to GSM and can serve as a substitute JIM obtained by the method according to the invention. This composition of the substitute JIM may preferably be characterized by a fatty acid profile, suitable for baby food, preferably mimic the fatty acid profile GSM, most preferably minimizing the loss of calcium due to the formation of fatty acid soap in which the composition contains at least 33% of sn-2 saturated fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids, preferably at least 40%, more preferably more than 45%, even more preferably more than 50%, most preferably more than 59%. This composition is characterized by the ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid at least 40%, preferably more than 43%, more preferably more than 45%.

The following aspect of the invention relates to the use of a composition of a fatty basis according to the invention or prepared by any of the methods according to the invention in the production is oppozitsii substitute fat milk for mixtures.

In another aspect the invention relates to a method for preparing the composition of the substitute JIM. This method involves mixing the appropriate composition of fatty bases according to the invention at least one vegetable oil in which the oil is subjected to randomization before mixing with the composition of a fatty basis. Suitable for this purpose fatty base is a mixture of structured lipids obtained by the reaction of glycerides to free fatty acids in the presence of stereospetsifichno selective lipase. This fat basis contains from 0 to 20% C12:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 10 to 15%; from 0 to 15% C14:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 5 to 10%; from 20 to 55% C16:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, of which more than 38% tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position; from 1 to 7% C18:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 3 to 5%; from 25 to 65% C18:1 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 30 to 40%; from 2 to 40% C18:2 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 10 to 20%; from 0 to 8% C18:3 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably from 1.5 to 3%; other fatty acids are present at levels below 8% of the total soda is Jania fatty acids, preferably below 5%.

Vegetable oil can be selected from the group consisting of soybean oil, palm oil, canola oil, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, sunflower oil, corn oil and rapeseed oil, but the list of oils is not limited to only these oils here.

In a specific aspect primitively vegetable oil used for cooking substitute fat milk subjected to randomization. Randomization allows to produce oil containing 33% (from its General content) residues of palmitic acid esterified at the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton. Randomization allows to greatly reduce the amount of fat necessary Foundation for the preparation of compositions substitute fat milk for mixtures, which are characterized by the required ratio of residues of saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position to the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids. This variant embodiment is particularly important from a financial point of view. As in other embodiments described above, randomization primitively vegetable oils can be carried out by chemical means using an alkaline or acid catalyst or enzyme by using non-selective lipase.

Randomization is used to shift the air traffic management oils provides, inter alia (among other things), another important aspect, in addition to efficiency in terms of cost. Compared with natural oils randomized oils used for blending, can contribute to the distribution of γ-linolenic acid (C18:3) and linoleic acid (C18:2), as close as possible to their distribution in JIM.

Composition of fatty bases and oil/butter are mixed in a certain ratio, which can be determined by the desired profile of the finished mixture. For example, the composition of fatty basis and used for mixing oil/oils can be mixed in a ratio of about from 0.13:1 to 4:1 mixture, in which the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is from about 33% to 43.5%, preferably about 43%, more preferably about 40%, of the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids. Alternative number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is over to 43.5%. Therefore, the ratio of ingredients may vary in order to obtain a mixture with the desired or specified fatty acid profile.

In another aspect the invention relates to a method for preparing the composition of fatty bases suitable for use as an ingredient mixture for baby : what I includes stage (a) reaction of a randomized triglyceride mixture with a suitable profile of fatty acids that contain more than about 35% palmitic acid of the total fatty acids, with a suitable source of free unsaturated fatty acids containing less than 10% of palmitic acid from the total content of free fatty acids, in the presence of the insoluble catalyst, with respect to those of free fatty acids to the specified glyceride mixture is from about 7:1 to 1:1; (b) removal of the catalyst; (C) distillation of the excess of free fatty acids; and optionally (d) bleaching oil and optionally (d) deodorizing the product from step (g). Randomization triglyceride mixture can be carried out by chemical means using an alkaline or acid catalyst or enzyme by using non-selective lipase.

Below the invention is described in more detail by the example of particularly preferred variants of its practical implementation.

A detailed description of the preferred embodiment variants of the invention

In search of useful nutritionally and also cheap to manufacture substitutes JIM the authors of the present invention has developed a new composition of fatty bases, which are characterized by the fact that less than 50% (of the total the th content of fatty acids) contained fatty acids in the sn-2 position are saturated. These new substitutes IGM can be obtained by transesterification of triglycerides with a relatively low content of palmitic acid. Composition of fatty bases can be used for preparing mixtures of fats (final, ready-to-use as components of mixtures), which are characterized by the General level of saturated (in particular, palmitic acid) fatty acids, similar to their level in GSM, and the ratio of saturated (mainly palmitic) fatty acids in the sn-2 position to the total number of saturated (palmitic) fatty acids above 33% and preferably below to 43.5%, more preferably below 40%. This composition of fatty basis, the method of its preparation and the different areas of its application are the first aspect of the present invention.

Thus, in the first embodiment, the present invention relates to the production of fat concentrate method interesterification, in which the original material is not so rich in palmitic acid, as described in the prior art, and is a combination of vegetable oils as a source of triglyceride content of palmitic acid of about 50% and the total content of saturated fatty acids to less than 60%. Part two is indicative of the original triglyceride materials pre is shown in table 1.

Table 1
Triglycerides
Palm stearin, % wt./mass. in the mixPalm stearin, % wt./mass. in the mixPalm oil, % wt./mass. in the mixRapeseed oil, % wt./mass. in the mix%C16 from the total amount of fatty acids% saturated fatty acids from the total amount of fatty acids
Iodine number 34Iodine number 15
Example 120805157,3
Example 2782248,753,7

These raw materials can be used as a starting material d is I interesterification using appropriate specific 1,3-lipase to obtain the composition of a fatty basis, which, in turn, can be used for the production of the above substitutes JIM. These substitutes provide a limited similarity with JIM, as characterized by the ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total content of palmitic acid above 33%, thereby improving the absorption by the infant calcium and fatty acids used as an energy source. These substitutes IGM according to the present invention show improved absorption of calcium compared with simple mixtures of vegetable oils used in the mixtures are characterized by a maximum ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid components is preferably 1:3 (33%), and manufactured at lower cost compared to substitutes JIM derived from fatty bases of the prior art, such as the fundamentals with respect to sn-1 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid is more than 50%.

The above-described triglycerides with low content of palmitic acid as a starting material may be subjected to randomization before transesterification (as described below) and subsequent reaction with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA), containing relatively high amounts of oleic acid, in the ratio of 1.5:1 (the LCD: Triglycerides), as in example 1, or even lower - 1:1, as in example 2. It should be noted that in the compositions of the prior art specified relationship (FLC: fat) is usually 5:1 or less 3:1. Fatty acid composition (FSW) fatty bases derived from triglycerides of examples 1 and 2, is shown in table 2.

Table 2
Example 1Example 2
Fatty acid% of total fatty acids% in the sn-2 position of the total number of sn-2 fatty acids% in the sn-2 position of the total amount of fatty acids% of total fatty acids% sn-2 position of the total number of sn-2 fatty acids% in the sn-2 position of the total amount of fatty acids
C120,80,416,70,20,233,3
C140,7 0,942,90,60,950,0
C1628,440,847,928,140,447,9
C183,6a 3.936,13,6the 3.835,2
C18:151,342,127,454,542,225,8
C18:212,310,428,210,81030,9
C18:31,60,612,51,11,545,5
C20:00,30,333,3 0,30,333,3
C20:10,20,50,6
Total NLC33,546,346,132,545,646,8
Abbreviations: FSW - fatty acid composition; NLC - saturated fatty acid; FFA - free fatty acids.

In both examples, the obtained fatty basis is the content of the sn-2 saturated fatty acids (EFA) are less than 50% and the ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid is also below 50%.

These fat basis can then be mixed with vegetable oils to get ready substitute JIM with the ratio of sn-2 saturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids above 33% (39.3 per cent when using a fatty basis of example 1) and sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid approximately 44% (44,2% when using a fatty basis of example 2).

Tables 3 and 4 relate to the mixing of the fatty basis of example 2 with ASD who sustained fashion oils, listing the latest and indicate the composition of the mixture. The total content of palmitic acid is 22%, i.e. comparable with the level in JIM.

Table 3
Oil for mixing
Component% wt./mass. in the mix
Fatty basis of example 258,8
Coconut oilof 21.2
Palm oil5,9
Corn oil8,2
Rapeseed oil5,9

Table 4
Fatty acid% of total fatty acids
C1210,2
C144,3
C1622,1
C18
C18:141,9
C18:213,1
C18:31,3
% C16 in the sn-1 position of the total amount of C16 acids44,2
The total number of NLC39,8
The total number of NLC in the sn-1 position47,0
% Of NLC in the sn-1 position of the total number of NLC39,3

Thus, in accordance with this aspect of the invention provides method and used in the triglyceride compositions which are mixtures of triglycerides of palm stearin, preterition palm oil, palm stearin, preterition with rapeseed oil, etc. Typical fatty acid composition of the obtained source material triglyceride contains less than 60%, preferably from about 48 to 57%, saturated fatty acids is tons of the total amount of fatty acids. At this stage, the maximum ratio between the NLC in the sn-2 position and the total number of NLC is approximately 1:3 (33%). Used free fatty acids (FFA) are a source of high oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids. In typical cases the content is from 2 to 5% C16:0, from 60 to 80% C18:1, from 1 to 4% C18:0. Suitable sources are fatty acids of rapeseed, the fraction of C18 fatty acids, palm kernel oil, FFA high oleic sunflower oil, etc. may be also combined from at least two different sources of fatty acids. The ratio of triglycerides (TAG) and FLC is usually from about 40:60 (TAG:FLC) to 50:50.

The fatty acid used for the enrichment of sn-1 and sn-3 positions of unsaturated fatty acids may be chosen not only from free fatty acids, as shown here as an example, but from alkyl esters of fatty acids, preferably methyl or ethyl esters, and esters of glycerides.

In the following aspect the present invention relates to a fat composition, which is prepared by the interesterification source of triglycerides with a relatively low amount of free fatty acids. In addition, the source of free fatty acids can be enriched as oleic, and is owenboy acids. From prior art it is known that fatty bases can be obtained by using a substantial excess of unsaturated fatty acids in the process of interesterification. This excess amount can be up to 5 parts of FLC to 1 part fat. In most cases, the excess amount was 3:1 or 2:1 (SJK: fat). In all cases, these mixtures of fatty acids had a high content of oleic acid, as well as other C18 unsaturated fatty acids. The compounds of fatty acids did not contain saturated fatty acids, particularly lauric acid. The present invention uses the ratio of FFA: fat, which is about 1.5:1 or even below 1:1, in the periodic system with a continuous layer. In addition, the application of a mixture of fatty acids containing lauric acid, helps to maintain a relatively low ratio of sn-2 saturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids without increasing the risk of the formation of insoluble complexes of saturated fatty acids with calcium. This can be explained by the fact that lauric acid, although it is busy, does not form insoluble complexes with calcium, as it is able to do saturated fatty acids with longer chain - C16 and more [Tantibhedhyangkul and Hashim (1978) Pediatrics. 61(4): 537-45; Finley and Davidson (1980) Pediatrics. 65(1): 132-8; Lien (1994) J. Pediatr. 125(5): S.62-8; Lien et al. (1997) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol Nutr. 25(2): 167-74].

Thus, in the second aspect of the invention relates to a method for preparing concentrates of fatty bases, characterized in that it involves a minor or equivalent in mass quantities of mixtures of fatty acids with a high content of oleic acid, which relatively is also rich in lauric acid (over 3%). Triglycerides rich in palmitic acid, preferably more than 70%, and contain very small amounts of linolenic acid.

In this variant embodiment of the invention is rich in palmitic acid triglycerides may be subject to randomization standard chemical or enzymatic interesterification method that is described below.

In a specific aspect of the invention is rich in palmitic acid triglycerides react with mixtures of fatty acids, which contain relatively high levels of lauric acid, which helps to reduce the ratio of sn-2 NLC to the total number of NLC while maintaining high sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid without affecting the absorption of calcium and fatty acids by the infant (see above) compared with analogous compounds derived from fatty bases with high ratios of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total number palmitin the th acid.

The relationship between fatty acids and triglycerides in the process of interesterification is from 1.5:1 (example 3, table 5) to 2:1 (example 4, table 6).

Table 5
Example 3
Fatty acidTriglycerides (40%)Free fatty acids (60%)ProductRatio
% of total fatty acids% of total fatty acids% in the sn-2 from the total number of sn-2 fatty acids% in the sn-2 from the total number of sn-2 fatty acids% in the sn-2 of the total number of fatty acids
C120,220,08,60,93,5
C141,40,20,80,14,2
C1680,0 3,240,861,049,8
C185,02,0a 3.94,034,2
C18:110,965,039,629,024,4
C18:22,29,06,34,0of 21.2
C18:30,3
Total NLC54,166,040,7

Table 6
Example 4
Fatty acidTriglycerides (33%)Free fatty sour is s (67%) The product (C) after distillation SJKRatio
% of total fatty acids% of total fatty acids% of total fatty acids% in the sn-2 from the total number of sn-2 fatty acids% in the sn-2 of the total number of fatty acids
C120,215,07,50,20,9
C141,40,20,70,14,8
C1680,03,438,059,051.8
C185,03,0the 3.84,035,1
C18:l10,968,042,5 31,024,3
C18:22,210,07,25,023,1
C18:30,3
Total NLC50,063.342,2

As can be seen from examples 3 and 4, the obtained fatty bases are related sn-2 NLC to the total number of NLC below 43,5, while the ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid is about 50%.

In typical cases, the triglycerides are palm stearin with low iodine number, containing up to 80% palmitic acid. Triglycerides may be a mixture preterition palm stearin palm oil, palm stearin with rapeseed oil, palm oil and other Ratio of sn-2 NLC to the total number of NLC in triglyceride amounts to a maximum of 33%.

Source of free fatty acids is a source rich in oleic acid, with n is skoe the saturated long-chain fatty acids C14 and more enriched in lauric acid. Typical values range from 2 to 5% C16:0, from 60 to 80% C18:1, from 1 to 4% C18:0, from 5 to 30% C12 from the total amount of fatty acids. Suitable sources are fatty acids of rapeseed, the fraction of C18 fatty acids, palm kernel oil, oil with a high content of lauric acid (such as palm kernel and coconut oils), free fatty acid, high oleic sunflower oil and other Suitable combination of two or more different sources of fatty acids.

In table 7 (below) shows an example of the preparation of a mixture based on a fatty basis of example 4 with the addition of vegetable oils, the list of which is given in the table. Used vegetable oil in the sample were subjected to randomization before mixing them with fat basis, as described below.

Fatty acid composition of the mixture can be seen in table 8. The ratio of sn-2 NLC to the total number of NLC in a mixture of 37%, while the ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid - 44%. Thus, the mixture ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid on the total content of palmitic acid and its contribution in the absorption of calcium compared with similar compounds derived from fatty bases with a significantly higher relations of sn-2 palmitic sour the s to the total number of palmitic acid.

Table 7
Preparation of a mixture
Oil for mixing% of the mixture
The product of example 437,7
Coconut oil18,9
Palm oil9,4
Corn oil9,4
Rapeseed oil24,5
Total99,9

Table 8
Fatty acidReady mix
% of total fatty acids% in the sn-2 position of the total number of sn-2 fatty acids
C1211,89,0
C14the 3.8a 3.9
C16 22,229,3
C182,93,0
C18:138,834,5
C18:214,013,6
C18:32,72,6
Total NLC40,745,2

In the following embodiment, the present invention relates to a fat interesterification product that can be used as a fat fraction of the mixtures without prior mixing with additional vegetable or other oils, and which is characterized by the total level of saturated (mainly palmitic acid) fatty acids, similar to their level in GSM, and the ratio of sn-2 saturated (palmitic) fatty acids to total saturated (palmitic) fatty acids above 33% and contains all the essential fatty acids required in the diet of an infant.

The following aspect of the invention relates to the direct production of substitute JIM with fatty acid composition ratio of sn-2 PAL is mitingovoy acid to the total amount of palmitic acid and sn-2 NLC to the total number of NLC, similar to the same parameters of the mixtures described above without first cooking fat basis, and then mixing it with other ingredients. In accordance with this aspect of the invention, the product of the interesterification can be used as a ready substitute JIM in mixtures, improved fatty acid composition and ratios compared to simple mixtures of vegetable oils and provides improved absorption of calcium and fatty acids.

This can be achieved by reaction of the corresponding triglyceride mixture (which may be subject to randomization before the reaction, as described here) with a mixture of fatty acids, characterized by high levels of oleic acid and total fatty acid profile, simulating, mainly sn-1,3 fatty acid profile JIM. Triglycerides can contain high levels of palmitic acid or reduced levels of palmitic acid (as described here) depending on the set of the degree and level of similarity with JIM desired substitute JIM.

Used for the interesterification mixture of fatty acids may include fatty acids from C8 to C24, including saturated, such as lauric, myristic, stearic, mono - or Dimensione, such as oleic, palmitoleic, linoleic, and Polynesian is e, such as linolenic, arachidonic, docosahexaenoic and other

The desired mixture of fatty acids obtained by mixing vegetable oils and fats, as shown in table, which serves as the initial source of triglycerides. Next, the mixture is divided into glycerol and free fatty acids by conventional technology. The composition of the separated free fatty acids identical to their composition in the original source of triglycerides.

The ratio between the mixtures of fatty acids and triglycerides in the interesterification reaction may range from 5:1 to 1:2, preferably from 3:1 to 1:1, and the reaction can be carried out as a process with a continuous layer or the fixed layer with the use of biocatalysts, preferably immobilized, preferably 1,3-lipase activity.

This method can give products such as described in the applicant's international application WO 2004/036987 and EPO patent 209327 (different mix).

Received substitutes JIM can be characterized by the relations sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid over 33%, preferably more than 40% and up to 80%.

In table 10 (see below) presents an example of a substitute JIM obtained using a mixture of free fatty acids of example 5 (table) and randomized palm olein in the ratio of 1.2:1. Agains the sn-2 NLC to the total number of NLC in the substitute JIM is 34.5%, while the ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid - 45,3%. Thus, this composition with respect to sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid on the total content of palmitic acid and its contribution in the absorption of calcium compared with similar compounds derived from fatty bases.

C14
Table 9
Coconut oilPalm oilHigh oleic sunflower oilCorn oilRapeseed oilThe mixture - example 5
% wt./mass. in the mix44,22,314,09,330,2100
% fatty acids of the total number of fatty acids
C1247,70,2---21,1
18,01,1---8,0
C168,943,83,310,64,37,7
C182,74,43,11,71,62,4
C18:17,039,583,229,561,036,8
C18:21,810,08,656,519,013,2
C18:3---0,910,43,2

tr>
Table 10
TriglyceridesFatty acidsThe product after distillation SJK
% in the reaction mixture4555
DescriptionThe total number of FSW in a randomized palm oleinThe fraction of free fatty acids from example 5 in the total number of FSW% of total fatty acids% in the sn-2 position of the total number of sn-2 fatty acids% in the sn-2 position-
research Institute from General
number
fatty acids
% fatty acids of the total number of fatty acids
C12021,110,34.614,9
C141,18,04,52,619,4
C1639,67,724,032,645,3
C184,12,43,33,738,1
C18:143,336,840,141,934,8
C18:210,413,211,811,031,2
C18:303,21,60,714,9
Total NLC44,839,142,043,634,5

The following aspect of the invention relates to randomization derived from a fatty basis of the original triglyceride material and randomization primitively oils before mixing with the fat underlying the. Both of these aspects of the invention have the main advantages of which are acknowledged by example and are discussed more fully below. It should be mentioned that, although randomization per se (in itself) is a well known process that is not described anywhere no randomization of the original triglyceride material for the production of nutritious foods, in particular, for babies, infants first year of life, children start to walk, and older children, no randomization primitively oils used to prepare the mixtures. This is one of the unique developments shown in this application.

Received triglycerides, which serve as starting material for the preparation of compositions of fatty basis, preferably undergo randomization standard process or chemical interesterification using acid or alkaline catalyst (e.g., sodium methoxide), or enzyme using non-selective lipase. As explained above, the randomization saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position has reached a certain percentage of the total amount of saturated fatty acids in the fat mixture. The increase in the number of sn-2 fatty acids allows you to get fat basis, more rich sn-2 saturated fatty acids, and use their due to this, fewer fatty basis in a mixture of substitute JIM, it gives a significant cost savings.

For example, the standard palm oil contains about 40% C16 of the total number of fatty acids, and only 5 to 20% C16 of the total number C16 tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position. After random interesterification of palm oil 33% C16 of the total number C16 contact in the sn-2 position.

Another example is palm stearin of iodine number of 15, with the content of C16 79% of total fatty acids, of which only 27.4% of tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position. After chemical randomization with the use of sodium methoxide product shows the content of C16 79% of total fatty acids, but with 33% C16 (of the total number C16), esterified in the sn-2 position.

Table (see below) compares the fat basis, obtained using randomized palm stearin, with a fat basis, prepared using non-randomized palm stearin. Randomized and non-randomized palm stearin of iodine number of 15, reacted separately manufactured, free fatty acids, with a predominance of oleic acid in the ratio between palm stearin and free fatty acids is 1:4. Upon completion of the reaction, the catalyst was separated, free fatty acid was removed by steam distillation, and triglidae Serena fraction was subjected to analysis. Table shows that the use of non-randomized palm stearin resulted in the receipt of a fatty basis with the content of 29.8% of C16 fatty acids from the total amount of fatty acids, of which only 63,1% were tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position. However, when using randomized palm stearin percentage of C16 fatty acids from the total amount of fatty acids and the percentage of esterified in the sn-2 position C16 acids from the total amount of C16 acids were increased respectively to 32.2% and 68.1%.

Table 11
Fat basis, derived from non-randomized palm stearinFat basis, obtained from randomized palm stearin
% C16 from the total amount of fatty acids29,832,2
% C16 in the sn-2 positionof 56.465,8
% C16 in the sn-2 position of the total amount of C16 fatty acid63,168,1

Randomization of the original triglyceride material is good and also in the production of fatty bases of superior quality, different from the fatty described in the present invention. Thus, in another embodiment, the invention relates to a method for preparing compositions of fatty basis, in which the original source of triglycerides is subject to randomization to either chemical or enzymatic means.

Primitively vegetable oil, used for mixing, preferably undergo randomization to either chemical or enzymatic way before mixing with the composition of a fatty basis. The process of randomization randomize fatty acid oil or fat between the three sn-positions in the glycerol skeleton. Due to this low ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid in vegetable oils increases to 33%. In industry generally subjected to the process of randomization many oils and fats, mainly with the aim of changing their physical properties depending on the specific applications (for example, changing the melting temperature of the fat). However, as described below, in this aspect of the invention, the randomization is carried out with the aim of improving relations sn-2 saturated fatty acids to total saturated acids in primitively oils and thereby bringing to a minimum the negative impact primitively oils in the ratio of sn-2 us the seal acids to total saturated acids in the mixture.

The increase in the percentage of C16 in the sn-2 position of the total amount of C16 acids in primitively oils allows you to use fewer fatty basis to achieve a specific percentage of C16 acids and specific relationships sn-2 palmitic acid to the total content of palmitic acid. Since one of the major obstacles in terms of costs for the preparation of mixtures of fats is the necessity of using large quantities of fatty basis, randomization primitively oils is a simple but effective way of saving costs for the preparation of mixtures of fats. Table shows that to obtain a typical mixture containing about 21% C16 acids, of which 42% tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position requires 65% of the fatty basis of example 2 in the case when primitively oil derandomization. Table 13 shows that to achieve a 21% C16 acids, of which 42% tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position is required only 47% of the same fatty basis in the case when primitively oil was subjected to randomization. A significant difference in the required amount of a fatty basis points to the importance of randomization primitively oils in order to save costs.

It is important to note that for the preparation of MESI table was used less fatty basis of example 2, what it was used for the preparation of a mixture of table 3, because the mixture table has a lower percentage of C16 and lower the ratio of sn-2 palmitic acid to the total amount of palmitic acid than the mixture table 3.

Randomization primitively oils are also useful in the case of mixtures, obtained from fat bases that differ from those described in the present invention. Fat basis described in EP 0209327 or EP 0495456, or specified by the applicant in the international application WO 2004/036987, you can mix more randomized vegetable oils than with natural vegetable oils. This aspect of the invention allows to achieve the same percentage of C16 and the same attitude sn-2 palmitic acid acid to the total number of residues of palmitic acid, which is specified in the above applications, but with fewer fatty basis and savings of the cost of preparation of the mixture.

Table 14 shows that to obtain the composition of the mixture 2 of EP 0209327 (26% C16, 52.6 per cent of which tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position), requires 50% of a fatty basis (Sample 1) EP 0209327 with non-randomized oils for mixing used in the mentioned patent. As you can see from table, when using randomized oils for mixing according to the present invention will require the tsya only 43% fat basis (Sample 1) EP 0209327 to achieve 26% C16, of which 52.6% of tarifitsirovana in the sn-1 position. This significant difference in the required amount of fatty bases (save 14%) indicates the importance and advantage of using randomized oils to the mix in order to save cost and also in a mixture prepared from fatty bases that differ from those described in the present invention which is the subject of the present invention.

Table 16 shows that the use of randomized oils for mixing is possible to increase the percentage of sn-2 palmitic acid residues of the total number of residues of palmitic acid mixtures, such as are described in EP 0209327 (mixture 1-4).

Table 14
Fatty base Sample 1 EP 0209327Natural RKNatural sunflower oilNatural soybean oilReady mix
% wt./mass. in the mix50101030100
% C16 in the sn-2 of the total is number 16 of acids 59,952,6

Table 16
A mixture of 1 from the EP 0209327A mixture of 2 from EP 0209327A mixture of 3 from the EP 0209327A mixture of 4 from the EP 0209327
% C16 in the sn-2 of the total number C16 acidsAs specified; using natural herbal oils57,652,662,862,3
Using randomized vegetable oilsto 58.155,564,464,2

Randomization oils for mixing has, inter alia (among other things), another important aspect, in addition to efficiency in terms of cost. Randomized oil mixing can contribute to the distribution of γ-linolenic acid (C18:3) and linoleic acid (C18:2) with a high degree of similarity of their distribution is s in IGM compared with natural oils.

Rapeseed oil and soybean oil are the main sources of linolenic acid of vegetable origin and are typically used in the production of mixtures. Table 17 shows the differences between GSM, natural and randomized rapeseed and soybean oils in the sn-2 distribution of linoleic and linolenic acids. In rapeseed oil from 45 to 61% of linolenic acid and from 32 to 47% linoleic acid residues tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position. The distribution of linolenic and linoleic acids in rapeseed oil is very different from their distribution in GSM. In GSM only 5 to 20% linolenic acid and from 20 to 23% linoleic acid tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position. Randomization rapeseed oil leads to the binding of 33% γ-linolenic acid and 33% of linoleic acid in the sn-2 position, resulting in a degree of similarity substitute fat with IGM increases.

In soybean oil distribution linolenic acid (from 27% to 29% γ-linolenic acid bound in the sn-2 position) is similar to its distribution in a randomized soy oil (33%).

However, in natural soy oil from 40 to 43% linoleic acid tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position, while in a randomized soy oil only 33% of linoleic acid tarifitsirovana in the sn-2 position. In GSM only from 20 to 23% linoleic acid residues are linked in the sn-2 position. T is thus, the use of randomized soybean oil instead of natural soybean oil approximates the distribution of linoleic acid to its distribution in GSM while maintaining similar to GSM distribution of γ-linolenic acid.

Table 17
JIMNatural rapeseed oilRandomized rapeseed oilNatural soybean oilRandomized soybean oil
% C18:2 in the sn-2 of the total amount of C18:2 acids20-2332-473340-4333
% C18:3 in the sn-2 of the total amount of C18:3 acids5-2045-613327-2933

Randomization primitively vegetable oils may be a standard process or chemical interesterification using acid or alkaline catalyst (e.g., sodium methoxide), or enzymatic is with the use of non-selective lipase.

All substitutes JIM according to various aspects of the invention can be used as fat fractions in mixtures and as the fat fraction in the diet of infants in the first year of life, children start to walk, the older children and adolescents, as well as in the diet of adults.

The terms "fat" and "lipid" are used interchangeably in the present description.

Lipids in the scope of the present invention include triglycerides and their derivatives, such as mono - and diglycerides.

The terms "fatty acid", "fatty acyl" and "the remains of the fatty acids (and their equivalents, specific fatty acids) are used interchangeably in the context of the description.

The term "infant formula" ("infant formula") in the context of the description includes mixtures for infants (from birth to 6 months), mix for complementary feeding for children aged 6 to 12 months) and mixtures for feeding older children (for children aged 1 to 3 years).

Needless to say that, as disclosed and described herein, the present invention is not limited to the specific examples, the stages of the method and materials mentioned here, such as the stage of the method and materials may vary somewhat. It goes without saying that we use here the terminology used is utilised only for the purpose of describing particular variants of embodiment of the invention, but not limited to, as the scope of the present invention is limited only by the attached claims and their equivalents.

It should be noted that as used in this description and the attached claims, the singular forms of "a," "an" "the" include the plural value, if the text does not specify their different value.

In the context of the present description and the attached claims the word "comprise" (enable) and its variations such as "comprises" (includes) and "comprising" (including), should be understood as denoting the inclusion of the specified integer or stage or group of integers or steps, but not excluding other integer or stage or group of integers or steps.

The examples here show the methods that were used by the inventors to implement aspects of the present invention. It should be remembered that these methods are only for the disclosure of preferred options practical embodiment of the invention, and qualified in this field of technology professionals in the light of the disclosed here should be clear that it is possible to make numerous modifications without prejudice to the ideas and the claimed scope of the invention.

1. Obtained by enzymatic composition of fatty basis, comprising a mixture of triglycerides, raises the high origin, characterized in that:
less than 50% of the fatty acid residue linked to the sn-2-position is saturated and/or
- the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is less than approximately 43.5% of the total amount of residues of saturated fatty acids
- 45-65% of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are part of oleic acid and/or 7-15% of unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are part of linoleic acid.

2. Composition of fatty bases according to claim 1, in which at least 60%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 85%, saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton are the remains of palmitic acid.

3. Composition of fatty bases according to claim 1, in which about 0.2 to 15%, preferably about 7-14%, more preferably about 11-12,5%, of the total number of parts of the fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are part of lauric acid.

4. Obtained by enzymatic composition of fatty basis, comprising a mixture of triglycerides of vegetable origin, characterized by the fact that:
less than 50% of the fatty acid residue linked to the sn-2-position is saturated, and
- the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2-position glyceri the new frame, is less than approximately 43.5% of the total amount of residues of saturated fatty acids.

5. Composition of fatty bases according to claim 4, in which at least 60%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 85%, saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton are the remains of palmitic acid.

6. Composition of fatty bases according to claim 4, in which at least 4%, preferably 5-10%, of the parts of the unsaturated fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are part of linoleic acid.

7. Composition of fatty bases according to claim 4, in which about 0.2 to 15%, preferably about 7-14%, more preferably about 11-12,5%, of the total number of parts of the fatty acids in the sn-1 and sn-3 positions are part of lauric acid.

8. The composition of the substitute fat milk, comprising a mixture of at least 25% or at least 30% of the composition of fatty bases according to claim 1 or claim 4 and 75%, respectively, up to 70% of at least one vegetable oil, in which the specified oil is randomized enzymatic way.

9. The composition of the substitute fat milk according to claim 8, in which about 33-45%, preferably about 36-43%, more preferably about 40%, of the total number of residues of palmitic acid bound at the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton.

10. See the camping for baby food, comprising at least one protein component and at least one fat component, which specified the fat component is the composition of the substitute fat milk in item 8, or composition of fatty bases according to claim 1 or 4.

11. The infant formula of claim 10, which further comprises vitamins, minerals, nucleotides, amino acids and carbohydrates.

12. The method of preparation of the composition of fatty bases according to claim 1 or 4, comprising the stage of:
(a) reaction of the triglyceride mixture, which is saturated, preferably palmitic acid less than 60%, preferably less than 53%, of the total fatty acids, source of free unsaturated fatty acids, which has an oleic acid content of 60-80%, in which the ratio of these free fatty acids to the specified glyceride mixture is from about 1.5:1 to 1:1, in which the specified triglyceride mixture is subjected to randomization by enzymatic;
(c) distillation of the excess of free fatty acids.

13. The method according to item 12, further comprising after the stage (s) stage
(d) bleaching oil.

14. The method according to item 13, further comprising a stage (e) fractionating the product from step (d).

15. The method according to 14, further comprising a stage (f) deodorizing the product from step (d).

16. Method of preparation of HDMI is the substitute fat milk according to claim 8, comprising mixing the composition of fatty bases according to claim 1 or 4, which is a mixture of structured lipids, at least one vegetable oil in which the oil is subjected to enzymatic randomization before mixing it with the composition of a fatty basis.

17. The method according to clause 16, in which the specified composition of fatty basis is mixed with the specified vegetable oil in a ratio of about 0.4:1 to 4:1 mixture, in which the number of residues of saturated fatty acids that are related in the sn-2 position of the glycerol skeleton is about 33-43,5%, preferably about 43%, more preferably about 40%, of the total number of residues of saturated fatty acids.

18. The method according to clause 16, in which the specified fatty base is a mixture of structured lipids containing 0-20% C12:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably 10-15%; 0-15% C14:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably 5-10%; 20-55% C16:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, of which more than 38% tarifitsirovana in sn-2-position; 1-7% C18:0 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably 3-5%; 25-65% C18:1 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably 30-40%; 2-40% C18:2 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preference is sustained fashion 10-20%; 0-8% C18:3 fatty acids of the total fatty acids, preferably 1.5 to 3%; other fatty acids are present at levels below 8% of total fatty acids, preferably below 5%.

19. The method according to clause 16, in which the specified vegetable oil is selected from the group consisting of soybean oil, palm oil, canola oil, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, sunflower oil, corn oil and rapeseed oil.

20. The method according to clause 16, in which the specified composition of fatty basis and specified oil/oil mixed in a certain ratio, preferably in a ratio of about from 0.13:1 to 4:1.

21. The method of preparation of the composition of fatty bases according to claim 1 or 4, comprising the stage of:
(a) reaction of the triglyceride mixture, which has a content of palmitic acid at least 70%, preferably at least 80%, of the total fatty acids, source of free unsaturated fatty acids, which has an oleic acid content of 60-80% and 10-25% of saturated fatty acids with 14 carbon atoms, in which the ratio of these free fatty acids to the specified glyceride mixture is from about 1:1 to 2:1, in which the specified triglyceride mixture is subjected to randomization enzymatic way,
(c) distillation of the excess of free fatty acids.

22. The method according to item 21, Ni is sustained fashion including after stage (C) stage (d) bleaching oil.

23. The method according to item 22, further comprising a stage (e) fractionating the product from step (d).

24. The method according to item 23, further comprising a stage (f) deodorizing the product from step (e).

25. The method according to any of PP-24, in which the specified fatty basis is the content of C16:0 fatty acids 20-55%, of which more than 38% tarifitsirovana in sn-2-position.

26. The method of preparation of the lipid composition of claim 8, having a composition similar to, mainly, with the composition of the fat of breast milk, which involves the following stages:
(a) reaction of a mixture of triglycerides of vegetable origin, which has the content of palmitic acid at least 30% of the total fatty acids, preferably at least 40%, more preferably more than 50%, most preferably more than 70%, with a source of free unsaturated fatty acids containing less than 10% of palmitic acid from the total content of free fatty acids, preferably less than 5%, in which the specified free fatty acids to the specified glyceride mixture is from about 5:1 to 1:1, in which the specified triglyceride mixture is subjected to randomization by enzymatic;
(c) distillation of the excess of free fatty acids.

27. The method according to p, further comprising after stage (C) stage (d) bleaching oil.

28. The method according to item 27, Supplement is Ino including stage (f) deodorizing the product from step (d).



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil-and-fat industry. Method and system for fermentative treatment of initial material containing lipides comprises brining initial material in contact with process admixture, passing initial material at, in fact, constant flow rate through treatment system that includes several reactors with ferments and stationary layer connected in series. Reactors with stationary layer may be serviced individually while initial material flow rate being, in fact, constant in cutting one reactor off for servicing purposes. Process admixture is, in fact, dehydrated silicon dioxide with pore size exceeding 150 angstrom. Said admixture may be placed in one or several reactors above layer of ferment, or be placed in pretreatment system that includes one or several reactors.

EFFECT: increased fermentative activity of treatment.

32 cl, 6 dwg, 20 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: composition consists of an interesterified fat prepared by interesterification of a mixture containing 5-95 % of at least one dodecanic fat and 95-5 % of at least one non-dodecanic fat; the composition of non-hydrogenised vegetable fats contains at least 50 wt % and less than 15wt % of solid fat (SFC) at a temperature of 20°C and 35°C accordingly; the composition of non-hydrogenised vegetable fats contains C12+C16 fatty acids in an amount of at least 55wt % of the total weight of the fat composition, the C12/C16 of fatty acids ratio being at least 1. The mixture of at least one dodecanic fat and at least one non-dodecanic fat undergoes a process of chemical and fermentative interesterification. The produced fat is added to the composition of confectionery fat, a confectionery product, coffee whitener or an ice-cream composition.

EFFECT: invention allows to produce a fatty composition suitable for application in confectionary industry; this composition does not undergo hydrogenisation and needs no tempering; it is characterised by a high profile of solid fats content, a property to melt well when in the mouth, a waxy sensation absence, good thermal endurance and rather a high crystallisation rate.

17 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of alkyl ester obtainment involves, for instance: mixing of triglyceride-containing oil source with primary alcohol or secondary alcohol in organic solvent to obtain a solution; where each organic solvent molecule includes 4-8 carbon atoms and heteroatom; triglyceride reaction with primary alcohol or secondary alcohol in the presence of lipase immobilised on a carrier, to obtain alkyl ester, where solution does not undergo phase separation in the course of reaction, and glycerin is produced as a by-product; and obtainment of alkyl ester by phase separation in alkyl ester and glycerin after extraction of organic solvent and unreacted primary or secondary alcohol by condensation.

EFFECT: obtainment of mix with high content of high-purity alkyl esters.

46 cl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing methyl ether of fatty acid (biodiesel) from oil, containing triglycerides and obtained from plants involves: (i) squeezing out oil from seeds and separation of the residue for use as manure, (ii) neutralisation with an alkali of the excess free fatty acid contained in the oil, and separation of the soap residue, (iii) addition of an antioxidant and blowing the oil with dry air to reduce water content, (iv) treatment of the oil with the respective amount of methanol solution of KOH, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate, (v) separation of the glycerin layer formed during the reaction, (vi) treating the methyl ether of fatty acid with glycerin in two steps to further reduce content of methanol, catalyst and other impurities in the layer of methyl ether of fatty acid, (vii) separation of glycerin, (viii) washing the layer of methyl ether of fatty acid with water in two steps to minimise content of impurities, (ix) separation of washing water, (x) addition of an additional amount of antioxidant to the methyl ether of fatty acid and with blowing dry air to minimise water content, (xi) combination of the glycerin layers and treatment with SOx or flue gas to convert spent KOH catalyst to K2SO4 or K2CO3 respectively, (xii) setting the pH to approximately 7 and distillation of methanol from the glycerin layer, (xiii) hot centrifuging the remaining mass to separate potassium salts from glycerin, (xiv) washing the salt to remove impurities, (xv) separation of the required amount of crude glycerin for washing the layer of methyl ether of fatty acid in the next portion as well as for other uses where crude glycerin is used, and (xvi) distillation of the remaining crude glycerin with low content of water to obtain pure glycerin.

EFFECT: obtaining biodiesel which meets international standards with high output.

21 cl, 18 ex

Fat compositions // 2374860

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fat-and-oil industry. Fat composition (versions) containing triglyceride mixture or containing fat fraction with low melding temperature consisting of triglyceride mixture which consists of fatty acids. The acids consist of rests of palmitic, stearic and arachic acids in quantity 40-70 wt %, rests of oleic, linolic and linolenic acids and C18-trans-unsaturated fatty acids in quantity 25-60 wt % which are rests of C18-trans-unsaturated fatty acids, rests of other fatty acids which make rests of behenic acid where total content of triglycerides S2U-Type makes 35-90% in certain SSU/SUS triglycerides ratio and content S3-triglycerides where S represents saturated fatty acids and U - unsaturated fatty acidsand additionally contains sorbitan tristearate. Method provides a) interchange of base triglycerides mixture based on vegetable oils conteining rests of C18-trans-unsaturated fatty acids and fractioning of interchanged mixture for obtaining of triglycerides mixture and addition of sorbitan tristearate or b) interchange of base mixture based on vegetable oils and fractioning of interchanged mixture is possible after or with following hydrogenation for production of triglycerides mixture and addition of sorbitan tristearate or c) interchange of base triglycerides mixture based on vegetable oils and fractioning of interchanged mixture is possible after or with following addition of fatty componentswith high melting temperature and addition of sorbitan tristearate. Obtained fatty composition is added to the food product for human and other mammals, into confectionary goods, baking products filler, into chocolate and chocolate-like products, into cosmetics, pharmaceutical or parapharmaceutical (over-the-counter) product. It is also used in confectionary goods.

EFFECT: invention allows to produce composition with low trans-fat content with high consolidation speed; composition also consolidates in stabile form without preliminary processing.

27 cl, 2 dwg, 12 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method of random rearrangement (randomisation) of fat-acid radical of some glycerides to end and central positions; to edible triglyceride fat obtained thereof; to margarine based on it; and to the application of the catalyst Lipozyme® TL IM being the combination of the lipase produced by Thermomyces lanuginosa and silicone dioxide in the claimed method. Method of randomisation goes on up to end positions (Re) conversion in the range from 0.3 to 0.95, up to middle positions (Ra) conversion in the range from 0.06 to 0.75 with Ra being more than (0.32Re-0.08) and includes treatment of the fat with high glyceride content with catalyst containing lipase produced by Thermomyces lanuginosa in combination with silicone dioxide. The combination of lipase/silicone dioxide has an activity at least 250 IUN in the beginning of the method.

EFFECT: achieving of the significant level of fat-acid radicals rearrangement to middle position and decrease of reaction time.

16 cl, 8 tbl, 3 dwg, 10 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: fatty acid esters are applied in manufacturing of, e.g. a pharmaceutical, dietary and cosmetic product, diesel fuel, as well as an intermediate product for making fatty alcohols, surface-active substances, lubricants by interesterification of fatty acid triglycerides of refined or unrefined natural oils containing free fatty acids, with lower monoatomic alcohols in stirring with alkali or earth metal hydroxide or alcoholate added as a catalyst at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Then it is settled; heavy glyceric phase is removed, and water is added to remove impurities from ester phase through stirring, settling, and removing aqueous phase. Interesterification process including stirring, settling, separating the heavy glyceric phase, adding water for impurity removal in stirring, settling and removing aqueous phase is performed in a stirrer installation in a tank of variable filling level wherein a settling section is excluded from component reaction process, and the catalyst and alcohol are supplied in a circulation pattern, while removing the heavy phase and aqueous phase is performed through a drainage hole in the tank bottom. The mole ratio of initial fatty acid triglycerides of natural oil and lower monoatomic alcohol is 1:3 respectively.

EFFECT: improved method for preparing fatty acid esters.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining ethers of fatty acids, which can be applied as biodiesel - alternative biofuel. Described is method of rapeseed oil processing by its re-etherification with ethyl alcohol, with separation of obtained products into fractions, obtained barbotage with carbon dioxin of immobilised granulated yeasts biomass, is realised in reactor at 350-400°C and pressure 35-50 MPa with following cooling of mixture, oven control in extractor to 250°C, extraction with carbon dioxide in overcritical conditions at 350°C and pressure 35 MPa. Obtained homogenous mixture is supplied into first separator for separation of glycerin from target product, and then target product is supplied to second separator for separation of fatty acid ethyl ether from carbon dioxin, which is directed to recycling.

EFFECT: simplification of technological process and improvement of ecology due to application of overcritical ethyl alcohol, and obtaining of target product with conversion 95% and higher.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to advanced process for making iron (II) phthalate by direct reaction of iron or its alloy and carboxylic acid with air oxygen and stimulating iodine added in intensive mechanical mixing of the reaction mixture and crushed ferriferous material with using a blade paddle mixer, wherein phthalic acid content in primary charge is taken 1.55-2.0 mole/kg. Liquid phase solvent is n-butyl alcohol. Iron is presented with crushed grey cast iron in amount 30% of the other charge weight. Stimulating iodine is dosed in amount 0.075-0.17 mole/kg. Charge process proceeds as follows: solvent, acid, crushed grey cast iron, stimulating iodine. The same process is started and proceeds in a vertical beaded mill with a blade paddle mixer rotated at 960-1440 rpm in ratio of glass beads to charge 1:1 without air sparging, but even without blocking free contact of air to intensively mixed reaction mixture in the reactor within 35-50°C and current control by sampling method to accumulate iron (II) salt in amount 1.49-1.65 mole/kg. Then in continued mixing, the reaction zone is isolated from access for air. Nitrogen is delivered to sparging within 10-30 min. Thereafter mixing is stopped, reaction mixture suspension is separated from glass beads and unreacted cast iron particles and supplied to filtering. Deposit is washed 1-2 times with liquid phase solvent and delivered to vacuum drying, further to afterpurification. Filtrate and washing solvent are supplied back to the repeated process. Filtration and following end salt deposit handling are ensured in nitrogen environment.

EFFECT: improved process of iron phthalate.

18 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: food products.

SUBSTANCE: lipid blend includes 80-98 wt % of interesterified textured lipid and 2-20 wt % of phytosterol ester ingredient, in both cases weight percentages are given of the total weight of the lipid blend. Wherein the textured lipid represents the interchange reaction product of the following agents: 15-85 wt % of the total charge weight of medium-chain triglyceride with fatty acid chain length from C6 to C12, 15-85 wt % of the total charge weight of long-chain edible fluid oil with fatty acid chain length at least C16. Lipid blend, when used by a hypercholesterolemic person, reduces LDL-cholesterol level of the said person by at least ˜10%. The method involves fatty component selection and charging, obtained mixture interchange and combination with phytosterol component. Lipid blend is introduced in the amount of 0.4 g to 2 g of the said lipid blend per kilogram of human body weight.

EFFECT: improved health, nutrition and metabolism.

18 cl, 9 tbl, 16 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of products for canned food industry and catering. The method envisages usage of root vegetables selected from among carrot and/or beet and/or girasol, their preparation and blanching in citric acid solution. Then one proceeds with their drying, pulverisation and mixture with powdered fruits of black chokeberry or mountain ash, great nettle leaves, bioflavonoids produced from buckwheat. Then one adds modified starch, wets the mixture with rosehip or stevia decoction to produce a paste, the produced mass granulation, granules drying and packaging.

EFFECT: invention enables to modify organoleptic properties of prepared sauces in terms of flavour and spiciness depending on the consumer's wish, to extend the range of products due to reduction of multiple technological operations, to reduce the finished product prime cost due to usage of inexpensive raw materials, to prevent the base blocking property and to enhance absorptive and bactericidal properties of sauces.

1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: given invention is presented by a group of inventions which refer to medicine, namely to gastroenterology, particularly to methods and a composition for supporting continuous enteral feeding. The methods and composition for enteral nutritional support at least once a day applicable continuously involve a certain optimal composition in 100 kcal of a product of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, salts and microelements.

EFFECT: methods and composition provide continuously applicable enteral feeding in the patients with normal metabolism, but unable eating normally.

2 ex, 31 cl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to gerontology and cardiology and can be used for reduction of pathologically increased biological age (BA) in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) with abdominal obesity (FO) and dyslipidemia. Essence of claimed method lies in the following: to patients administered is complex, that includes hypocaloric diet, calculated in kcal by formula: for women: 18-30 years old - (0.0621 × body weight, kg + 2.0357) × 240; 31-60 years old - (0.0342 × body weight, kg + 3.5377) × 240; over 60 years old - (0.0377 × body weight, kg + 2.7545) × 240; for men: 18-30 years old- (0.0630 × body weight, kg+ 2.8957) × 240; 31-60 years old - (0.0484 × body weight, kg + 3.6534) × 240; over 60 years old - (0.049 × body weight, kg + 2.4587) × 240. Also administered are rationally dosed static and dynamic physical loadings, including morning hygienic gymnastics, preventive medical gymnastics, fractional physical exercises during the day, daily swimming in swimming pool for not less than 60 minutes per day. Also introduced are medications simvastatin 10 mg 1 time before going to bed after meal and lisinopril 10 mg 1 time per day in the morning for not less than 7 weeks.

EFFECT: invention combines application of all components of complex allows to normalise BA within 7 weeks of treatment.

2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to hematology and cardiology and can be applied for reduction of spontaneous aggregation of erythrocytes (SAE) in case of stable stenocardia of I-II functional class (SS I-II FC) and arterial hypertension (AH). Substance of clamed method consists in the following: 2 month-long complex of hypolipodemic diet, dosed static and dynamic physical activities, which include morning hygienic gymnastics, medical-preventive gymnastics, separate physical activities during the day, daily swimming for not less than 30 min. per day in the middle of the day, intake of lisinopril in dose 10 mg 1 time per day in the morning and simvastatine 20 mg 1 time per day after meal.

EFFECT: combined application of all components allows normalising of SAE of patients with SS of I-II functional class and arterial hypertension due to exponentiation of their medical action during 2 months of treatment.

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to gerontology and cardiology, and concerns biological age reduction in arterial hypertension combined with abdominal obesity. That is ensured by the integrated treatment including a low-calorie diet, reasonable graduated static and dynamic physical activity, daily swimming in a pool for at least 30 minutes, and the introduction of lisinopril in dosage 10 mg once a day in the morning and metformin in dosage 500 mg twice a day for the therapeutic course of 7 weeks.

EFFECT: complex of drug-induced and drug-free therapy combined with empirically prescribed treatment length provides biological age reduction in the case patients estimated by the relation of electronegative cells to total count in a buccal epithelium scrape due to normalised DNA repair and chromosome fragility level.

2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to clinical nutrition. A method of the long-term enteral nutrition of a senile patient includes the following stages: long-term enteral introduction to a senile patient at least once a day of a nutritious product containing: protein source which contains 14-20% of the calorie count; carbohydrates source which contains 10-50% of the calorie count; fat source which contains 30-45% of the calorie count; dietary fibres source which makes 10-25 g per 1 litre of the product and 8.0-18.0 mcg of chrome per 100 kcal of the product. In 100 kcal of the product the composition contains at least: 30 mg of choline, 5.0 mg of taurine and 3.0 mg of carnitine; one or more of at least: 0.1 mg of beta-carotene, 0.2 mg of lycopene and 0.05 mg of lutein. As a version, the composition described above for the long-term enteral nutrition of a senile patient contains sufficient amount of mineral substances (particularly, calcium) and vitamins (particularly, vitamin D).

EFFECT: invention allows to provide a senile patient with the effective long-term enteral nutrition which optimises a glycaemic response for glycemia control, reduces insulin resistance and/or modulates a glucose response, and also maintains the metabolic status.

30 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to medicine, notably to haematology and cardiology and refers to reduction of spontaneous erythrocytes aggregation in patients with arterial hypertension and dislipidemy. To achieve this, combination of hypolipidemic diet with dosed different physical exercises, daily swimming during at lest 40 minutes in the middle of the day is used. Additionally is administered 10 mg of lisinopril in the morning once daily and simvastatin 20 mg after supper once daily. Course of treatment is 2 months.

EFFECT: method ensures correction of spontaneous erythrocyte aggregation in this group of patents and results risk decrement of such thrombotic complications as myocardial infarction, insult and thromboses of different localisation.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to medicine, notably to haematology and cardiology and refers to reduction of spontaneous erythrocytes aggregation in patients with stable effort angina functional class I-II. To achieve this complex treatment including hypolipidemic diet, controlled activity, at least 30 minutes swimming daily and 20 mg of simvastatin once daily after supper is administered.

EFFECT: method allows spontaneous erythrocytes aggregation correction during 2 months providing blood rheological properties enhancement and, correspondingly, thrombotic complication risk decrement in this group of patients.

2 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to medicine and can be applied for prolongation of human life. First goes preparatory period during three days with twofold decrement of daily food volume with taking laxative on third day. Then goes elementary fast during three, seven or sixteen days with water ingestion and daily enemas. Then goes rehabilitation period depending on fast duration time, with differential increment of dietetic product. Additionally respiratory gymnastics is performed.

EFFECT: method allows to prolong person's active vital functions.

4 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and can be used for correction of human body weight. For this purpose 3-4 day fasting without limitation of liquid consumption is applied. After that administered is use of low-fat or fat-free products during one-two days following the fasting. Then - daily consumption of low-calorie food 1000-1200 kcal/day till 12-14 day from beginning of treatment. This is accompanied by daily exposure of patient from face side to full-spectrum artificial light with illumination intensity not less than 2000 lux or natural light for 1-2 hours a day simultaneously or in turns with physical load.

EFFECT: method allows to achieve stable effect of body weight reduction, increase availability of method to patients, reduce contra-indications to application.

2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry and can be used while producing high-quality biologically active supplements (BAS) for food. The phospholipid dietary food supplement with hypolipidemic properties is a phospholipid product. The product is prepared by way of hydrating unrefined high-oleic sunflower oil by a water solution of monosubstituted sodium citrate with a concentration of 1.0-4.0%. The said water solution is preliminarily treated in alternating electromagnetic field with a magentic induction of 0.1-0.4 T at a temperature of 30-50°C. Then the prepared phospholipid emulsion is separated from the hydrated oil and dried with the target finished product production.

EFFECT: phospholipid dietary supplement obtains hypolipidemic properties due to application of soft production modes providing for maximally native preservation of food physiologically functional ingredients such as phospholipids including phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylserines and phosphatidyl inositols, tocopherols and β-carotene.

3 tbl, 3 ex

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